std::basic_string<CharT,Traits,Allocator>::find (3) - Linux Man Pages

std::basic_string<CharT,Traits,Allocator>::find: std::basic_string<CharT,Traits,Allocator>::find

NAME

std::basic_string<CharT,Traits,Allocator>::find - std::basic_string<CharT,Traits,Allocator>::find

Synopsis


size_type find( const basic_string& str, size_type pos = 0 ) const; (until C++11)
size_type find( const basic_string& str, size_type pos = 0 ) const noexcept; (since C++11)
size_type find( const CharT* s, size_type pos, size_type count ) const; (2)
size_type find( const CharT* s, size_type pos = 0 ) const; (1) (3)
size_type find( CharT ch, size_type pos = 0 ) const; (until C++11)
size_type find( CharT ch, size_type pos = 0 ) const noexcept; (4) (since C++11)
template < class T > (5) (since C++17)
size_type find( const T& t, size_type pos = 0 ) const noexcept(/* see below */);


Finds the first substring equal to the given character sequence. Search begins at pos, i.e. the found substring must not begin in a position preceding pos.
1) Finds the first substring equal to str.
2) Finds the first substring equal to the range [s, s+count). This range may contain null characters.
3) Finds the first substring equal to the character string pointed to by s. The length of the string is determined by the first null character using Traits::length(s).
4) Finds the first character ch (treated as a single-character substring by the formal rules below).
5) Implicitly converts t to a string view sv as if by std::basic_string_view<CharT, Traits> sv = t;, then finds the first substring equal to sv. This overload only participates in overload resolution if std::is_convertible_v<const T&, std::basic_string_view<CharT, Traits>> is true and std::is_convertible_v<const T&, const CharT*> is false.
Formally, a substring str is said to be found at position xpos if all of the following is true:


* xpos >= pos
* xpos + str.size() <= size()
* for all positions n in str, Traits::eq(at(xpos+n), str.at(n))


In particular, this implies that


* a substring can be found only if pos <= size() - str.size()
* an empty substring is found at pos if and only if pos <= size()
* for a non-empty substring, if pos >= size(), the function always returns npos.

Parameters


str - string to search for
pos - position at which to start the search
count - length of substring to search for
s - pointer to a character string to search for
ch - character to search for
t - object (convertible to std::basic_string_view) to search for

Return value


Position of the first character of the found substring or npos if no such substring is found.

Exceptions


2-3) Throws nothing.
5)
noexcept specification:
noexcept(std::is_nothrow_convertible_v<const T&, std::basic_string_view<CharT, Traits>>)


Defect reports


The following behavior-changing defect reports were applied retroactively to previously published C++ standards.


DR Applied to Behavior as published Correct behavior
LWG_2946 C++17 string_view overload causes ambiguity in some cases avoided by making it a template

Example


// Run this code


  #include <string>
  #include <iostream>


  void print(std::string::size_type n, std::string const &s)
  {
      if (n == std::string::npos) {
          std::cout << "not found\n";
      } else {
          std::cout << "found: " << s.substr(n) << '\n';
      }
  }


  int main()
  {
      std::string::size_type n;
      std::string const s = "This is a string";


      // search from beginning of string
      n = s.find("is");
      print(n, s);


      // search from position 5
      n = s.find("is", 5);
      print(n, s);


      // find a single character
      n = s.find('a');
      print(n, s);


      // find a single character
      n = s.find('q');
      print(n, s);
  }

Output:


  found: is is a string
  found: is a string
  found: a string
  not found

See also


                  finds the first occurrence of a substring of characters
strstr (function)
                  finds the first occurrence of a wide string within another wide string
wcsstr (function)
                  finds the first occurrence of a character
strchr (function)
                  finds the first occurrence of a wide character in a wide string
wcschr (function)
                  find the last occurrence of a substring
rfind (public member function)
                  find first occurrence of characters
find_first_of (public member function)
                  find first absence of characters
find_first_not_of (public member function)
                  find last occurrence of characters
find_last_of (public member function)
                  find last absence of characters
find_last_not_of (public member function)
                  searches for a range of elements
search (function template)