CalDAV and CardDAV

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CalDAV and CardDAV are application layer computer network protocols for synchronizing calendars (CalDAV) or contacts (CardDAV) data via . These data are exchanged between the CalDAV and CardDAV servers or services, such as iCloud, and client programs, such as Apple Calendar or Apple Contacts.

Decentralization

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Decentralization is a concept about control and management. It refers to that the control and decision-making in a distributed network are transferred away from a centralized entity (individual, organization, or group thereof). The resources in a decentralized network are owned and shared by network members. Decentralization is an important property for and systems.