rclone (1) - Linux Man Pages

rclone: rsync for cloud storage

NAME

Rclone - rsync for cloud storage

DESCRIPTION

Rclone is a command line program to sync files and directories to and from:
1Fichier
Alibaba Cloud (Aliyun) Object Storage System (OSS)
Amazon Drive (See note (/amazonclouddrive/#status))
Amazon S3
Backblaze B2
Box
Ceph
Citrix ShareFile
C14
DigitalOcean Spaces
Dreamhost
Dropbox
FTP
Google Cloud Storage
Google Drive
Google Photos
HTTP
Hubic
Jottacloud
IBM COS S3
Koofr
Mail.ru Cloud
Memset Memstore
Mega
Microsoft Azure Blob Storage
Microsoft OneDrive
Minio
Nextcloud
OVH
OpenDrive
Openstack Swift
Oracle Cloud Storage
ownCloud
pCloud
premiumize.me
put.io
QingStor
Rackspace Cloud Files
rsync.net
Scaleway
SFTP
Wasabi
WebDAV
Yandex Disk
The local filesystem

Features

MD5/SHA1 hashes checked at all times for file integrity
Timestamps preserved on files
Partial syncs supported on a whole file basis
Copy (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_copy/) mode to just copy new/changed files
Sync (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_sync/) (one way) mode to make a directory identical
Check (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_check/) mode to check for file hash equality
Can sync to and from network, eg two different cloud accounts
Encryption (https://rclone.org/crypt/) backend
Cache (https://rclone.org/cache/) backend
Chunking (https://rclone.org/chunker/) backend
Union (https://rclone.org/union/) backend
Optional FUSE mount (rclone mount (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_mount/))
Multi-threaded downloads to local disk
Can serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) local or remote files over HTTP (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_http/)/WebDav (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_webdav/)/FTP (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_ftp/)/SFTP (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_sftp/)/dlna (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_dlna/)
Experimental Web based GUI (https://rclone.org/gui/)

Links

Home page (https://rclone.org/)
GitHub project page for source and bug tracker (https://github.com/rclone/rclone)
Rclone Forum (https://forum.rclone.org)
Downloads (https://rclone.org/downloads/)

Configure

First, you'll need to configure rclone. As the object storage systems have quite complicated authentication these are kept in a config file. (See the --config entry for how to find the config file and choose its location.)

The easiest way to make the config is to run rclone with the config option:

rclone config

See the following for detailed instructions for

1Fichier (https://rclone.org/fichier/)
Alias (https://rclone.org/alias/)
Amazon Drive (https://rclone.org/amazonclouddrive/)
Amazon S3 (https://rclone.org/s3/)
Backblaze B2 (https://rclone.org/b2/)
Box (https://rclone.org/box/)
Cache (https://rclone.org/cache/)
Chunker (https://rclone.org/chunker/) - transparently splits large files for other remotes
Citrix ShareFile (https://rclone.org/sharefile/)
Crypt (https://rclone.org/crypt/) - to encrypt other remotes
DigitalOcean Spaces (/s3/#digitalocean-spaces)
Dropbox (https://rclone.org/dropbox/)
FTP (https://rclone.org/ftp/)
Google Cloud Storage (https://rclone.org/googlecloudstorage/)
Google Drive (https://rclone.org/drive/)
Google Photos (https://rclone.org/googlephotos/)
HTTP (https://rclone.org/http/)
Hubic (https://rclone.org/hubic/)
Jottacloud (https://rclone.org/jottacloud/)
Koofr (https://rclone.org/koofr/)
Mail.ru Cloud (https://rclone.org/mailru/)
Mega (https://rclone.org/mega/)
Microsoft Azure Blob Storage (https://rclone.org/azureblob/)
Microsoft OneDrive (https://rclone.org/onedrive/)
Openstack Swift / Rackspace Cloudfiles / Memset Memstore (https://rclone.org/swift/)
OpenDrive (https://rclone.org/opendrive/)
Pcloud (https://rclone.org/pcloud/)
premiumize.me (https://rclone.org/premiumizeme/)
put.io (https://rclone.org/putio/)
QingStor (https://rclone.org/qingstor/)
SFTP (https://rclone.org/sftp/)
Union (https://rclone.org/union/)
WebDAV (https://rclone.org/webdav/)
Yandex Disk (https://rclone.org/yandex/)
The local filesystem (https://rclone.org/local/)

Usage

Rclone syncs a directory tree from one storage system to another.

Its syntax is like this

Syntax: [options] subcommand <parameters> <parameters...>

Source and destination paths are specified by the name you gave the storage system in the config file then the sub path, eg "drive:myfolder" to look at "myfolder" in Google drive.

You can define as many storage paths as you like in the config file.

Subcommands

rclone uses a system of subcommands. For example

rclone ls remote:path # lists a remote
rclone copy /local/path remote:path # copies /local/path to the remote
rclone sync /local/path remote:path # syncs /local/path to the remote

rclone config

Enter an interactive configuration session.

Synopsis

Enter an interactive configuration session where you can setup new remotes and manage existing ones. You may also set or remove a password to protect your configuration.

rclone config [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for config

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.
rclone config create (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_create/) - Create a new remote with name, type and options.
rclone config delete (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_delete/) - Delete an existing remote .
rclone config disconnect (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_disconnect/) - Disconnects user from remote
rclone config dump (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_dump/) - Dump the config file as JSON.
rclone config edit (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_edit/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.
rclone config file (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_file/) - Show path of configuration file in use.
rclone config password (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_password/) - Update password in an existing remote.
rclone config providers (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_providers/) - List in JSON format all the providers and options.
rclone config reconnect (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_reconnect/) - Re-authenticates user with remote.
rclone config show (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_show/) - Print (decrypted) config file, or the config for a single remote.
rclone config update (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_update/) - Update options in an existing remote.
rclone config userinfo (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_userinfo/) - Prints info about logged in user of remote.

rclone copy

Copy files from source to dest, skipping already copied

Synopsis

Copy the source to the destination. Doesn't transfer unchanged files, testing by size and modification time or MD5SUM. Doesn't delete files from the destination.

Note that it is always the contents of the directory that is synced, not the directory so when source:path is a directory, it's the contents of source:path that are copied, not the directory name and contents.

If dest:path doesn't exist, it is created and the source:path contents go there.

For example

rclone copy source:sourcepath dest:destpath

Let's say there are two files in sourcepath

sourcepath/one.txt
sourcepath/two.txt

This copies them to

destpath/one.txt
destpath/two.txt

Not to

destpath/sourcepath/one.txt
destpath/sourcepath/two.txt

If you are familiar with rsync, rclone always works as if you had written a trailing / - meaning "copy the contents of this directory". This applies to all commands and whether you are talking about the source or destination.

See the -no-traverse (/docs/#no-traverse) option for controlling whether rclone lists the destination directory or not. Supplying this option when copying a small number of files into a large destination can speed transfers up greatly.

For example, if you have many files in /path/to/src but only a few of them change every day, you can to copy all the files which have changed recently very efficiently like this:

rclone copy --max-age 24h --no-traverse /path/to/src remote:

Note: Use the -P/--progress flag to view real-time transfer statistics

rclone copy source:path dest:path [flags]

Options

      --create-empty-src-dirs   Create empty source dirs on destination after copy
  -h, --help                    help for copy

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone sync

Make source and dest identical, modifying destination only.

Synopsis

Sync the source to the destination, changing the destination only. Doesn't transfer unchanged files, testing by size and modification time or MD5SUM. Destination is updated to match source, including deleting files if necessary.

Important: Since this can cause data loss, test first with the --dry-run flag to see exactly what would be copied and deleted.

Note that files in the destination won't be deleted if there were any errors at any point.

It is always the contents of the directory that is synced, not the directory so when source:path is a directory, it's the contents of source:path that are copied, not the directory name and contents. See extended explanation in the copy command above if unsure.

If dest:path doesn't exist, it is created and the source:path contents go there.

Note: Use the -P/--progress flag to view real-time transfer statistics

rclone sync source:path dest:path [flags]

Options

      --create-empty-src-dirs   Create empty source dirs on destination after sync
  -h, --help                    help for sync

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone move

Move files from source to dest.

Synopsis

Moves the contents of the source directory to the destination directory. Rclone will error if the source and destination overlap and the remote does not support a server side directory move operation.

If no filters are in use and if possible this will server side move source:path into dest:path. After this source:path will no longer longer exist.

Otherwise for each file in source:path selected by the filters (if any) this will move it into dest:path. If possible a server side move will be used, otherwise it will copy it (server side if possible) into dest:path then delete the original (if no errors on copy) in source:path.

If you want to delete empty source directories after move, use the -delete-empty-src-dirs flag.

See the -no-traverse (/docs/#no-traverse) option for controlling whether rclone lists the destination directory or not. Supplying this option when moving a small number of files into a large destination can speed transfers up greatly.

Important: Since this can cause data loss, test first with the -dry-run flag.

Note: Use the -P/--progress flag to view real-time transfer statistics.

rclone move source:path dest:path [flags]

Options

      --create-empty-src-dirs   Create empty source dirs on destination after move
      --delete-empty-src-dirs   Delete empty source dirs after move
  -h, --help                    help for move

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone delete

Remove the contents of path.

Synopsis

Remove the files in path. Unlike purge it obeys include/exclude filters so can be used to selectively delete files.

rclone delete only deletes objects but leaves the directory structure alone. If you want to delete a directory and all of its contents use rclone purge

Eg delete all files bigger than 100MBytes

Check what would be deleted first (use either)

rclone --min-size 100M lsl remote:path
rclone --dry-run --min-size 100M delete remote:path

Then delete

rclone --min-size 100M delete remote:path

That reads "delete everything with a minimum size of 100 MB", hence delete all files bigger than 100MBytes.

rclone delete remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for delete

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone purge

Remove the path and all of its contents.

Synopsis

Remove the path and all of its contents. Note that this does not obey include/exclude filters - everything will be removed. Use delete if you want to selectively delete files.

rclone purge remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for purge

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone mkdir

Make the path if it doesn't already exist.

Synopsis

Make the path if it doesn't already exist.

rclone mkdir remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for mkdir

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone rmdir

Remove the path if empty.

Synopsis

Remove the path. Note that you can't remove a path with objects in it, use purge for that.

rclone rmdir remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for rmdir

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone check

Checks the files in the source and destination match.

Synopsis

Checks the files in the source and destination match. It compares sizes and hashes (MD5 or SHA1) and logs a report of files which don't match. It doesn't alter the source or destination.

If you supply the -size-only flag, it will only compare the sizes not the hashes as well. Use this for a quick check.

If you supply the -download flag, it will download the data from both remotes and check them against each other on the fly. This can be useful for remotes that don't support hashes or if you really want to check all the data.

If you supply the -one-way flag, it will only check that files in source match the files in destination, not the other way around. Meaning extra files in destination that are not in the source will not trigger an error.

rclone check source:path dest:path [flags]

Options

      --download   Check by downloading rather than with hash.
  -h, --help       help for check
      --one-way    Check one way only, source files must exist on remote

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone ls

List the objects in the path with size and path.

Synopsis

Lists the objects in the source path to standard output in a human readable format with size and path. Recurses by default.

Eg

$ rclone ls swift:bucket
    60295 bevajer5jef
    90613 canole
    94467 diwogej7
    37600 fubuwic

Any of the filtering options can be applied to this command.

There are several related list commands

ls to list size and path of objects only
lsl to list modification time, size and path of objects only
lsd to list directories only
lsf to list objects and directories in easy to parse format
lsjson to list objects and directories in JSON format

ls,lsl,lsd are designed to be human readable. lsf is designed to be human and machine readable. lsjson is designed to be machine readable.

Note that ls and lsl recurse by default - use "-max-depth 1" to stop the recursion.

The other list commands lsd,lsf,lsjson do not recurse by default - use "-R" to make them recurse.

Listing a non existent directory will produce an error except for remotes which can't have empty directories (eg s3, swift, gcs, etc - the bucket based remotes).

rclone ls remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for ls

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone lsd

List all directories/containers/buckets in the path.

Synopsis

Lists the directories in the source path to standard output. Does not recurse by default. Use the -R flag to recurse.

This command lists the total size of the directory (if known, -1 if not), the modification time (if known, the current time if not), the number of objects in the directory (if known, -1 if not) and the name of the directory, Eg

$ rclone lsd swift:
      494000 2018-04-26 08:43:20     10000 10000files
          65 2018-04-26 08:43:20         1 1File

Or

$ rclone lsd drive:test
          -1 2016-10-17 17:41:53        -1 1000files
          -1 2017-01-03 14:40:54        -1 2500files
          -1 2017-07-08 14:39:28        -1 4000files

If you just want the directory names use "rclone lsf -dirs-only".

Any of the filtering options can be applied to this command.

There are several related list commands

ls to list size and path of objects only
lsl to list modification time, size and path of objects only
lsd to list directories only
lsf to list objects and directories in easy to parse format
lsjson to list objects and directories in JSON format

ls,lsl,lsd are designed to be human readable. lsf is designed to be human and machine readable. lsjson is designed to be machine readable.

Note that ls and lsl recurse by default - use "-max-depth 1" to stop the recursion.

The other list commands lsd,lsf,lsjson do not recurse by default - use "-R" to make them recurse.

Listing a non existent directory will produce an error except for remotes which can't have empty directories (eg s3, swift, gcs, etc - the bucket based remotes).

rclone lsd remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help        help for lsd
  -R, --recursive   Recurse into the listing.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone lsl

List the objects in path with modification time, size and path.

Synopsis

Lists the objects in the source path to standard output in a human readable format with modification time, size and path. Recurses by default.

Eg

$ rclone lsl swift:bucket
    60295 2016-06-25 18:55:41.062626927 bevajer5jef
    90613 2016-06-25 18:55:43.302607074 canole
    94467 2016-06-25 18:55:43.046609333 diwogej7
    37600 2016-06-25 18:55:40.814629136 fubuwic

Any of the filtering options can be applied to this command.

There are several related list commands

ls to list size and path of objects only
lsl to list modification time, size and path of objects only
lsd to list directories only
lsf to list objects and directories in easy to parse format
lsjson to list objects and directories in JSON format

ls,lsl,lsd are designed to be human readable. lsf is designed to be human and machine readable. lsjson is designed to be machine readable.

Note that ls and lsl recurse by default - use "-max-depth 1" to stop the recursion.

The other list commands lsd,lsf,lsjson do not recurse by default - use "-R" to make them recurse.

Listing a non existent directory will produce an error except for remotes which can't have empty directories (eg s3, swift, gcs, etc - the bucket based remotes).

rclone lsl remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for lsl

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone md5sum

Produces an md5sum file for all the objects in the path.

Synopsis

Produces an md5sum file for all the objects in the path. This is in the same format as the standard md5sum tool produces.

rclone md5sum remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for md5sum

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone sha1sum

Produces an sha1sum file for all the objects in the path.

Synopsis

Produces an sha1sum file for all the objects in the path. This is in the same format as the standard sha1sum tool produces.

rclone sha1sum remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for sha1sum

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone size

Prints the total size and number of objects in remote:path.

Synopsis

Prints the total size and number of objects in remote:path.

rclone size remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for size
      --json   format output as JSON

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone version

Show the version number.

Synopsis

Show the version number, the go version and the architecture.

Eg

$ rclone version
rclone v1.41
- os/arch: linux/amd64
- go version: go1.10

If you supply the -check flag, then it will do an online check to compare your version with the latest release and the latest beta.

$ rclone version --check
yours:  1.42.0.6
latest: 1.42          (released 2018-06-16)
beta:   1.42.0.5      (released 2018-06-17)

Or

$ rclone version --check
yours:  1.41
latest: 1.42          (released 2018-06-16)
  upgrade: https://downloads.rclone.org/v1.42
beta:   1.42.0.5      (released 2018-06-17)
  upgrade: https://beta.rclone.org/v1.42-005-g56e1e820
rclone version [flags]

Options

      --check   Check for new version.
  -h, --help    help for version

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone cleanup

Clean up the remote if possible

Synopsis

Clean up the remote if possible. Empty the trash or delete old file versions. Not supported by all remotes.

rclone cleanup remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for cleanup

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone dedupe

Interactively find duplicate files and delete/rename them.

Synopsis

By default dedupe interactively finds duplicate files and offers to delete all but one or rename them to be different. Only useful with Google Drive which can have duplicate file names.

In the first pass it will merge directories with the same name. It will do this iteratively until all the identical directories have been merged.

The dedupe command will delete all but one of any identical (same md5sum) files it finds without confirmation. This means that for most duplicated files the dedupe command will not be interactive. You can use --dry-run to see what would happen without doing anything.

Here is an example run.

Before - with duplicates

$ rclone lsl drive:dupes
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:23:16.798000000 one.txt
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:23:11.775000000 one.txt
   564374 2016-03-05 16:23:06.731000000 one.txt
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:18:26.092000000 one.txt
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:22:46.185000000 two.txt
  1744073 2016-03-05 16:22:38.104000000 two.txt
   564374 2016-03-05 16:22:52.118000000 two.txt

Now the dedupe session

$ rclone dedupe drive:dupes
2016/03/05 16:24:37 Google drive root 'dupes': Looking for duplicates using interactive mode.
one.txt: Found 4 duplicates - deleting identical copies
one.txt: Deleting 2/3 identical duplicates (md5sum "1eedaa9fe86fd4b8632e2ac549403b36")
one.txt: 2 duplicates remain
  1:      6048320 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:23:16.798000000, md5sum 1eedaa9fe86fd4b8632e2ac549403b36
  2:       564374 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:23:06.731000000, md5sum 7594e7dc9fc28f727c42ee3e0749de81
s) Skip and do nothing
k) Keep just one (choose which in next step)
r) Rename all to be different (by changing file.jpg to file-1.jpg)
s/k/r> k
Enter the number of the file to keep> 1
one.txt: Deleted 1 extra copies
two.txt: Found 3 duplicates - deleting identical copies
two.txt: 3 duplicates remain
  1:       564374 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:22:52.118000000, md5sum 7594e7dc9fc28f727c42ee3e0749de81
  2:      6048320 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:22:46.185000000, md5sum 1eedaa9fe86fd4b8632e2ac549403b36
  3:      1744073 bytes, 2016-03-05 16:22:38.104000000, md5sum 851957f7fb6f0bc4ce76be966d336802
s) Skip and do nothing
k) Keep just one (choose which in next step)
r) Rename all to be different (by changing file.jpg to file-1.jpg)
s/k/r> r
two-1.txt: renamed from: two.txt
two-2.txt: renamed from: two.txt
two-3.txt: renamed from: two.txt

The result being

$ rclone lsl drive:dupes
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:23:16.798000000 one.txt
   564374 2016-03-05 16:22:52.118000000 two-1.txt
  6048320 2016-03-05 16:22:46.185000000 two-2.txt
  1744073 2016-03-05 16:22:38.104000000 two-3.txt

Dedupe can be run non interactively using the --dedupe-mode flag or by using an extra parameter with the same value

--dedupe-mode interactive - interactive as above.
--dedupe-mode skip - removes identical files then skips anything left.
--dedupe-mode first - removes identical files then keeps the first one.
--dedupe-mode newest - removes identical files then keeps the newest one.
--dedupe-mode oldest - removes identical files then keeps the oldest one.
--dedupe-mode largest - removes identical files then keeps the largest one.
--dedupe-mode rename - removes identical files then renames the rest to be different.

For example to rename all the identically named photos in your Google Photos directory, do

rclone dedupe --dedupe-mode rename "drive:Google Photos"

Or

rclone dedupe rename "drive:Google Photos"
rclone dedupe [mode] remote:path [flags]

Options

      --dedupe-mode string   Dedupe mode interactive|skip|first|newest|oldest|rename. (default "interactive")
  -h, --help                 help for dedupe

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone about

Get quota information from the remote.

Synopsis

Get quota information from the remote, like bytes used/free/quota and bytes used in the trash. Not supported by all remotes.

This will print to stdout something like this:

Total:   17G
Used:    7.444G
Free:    1.315G
Trashed: 100.000M
Other:   8.241G

Where the fields are:

Total: total size available.
Used: total size used
Free: total amount this user could upload.
Trashed: total amount in the trash
Other: total amount in other storage (eg Gmail, Google Photos)
Objects: total number of objects in the storage

Note that not all the backends provide all the fields - they will be missing if they are not known for that backend. Where it is known that the value is unlimited the value will also be omitted.

Use the -full flag to see the numbers written out in full, eg

Total:   18253611008
Used:    7993453766
Free:    1411001220
Trashed: 104857602
Other:   8849156022

Use the -json flag for a computer readable output, eg

{
    "total": 18253611008,
    "used": 7993453766,
    "trashed": 104857602,
    "other": 8849156022,
    "free": 1411001220
}
rclone about remote: [flags]

Options

      --full   Full numbers instead of SI units
  -h, --help   help for about
      --json   Format output as JSON

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone authorize

Remote authorization.

Synopsis

Remote authorization. Used to authorize a remote or headless rclone from a machine with a browser - use as instructed by rclone config.

rclone authorize [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for authorize

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone cachestats

Print cache stats for a remote

Synopsis

Print cache stats for a remote in JSON format

rclone cachestats source: [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for cachestats

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone cat

Concatenates any files and sends them to stdout.

Synopsis

rclone cat sends any files to standard output.

You can use it like this to output a single file

rclone cat remote:path/to/file

Or like this to output any file in dir or subdirectories.

rclone cat remote:path/to/dir

Or like this to output any .txt files in dir or subdirectories.

rclone --include "*.txt" cat remote:path/to/dir

Use the -head flag to print characters only at the start, -tail for the end and -offset and -count to print a section in the middle. Note that if offset is negative it will count from the end, so -offset -1 -count 1 is equivalent to -tail 1.

rclone cat remote:path [flags]

Options

      --count int    Only print N characters. (default -1)
      --discard      Discard the output instead of printing.
      --head int     Only print the first N characters.
  -h, --help         help for cat
      --offset int   Start printing at offset N (or from end if -ve).
      --tail int     Only print the last N characters.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone config create

Create a new remote with name, type and options.

Synopsis

Create a new remote of with and options. The options should be passed in in pairs of .

For example to make a swift remote of name myremote using auto config you would do:

rclone config create myremote swift env_auth true

Note that if the config process would normally ask a question the default is taken. Each time that happens rclone will print a message saying how to affect the value taken.

If any of the parameters passed is a password field, then rclone will automatically obscure them before putting them in the config file.

So for example if you wanted to configure a Google Drive remote but using remote authorization you would do this:

rclone config create mydrive drive config_is_local false
rclone config create <name> <type> [<key> <value>]* [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for create

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

rclone config delete

Delete an existing remote .

Synopsis

Delete an existing remote .

rclone config delete <name> [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for delete

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

rclone config disconnect

Disconnects user from remote

Synopsis

This disconnects the remote: passed in to the cloud storage system.

This normally means revoking the oauth token.

To reconnect use "rclone config reconnect".

rclone config disconnect remote: [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for disconnect

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

rclone config dump

Dump the config file as JSON.

Synopsis

Dump the config file as JSON.

rclone config dump [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for dump

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

rclone config edit

Enter an interactive configuration session.

Synopsis

Enter an interactive configuration session where you can setup new remotes and manage existing ones. You may also set or remove a password to protect your configuration.

rclone config edit [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for edit

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

rclone config file

Show path of configuration file in use.

Synopsis

Show path of configuration file in use.

rclone config file [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for file

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

rclone config password

Update password in an existing remote.

Synopsis

Update an existing remote's password. The password should be passed in in pairs of .

For example to set password of a remote of name myremote you would do:

rclone config password myremote fieldname mypassword

This command is obsolete now that "config update" and "config create" both support obscuring passwords directly.

rclone config password <name> [<key> <value>]+ [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for password

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

rclone config providers

List in JSON format all the providers and options.

Synopsis

List in JSON format all the providers and options.

rclone config providers [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for providers

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

rclone config reconnect

Re-authenticates user with remote.

Synopsis

This reconnects remote: passed in to the cloud storage system.

To disconnect the remote use "rclone config disconnect".

This normally means going through the interactive oauth flow again.

rclone config reconnect remote: [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for reconnect

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

rclone config show

Print (decrypted) config file, or the config for a single remote.

Synopsis

Print (decrypted) config file, or the config for a single remote.

rclone config show [<remote>] [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for show

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

rclone config update

Update options in an existing remote.

Synopsis

Update an existing remote's options. The options should be passed in in pairs of .

For example to update the env_auth field of a remote of name myremote you would do:

rclone config update myremote swift env_auth true

If any of the parameters passed is a password field, then rclone will automatically obscure them before putting them in the config file.

If the remote uses oauth the token will be updated, if you don't require this add an extra parameter thus:

rclone config update myremote swift env_auth true config_refresh_token false
rclone config update <name> [<key> <value>]+ [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for update

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

rclone config userinfo

Prints info about logged in user of remote.

Synopsis

This prints the details of the person logged in to the cloud storage system.

rclone config userinfo remote: [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for userinfo
      --json   Format output as JSON

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone config (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config/) - Enter an interactive configuration session.

rclone copyto

Copy files from source to dest, skipping already copied

Synopsis

If source:path is a file or directory then it copies it to a file or directory named dest:path.

This can be used to upload single files to other than their current name. If the source is a directory then it acts exactly like the copy command.

So

rclone copyto src dst

where src and dst are rclone paths, either remote:path or /path/to/local or C:.

This will:

if src is file
    copy it to dst, overwriting an existing file if it exists
if src is directory
    copy it to dst, overwriting existing files if they exist
    see copy command for full details

This doesn't transfer unchanged files, testing by size and modification time or MD5SUM. It doesn't delete files from the destination.

Note: Use the -P/--progress flag to view real-time transfer statistics

rclone copyto source:path dest:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for copyto

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone copyurl

Copy url content to dest.

Synopsis

Download urls content and copy it to destination without saving it in tmp storage.

Setting -auto-filename flag will cause retrieving file name from url and using it in destination path.

rclone copyurl https://example.com dest:path [flags]

Options

  -a, --auto-filename   Get the file name from the url and use it for destination file path
  -h, --help            help for copyurl

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone cryptcheck

Cryptcheck checks the integrity of a crypted remote.

Synopsis

rclone cryptcheck checks a remote against a crypted remote. This is the equivalent of running rclone check, but able to check the checksums of the crypted remote.

For it to work the underlying remote of the cryptedremote must support some kind of checksum.

It works by reading the nonce from each file on the cryptedremote: and using that to encrypt each file on the remote:. It then checks the checksum of the underlying file on the cryptedremote: against the checksum of the file it has just encrypted.

Use it like this

rclone cryptcheck /path/to/files encryptedremote:path

You can use it like this also, but that will involve downloading all the files in remote:path.

rclone cryptcheck remote:path encryptedremote:path

After it has run it will log the status of the encryptedremote:.

If you supply the -one-way flag, it will only check that files in source match the files in destination, not the other way around. Meaning extra files in destination that are not in the source will not trigger an error.

rclone cryptcheck remote:path cryptedremote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help      help for cryptcheck
      --one-way   Check one way only, source files must exist on destination

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone cryptdecode

Cryptdecode returns unencrypted file names.

Synopsis

rclone cryptdecode returns unencrypted file names when provided with a list of encrypted file names. List limit is 10 items.

If you supply the -reverse flag, it will return encrypted file names.

use it like this

rclone cryptdecode encryptedremote: encryptedfilename1 encryptedfilename2

rclone cryptdecode --reverse encryptedremote: filename1 filename2
rclone cryptdecode encryptedremote: encryptedfilename [flags]

Options

  -h, --help      help for cryptdecode
      --reverse   Reverse cryptdecode, encrypts filenames

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone dbhashsum

Produces a Dropbox hash file for all the objects in the path.

Synopsis

Produces a Dropbox hash file for all the objects in the path. The hashes are calculated according to Dropbox content hash rules (https://www.dropbox.com/developers/reference/content-hash). The output is in the same format as md5sum and sha1sum.

rclone dbhashsum remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for dbhashsum

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone deletefile

Remove a single file from remote.

Synopsis

Remove a single file from remote. Unlike delete it cannot be used to remove a directory and it doesn't obey include/exclude filters - if the specified file exists, it will always be removed.

rclone deletefile remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for deletefile

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone genautocomplete

Output completion script for a given shell.

Synopsis

Generates a shell completion script for rclone. Run with -help to list the supported shells.

Options

  -h, --help   help for genautocomplete

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.
rclone genautocomplete bash (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_genautocomplete_bash/) - Output bash completion script for rclone.
rclone genautocomplete zsh (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_genautocomplete_zsh/) - Output zsh completion script for rclone.

rclone genautocomplete bash

Output bash completion script for rclone.

Synopsis

Generates a bash shell autocompletion script for rclone.

This writes to /etc/bash_completion.d/rclone by default so will probably need to be run with sudo or as root, eg

sudo rclone genautocomplete bash

Logout and login again to use the autocompletion scripts, or source them directly

. /etc/bash_completion

If you supply a command line argument the script will be written there.

rclone genautocomplete bash [output_file] [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for bash

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone genautocomplete (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_genautocomplete/) - Output completion script for a given shell.

rclone genautocomplete zsh

Output zsh completion script for rclone.

Synopsis

Generates a zsh autocompletion script for rclone.

This writes to /usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_rclone by default so will probably need to be run with sudo or as root, eg

sudo rclone genautocomplete zsh

Logout and login again to use the autocompletion scripts, or source them directly

autoload -U compinit && compinit

If you supply a command line argument the script will be written there.

rclone genautocomplete zsh [output_file] [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for zsh

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone genautocomplete (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_genautocomplete/) - Output completion script for a given shell.

rclone gendocs

Output markdown docs for rclone to the directory supplied.

Synopsis

This produces markdown docs for the rclone commands to the directory supplied. These are in a format suitable for hugo to render into the rclone.org website.

rclone gendocs output_directory [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for gendocs

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone hashsum

Produces an hashsum file for all the objects in the path.

Synopsis

Produces a hash file for all the objects in the path using the hash named. The output is in the same format as the standard md5sum/sha1sum tool.

Run without a hash to see the list of supported hashes, eg

$ rclone hashsum
Supported hashes are:
  * MD5
  * SHA-1
  * DropboxHash
  * QuickXorHash

Then

$ rclone hashsum MD5 remote:path
rclone hashsum <hash> remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for hashsum

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone link

Generate public link to file/folder.

Synopsis

rclone link will create or retrieve a public link to the given file or folder.

rclone link remote:path/to/file
rclone link remote:path/to/folder/

If successful, the last line of the output will contain the link. Exact capabilities depend on the remote, but the link will always be created with the least constraints - e.g. no expiry, no password protection, accessible without account.

rclone link remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for link

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone listremotes

List all the remotes in the config file.

Synopsis

rclone listremotes lists all the available remotes from the config file.

When uses with the -l flag it lists the types too.

rclone listremotes [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for listremotes
      --long   Show the type as well as names.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone lsf

List directories and objects in remote:path formatted for parsing

Synopsis

List the contents of the source path (directories and objects) to standard output in a form which is easy to parse by scripts. By default this will just be the names of the objects and directories, one per line. The directories will have a / suffix.

Eg

$ rclone lsf swift:bucket
bevajer5jef
canole
diwogej7
ferejej3gux/
fubuwic

Use the -format option to control what gets listed. By default this is just the path, but you can use these parameters to control the output:

p - path
s - size
t - modification time
h - hash
i - ID of object
o - Original ID of underlying object
m - MimeType of object if known
e - encrypted name
T - tier of storage if known, eg "Hot" or "Cool"

So if you wanted the path, size and modification time, you would use -format "pst", or maybe -format "tsp" to put the path last.

Eg

$ rclone lsf  --format "tsp" swift:bucket
2016-06-25 18:55:41;60295;bevajer5jef
2016-06-25 18:55:43;90613;canole
2016-06-25 18:55:43;94467;diwogej7
2018-04-26 08:50:45;0;ferejej3gux/
2016-06-25 18:55:40;37600;fubuwic

If you specify "h" in the format you will get the MD5 hash by default, use the "-hash" flag to change which hash you want. Note that this can be returned as an empty string if it isn't available on the object (and for directories), "ERROR" if there was an error reading it from the object and "UNSUPPORTED" if that object does not support that hash type.

For example to emulate the md5sum command you can use

rclone lsf -R --hash MD5 --format hp --separator "  " --files-only .

Eg

$ rclone lsf -R --hash MD5 --format hp --separator "  " --files-only swift:bucket 
7908e352297f0f530b84a756f188baa3  bevajer5jef
cd65ac234e6fea5925974a51cdd865cc  canole
03b5341b4f234b9d984d03ad076bae91  diwogej7
8fd37c3810dd660778137ac3a66cc06d  fubuwic
99713e14a4c4ff553acaf1930fad985b  gixacuh7ku

(Though "rclone md5sum ." is an easier way of typing this.)

By default the separator is ";" this can be changed with the -separator flag. Note that separators aren't escaped in the path so putting it last is a good strategy.

Eg

$ rclone lsf  --separator "," --format "tshp" swift:bucket
2016-06-25 18:55:41,60295,7908e352297f0f530b84a756f188baa3,bevajer5jef
2016-06-25 18:55:43,90613,cd65ac234e6fea5925974a51cdd865cc,canole
2016-06-25 18:55:43,94467,03b5341b4f234b9d984d03ad076bae91,diwogej7
2018-04-26 08:52:53,0,,ferejej3gux/
2016-06-25 18:55:40,37600,8fd37c3810dd660778137ac3a66cc06d,fubuwic

You can output in CSV standard format. This will escape things in " if they contain ,

Eg

$ rclone lsf --csv --files-only --format ps remote:path
test.log,22355
test.sh,449
"this file contains a comma, in the file name.txt",6

Note that the -absolute parameter is useful for making lists of files to pass to an rclone copy with the -files-from flag.

For example to find all the files modified within one day and copy those only (without traversing the whole directory structure):

rclone lsf --absolute --files-only --max-age 1d /path/to/local > new_files
rclone copy --files-from new_files /path/to/local remote:path

Any of the filtering options can be applied to this command.

There are several related list commands

ls to list size and path of objects only
lsl to list modification time, size and path of objects only
lsd to list directories only
lsf to list objects and directories in easy to parse format
lsjson to list objects and directories in JSON format

ls,lsl,lsd are designed to be human readable. lsf is designed to be human and machine readable. lsjson is designed to be machine readable.

Note that ls and lsl recurse by default - use "-max-depth 1" to stop the recursion.

The other list commands lsd,lsf,lsjson do not recurse by default - use "-R" to make them recurse.

Listing a non existent directory will produce an error except for remotes which can't have empty directories (eg s3, swift, gcs, etc - the bucket based remotes).

rclone lsf remote:path [flags]

Options

      --absolute           Put a leading / in front of path names.
      --csv                Output in CSV format.
  -d, --dir-slash          Append a slash to directory names. (default true)
      --dirs-only          Only list directories.
      --files-only         Only list files.
  -F, --format string      Output format - see  help for details (default "p")
      --hash h             Use this hash when h is used in the format MD5|SHA-1|DropboxHash (default "MD5")
  -h, --help               help for lsf
  -R, --recursive          Recurse into the listing.
  -s, --separator string   Separator for the items in the format. (default ";")

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone lsjson

List directories and objects in the path in JSON format.

Synopsis

List directories and objects in the path in JSON format.

The output is an array of Items, where each Item looks like this

{ "Hashes" : { "SHA-1" : "f572d396fae9206628714fb2ce00f72e94f2258f", "MD5" : "b1946ac92492d2347c6235b4d2611184", "DropboxHash" : "ecb65bb98f9d905b70458986c39fcbad7715e5f2fcc3b1f07767d7c83e2438cc" }, "ID": "y2djkhiujf83u33", "OrigID": "UYOJVTUW00Q1RzTDA", "IsBucket" : false, "IsDir" : false, "MimeType" : "application/octet-stream", "ModTime" : "2017-05-31T16:15:57.034468261+01:00", "Name" : "file.txt", "Encrypted" : "v0qpsdq8anpci8n929v3uu9338", "EncryptedPath" : "kja9098349023498/v0qpsdq8anpci8n929v3uu9338", "Path" : "full/path/goes/here/file.txt", "Size" : 6, "Tier" : "hot", }

If -hash is not specified the Hashes property won't be emitted.

If -no-modtime is specified then ModTime will be blank.

If -encrypted is not specified the Encrypted won't be emitted.

If -dirs-only is not specified files in addition to directories are returned

If -files-only is not specified directories in addition to the files will be returned.

The Path field will only show folders below the remote path being listed. If "remote:path" contains the file "subfolder/file.txt", the Path for "file.txt" will be "subfolder/file.txt", not "remote:path/subfolder/file.txt". When used without -recursive the Path will always be the same as Name.

If the directory is a bucket in a bucket based backend, then "IsBucket" will be set to true. This key won't be present unless it is "true".

The time is in RFC3339 format with up to nanosecond precision. The number of decimal digits in the seconds will depend on the precision that the remote can hold the times, so if times are accurate to the nearest millisecond (eg Google Drive) then 3 digits will always be shown ("2017-05-31T16:15:57.034+01:00") whereas if the times are accurate to the nearest second (Dropbox, Box, WebDav etc) no digits will be shown ("2017-05-31T16:15:57+01:00").

The whole output can be processed as a JSON blob, or alternatively it can be processed line by line as each item is written one to a line.

Any of the filtering options can be applied to this command.

There are several related list commands

ls to list size and path of objects only
lsl to list modification time, size and path of objects only
lsd to list directories only
lsf to list objects and directories in easy to parse format
lsjson to list objects and directories in JSON format

ls,lsl,lsd are designed to be human readable. lsf is designed to be human and machine readable. lsjson is designed to be machine readable.

Note that ls and lsl recurse by default - use "-max-depth 1" to stop the recursion.

The other list commands lsd,lsf,lsjson do not recurse by default - use "-R" to make them recurse.

Listing a non existent directory will produce an error except for remotes which can't have empty directories (eg s3, swift, gcs, etc - the bucket based remotes).

rclone lsjson remote:path [flags]

Options

      --dirs-only    Show only directories in the listing.
  -M, --encrypted    Show the encrypted names.
      --files-only   Show only files in the listing.
      --hash         Include hashes in the output (may take longer).
  -h, --help         help for lsjson
      --no-modtime   Don't read the modification time (can speed things up).
      --original     Show the ID of the underlying Object.
  -R, --recursive    Recurse into the listing.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone mount

Mount the remote as file system on a mountpoint.

Synopsis

rclone mount allows Linux, FreeBSD, macOS and Windows to mount any of Rclone's cloud storage systems as a file system with FUSE.

First set up your remote using rclone config. Check it works with rclone ls etc.

Start the mount like this

rclone mount remote:path/to/files /path/to/local/mount

Or on Windows like this where X: is an unused drive letter

rclone mount remote:path/to/files X:

When the program ends, either via Ctrl+C or receiving a SIGINT or SIGTERM signal, the mount is automatically stopped.

The umount operation can fail, for example when the mountpoint is busy. When that happens, it is the user's responsibility to stop the mount manually with

# Linux
fusermount -u /path/to/local/mount
# OS X
umount /path/to/local/mount

Installing on Windows

To run rclone mount on Windows, you will need to download and install WinFsp (http://www.secfs.net/winfsp/).

WinFsp is an open source (https://github.com/billziss-gh/winfsp) Windows File System Proxy which makes it easy to write user space file systems for Windows. It provides a FUSE emulation layer which rclone uses combination with cgofuse (https://github.com/billziss-gh/cgofuse). Both of these packages are by Bill Zissimopoulos who was very helpful during the implementation of rclone mount for Windows.

Windows caveats

Note that drives created as Administrator are not visible by other accounts (including the account that was elevated as Administrator). So if you start a Windows drive from an Administrative Command Prompt and then try to access the same drive from Explorer (which does not run as Administrator), you will not be able to see the new drive.

The easiest way around this is to start the drive from a normal command prompt. It is also possible to start a drive from the SYSTEM account (using the WinFsp.Launcher infrastructure (https://github.com/billziss-gh/winfsp/wiki/WinFsp-Service-Architecture)) which creates drives accessible for everyone on the system or alternatively using the nssm service manager (https://nssm.cc/usage).

Limitations

Without the use of "-vfs-cache-mode" this can only write files sequentially, it can only seek when reading. This means that many applications won't work with their files on an rclone mount without "-vfs-cache-mode writes" or "-vfs-cache-mode full". See the File Caching section for more info.

The bucket based remotes (eg Swift, S3, Google Compute Storage, B2, Hubic) do not support the concept of empty directories, so empty directories will have a tendency to disappear once they fall out of the directory cache.

Only supported on Linux, FreeBSD, OS X and Windows at the moment.

rclone mount vs rclone sync/copy

File systems expect things to be 100% reliable, whereas cloud storage systems are a long way from 100% reliable. The rclone sync/copy commands cope with this with lots of retries. However rclone mount can't use retries in the same way without making local copies of the uploads. Look at the file caching for solutions to make mount more reliable.

Attribute caching

You can use the flag -attr-timeout to set the time the kernel caches the attributes (size, modification time etc) for directory entries.

The default is "1s" which caches files just long enough to avoid too many callbacks to rclone from the kernel.

In theory 0s should be the correct value for filesystems which can change outside the control of the kernel. However this causes quite a few problems such as rclone using too much memory (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2157), rclone not serving files to samba (https://forum.rclone.org/t/rclone-1-39-vs-1-40-mount-issue/5112) and excessive time listing directories (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2095#issuecomment-371141147).

The kernel can cache the info about a file for the time given by "-attr-timeout". You may see corruption if the remote file changes length during this window. It will show up as either a truncated file or a file with garbage on the end. With "-attr-timeout 1s" this is very unlikely but not impossible. The higher you set "-attr-timeout" the more likely it is. The default setting of "1s" is the lowest setting which mitigates the problems above.

If you set it higher (`10s' or `1m' say) then the kernel will call back to rclone less often making it more efficient, however there is more chance of the corruption issue above.

If files don't change on the remote outside of the control of rclone then there is no chance of corruption.

This is the same as setting the attr_timeout option in mount.fuse.

Filters

Note that all the rclone filters can be used to select a subset of the files to be visible in the mount.

systemd

When running rclone mount as a systemd service, it is possible to use Type=notify. In this case the service will enter the started state after the mountpoint has been successfully set up. Units having the rclone mount service specified as a requirement will see all files and folders immediately in this mode.

chunked reading

-vfs-read-chunk-size will enable reading the source objects in parts. This can reduce the used download quota for some remotes by requesting only chunks from the remote that are actually read at the cost of an increased number of requests.

When -vfs-read-chunk-size-limit is also specified and greater than -vfs-read-chunk-size, the chunk size for each open file will get doubled for each chunk read, until the specified value is reached. A value of -1 will disable the limit and the chunk size will grow indefinitely.

With -vfs-read-chunk-size 100M and -vfs-read-chunk-size-limit 0 the following parts will be downloaded: 0-100M, 100M-200M, 200M-300M, 300M-400M and so on. When -vfs-read-chunk-size-limit 500M is specified, the result would be 0-100M, 100M-300M, 300M-700M, 700M-1200M, 1200M-1700M and so on.

Chunked reading will only work with -vfs-cache-mode < full, as the file will always be copied to the vfs cache before opening with -vfs-cache-mode full.

Directory Cache

Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can set how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made locally in the mount may appear immediately or invalidate the cache. However, changes done on the remote will only be picked up once the cache expires.

Alternatively, you can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:

kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)

If you configure rclone with a remote control (/rc) then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:

rclone rc vfs/forget

Or individual files or directories:

rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir

File Buffering

The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance.

Each open file descriptor will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one file descriptor and won't be shared between multiple open file descriptors of the same file.

This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per file descriptor. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used. The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files.

File Caching

These flags control the VFS file caching options. The VFS layer is used by rclone mount to make a cloud storage system work more like a normal file system.

You'll need to enable VFS caching if you want, for example, to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.

Note that the VFS cache works in addition to the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.

--cache-dir string                   Directory rclone will use for caching.
--vfs-cache-max-age duration         Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-mode string              Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default "off")
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration   Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size int             Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)

If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable.

The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space.

Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed so if rclone is quit or dies with open files then these won't get written back to the remote. However they will still be in the on disk cache.

If using -vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every -vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache.

-vfs-cache-mode off

In this mode the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.

This will mean some operations are not possible

Files can't be opened for both read AND write
Files opened for write can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only
Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied
Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored
If an upload fails it can't be retried

-vfs-cache-mode minimal

This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disks. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.

These operations are not possible

Files opened for write only can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC
If an upload fails it can't be retried

-vfs-cache-mode writes

In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload fails it will be retried up to -low-level-retries times.

-vfs-cache-mode full

In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When a file is opened for read it will be downloaded in its entirety first.

This may be appropriate for your needs, or you may prefer to look at the cache backend which does a much more sophisticated job of caching, including caching directory hierarchies and chunks of files.

In this mode, unlike the others, when a file is written to the disk, it will be kept on the disk after it is written to the remote. It will be purged on a schedule according to --vfs-cache-max-age.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload or download fails it will be retried up to -low-level-retries times.

rclone mount remote:path /path/to/mountpoint [flags]

Options

      --allow-non-empty                        Allow mounting over a non-empty directory.
      --allow-other                            Allow access to other users.
      --allow-root                             Allow access to root user.
      --attr-timeout duration                  Time for which file/directory attributes are cached. (default 1s)
      --daemon                                 Run mount as a daemon (background mode).
      --daemon-timeout duration                Time limit for rclone to respond to kernel (not supported by all OSes).
      --debug-fuse                             Debug the FUSE internals - needs -v.
      --default-permissions                    Makes kernel enforce access control based on the file mode.
      --dir-cache-time duration                Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
      --dir-perms FileMode                     Directory permissions (default 0777)
      --file-perms FileMode                    File permissions (default 0666)
      --fuse-flag stringArray                  Flags or arguments to be passed direct to libfuse/WinFsp. Repeat if required.
      --gid uint32                             Override the gid field set by the filesystem. (default 1000)
  -h, --help                                   help for mount
      --max-read-ahead SizeSuffix              The number of bytes that can be prefetched for sequential reads. (default 128k)
      --no-checksum                            Don't compare checksums on up/download.
      --no-modtime                             Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
      --no-seek                                Don't allow seeking in files.
  -o, --option stringArray                     Option for libfuse/WinFsp. Repeat if required.
      --poll-interval duration                 Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)
      --read-only                              Mount read-only.
      --uid uint32                             Override the uid field set by the filesystem. (default 1000)
      --umask int                              Override the permission bits set by the filesystem.
      --vfs-cache-max-age duration             Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
      --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix          Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
      --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode               Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
      --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration       Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
      --vfs-case-insensitive                   If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match.
      --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix         Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M)
      --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix   If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off)
      --volname string                         Set the volume name (not supported by all OSes).
      --write-back-cache                       Makes kernel buffer writes before sending them to rclone. Without this, writethrough caching is used.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone moveto

Move file or directory from source to dest.

Synopsis

If source:path is a file or directory then it moves it to a file or directory named dest:path.

This can be used to rename files or upload single files to other than their existing name. If the source is a directory then it acts exactly like the move command.

So

rclone moveto src dst

where src and dst are rclone paths, either remote:path or /path/to/local or C:.

This will:

if src is file
    move it to dst, overwriting an existing file if it exists
if src is directory
    move it to dst, overwriting existing files if they exist
    see move command for full details

This doesn't transfer unchanged files, testing by size and modification time or MD5SUM. src will be deleted on successful transfer.

Important: Since this can cause data loss, test first with the -dry-run flag.

Note: Use the -P/--progress flag to view real-time transfer statistics.

rclone moveto source:path dest:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for moveto

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone ncdu

Explore a remote with a text based user interface.

Synopsis

This displays a text based user interface allowing the navigation of a remote. It is most useful for answering the question - "What is using all my disk space?".

To make the user interface it first scans the entire remote given and builds an in memory representation. rclone ncdu can be used during this scanning phase and you will see it building up the directory structure as it goes along.

Here are the keys - press `?' to toggle the help on and off

 ↑,↓ or k,j to Move
 →,l to enter
 ←,h to return
 c toggle counts
 g toggle graph
 n,s,C sort by name,size,count
 d delete file/directory
 Y display current path
 haL refresh screen
 ? to toggle help on and off
 q/ESC/c-C to quit

This an homage to the ncdu tool (https://dev.yorhel.nl/ncdu) but for rclone remotes. It is missing lots of features at the moment but is useful as it stands.

Note that it might take some time to delete big files/folders. The UI won't respond in the meantime since the deletion is done synchronously.

rclone ncdu remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for ncdu

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone obscure

Obscure password for use in the rclone.conf

Synopsis

Obscure password for use in the rclone.conf

rclone obscure password [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for obscure

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone rc

Run a command against a running rclone.

Synopsis

This runs a command against a running rclone. Use the -url flag to specify an non default URL to connect on. This can be either a ":port" which is taken to mean "http://localhost:port" or a "host:port" which is taken to mean "http://host:port"

A username and password can be passed in with -user and -pass.

Note that -rc-addr, -rc-user, -rc-pass will be read also for -url, -user, -pass.

Arguments should be passed in as parameter=value.

The result will be returned as a JSON object by default.

The -json parameter can be used to pass in a JSON blob as an input instead of key=value arguments. This is the only way of passing in more complicated values.

Use -loopback to connect to the rclone instance running "rclone rc". This is very useful for testing commands without having to run an rclone rc server, eg:

rclone rc --loopback operations/about fs=/

Use "rclone rc" to see a list of all possible commands.

rclone rc commands parameter [flags]

Options

  -h, --help          help for rc
      --json string   Input JSON - use instead of key=value args.
      --loopback      If set connect to this rclone instance not via HTTP.
      --no-output     If set don't output the JSON result.
      --pass string   Password to use to connect to rclone remote control.
      --url string    URL to connect to rclone remote control. (default "http://localhost:5572/")
      --user string   Username to use to rclone remote control.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone rcat

Copies standard input to file on remote.

Synopsis

rclone rcat reads from standard input (stdin) and copies it to a single remote file.

echo "hello world" | rclone rcat remote:path/to/file
ffmpeg - | rclone rcat remote:path/to/file

If the remote file already exists, it will be overwritten.

rcat will try to upload small files in a single request, which is usually more efficient than the streaming/chunked upload endpoints, which use multiple requests. Exact behaviour depends on the remote. What is considered a small file may be set through --streaming-upload-cutoff. Uploading only starts after the cutoff is reached or if the file ends before that. The data must fit into RAM. The cutoff needs to be small enough to adhere the limits of your remote, please see there. Generally speaking, setting this cutoff too high will decrease your performance.

Note that the upload can also not be retried because the data is not kept around until the upload succeeds. If you need to transfer a lot of data, you're better off caching locally and then rclone move it to the destination.

rclone rcat remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for rcat

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone rcd

Run rclone listening to remote control commands only.

Synopsis

This runs rclone so that it only listens to remote control commands.

This is useful if you are controlling rclone via the rc API.

If you pass in a path to a directory, rclone will serve that directory for GET requests on the URL passed in. It will also open the URL in the browser when rclone is run.

See the rc documentation (https://rclone.org/rc/) for more info on the rc flags.

rclone rcd <path to files to serve>* [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for rcd

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone rmdirs

Remove empty directories under the path.

Synopsis

This removes any empty directories (or directories that only contain empty directories) under the path that it finds, including the path if it has nothing in.

If you supply the -leave-root flag, it will not remove the root directory.

This is useful for tidying up remotes that rclone has left a lot of empty directories in.

rclone rmdirs remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help         help for rmdirs
      --leave-root   Do not remove root directory if empty

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone serve

Serve a remote over a protocol.

Synopsis

rclone serve is used to serve a remote over a given protocol. This command requires the use of a subcommand to specify the protocol, eg

rclone serve http remote:

Each subcommand has its own options which you can see in their help.

rclone serve <protocol> [opts] <remote> [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for serve

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.
rclone serve dlna (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_dlna/) - Serve remote:path over DLNA
rclone serve ftp (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_ftp/) - Serve remote:path over FTP.
rclone serve http (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_http/) - Serve the remote over HTTP.
rclone serve restic (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_restic/) - Serve the remote for restic's REST API.
rclone serve sftp (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_sftp/) - Serve the remote over SFTP.
rclone serve webdav (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve_webdav/) - Serve remote:path over webdav.

rclone serve dlna

Serve remote:path over DLNA

Synopsis

rclone serve dlna is a DLNA media server for media stored in a rclone remote. Many devices, such as the Xbox and PlayStation, can automatically discover this server in the LAN and play audio/video from it. VLC is also supported. Service discovery uses UDP multicast packets (SSDP) and will thus only work on LANs.

Rclone will list all files present in the remote, without filtering based on media formats or file extensions. Additionally, there is no media transcoding support. This means that some players might show files that they are not able to play back correctly.

Server options

Use -addr to specify which IP address and port the server should listen on, eg -addr 1.2.3.4:8000 or -addr :8080 to listen to all IPs.

Use -name to choose the friendly server name, which is by default "rclone (hostname)".

Use -log-trace in conjunction with -vv to enable additional debug logging of all UPNP traffic.

Directory Cache

Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can set how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made locally in the mount may appear immediately or invalidate the cache. However, changes done on the remote will only be picked up once the cache expires.

Alternatively, you can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:

kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)

If you configure rclone with a remote control (/rc) then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:

rclone rc vfs/forget

Or individual files or directories:

rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir

File Buffering

The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance.

Each open file descriptor will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one file descriptor and won't be shared between multiple open file descriptors of the same file.

This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per file descriptor. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used. The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files.

File Caching

These flags control the VFS file caching options. The VFS layer is used by rclone mount to make a cloud storage system work more like a normal file system.

You'll need to enable VFS caching if you want, for example, to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.

Note that the VFS cache works in addition to the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.

--cache-dir string                   Directory rclone will use for caching.
--vfs-cache-max-age duration         Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-mode string              Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default "off")
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration   Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size int             Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)

If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable.

The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space.

Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed so if rclone is quit or dies with open files then these won't get written back to the remote. However they will still be in the on disk cache.

If using -vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every -vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache.

-vfs-cache-mode off

In this mode the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.

This will mean some operations are not possible

Files can't be opened for both read AND write
Files opened for write can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only
Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied
Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored
If an upload fails it can't be retried

-vfs-cache-mode minimal

This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disks. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.

These operations are not possible

Files opened for write only can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC
If an upload fails it can't be retried

-vfs-cache-mode writes

In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload fails it will be retried up to -low-level-retries times.

-vfs-cache-mode full

In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When a file is opened for read it will be downloaded in its entirety first.

This may be appropriate for your needs, or you may prefer to look at the cache backend which does a much more sophisticated job of caching, including caching directory hierarchies and chunks of files.

In this mode, unlike the others, when a file is written to the disk, it will be kept on the disk after it is written to the remote. It will be purged on a schedule according to --vfs-cache-max-age.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload or download fails it will be retried up to -low-level-retries times.

rclone serve dlna remote:path [flags]

Options

      --addr string                            ip:port or :port to bind the DLNA http server to. (default ":7879")
      --dir-cache-time duration                Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
      --dir-perms FileMode                     Directory permissions (default 0777)
      --file-perms FileMode                    File permissions (default 0666)
      --gid uint32                             Override the gid field set by the filesystem. (default 1000)
  -h, --help                                   help for dlna
      --log-trace                              enable trace logging of SOAP traffic
      --name string                            name of DLNA server
      --no-checksum                            Don't compare checksums on up/download.
      --no-modtime                             Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
      --no-seek                                Don't allow seeking in files.
      --poll-interval duration                 Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)
      --read-only                              Mount read-only.
      --uid uint32                             Override the uid field set by the filesystem. (default 1000)
      --umask int                              Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. (default 2)
      --vfs-cache-max-age duration             Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
      --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix          Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
      --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode               Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
      --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration       Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
      --vfs-case-insensitive                   If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match.
      --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix         Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M)
      --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix   If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off)

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol.

rclone serve ftp

Serve remote:path over FTP.

Synopsis

rclone serve ftp implements a basic ftp server to serve the remote over FTP protocol. This can be viewed with a ftp client or you can make a remote of type ftp to read and write it.

Server options

Use -addr to specify which IP address and port the server should listen on, eg -addr 1.2.3.4:8000 or -addr :8080 to listen to all IPs. By default it only listens on localhost. You can use port :0 to let the OS choose an available port.

If you set -addr to listen on a public or LAN accessible IP address then using Authentication is advised - see the next section for info.

Authentication

By default this will serve files without needing a login.

You can set a single username and password with the -user and -pass flags.

Directory Cache

Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can set how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made locally in the mount may appear immediately or invalidate the cache. However, changes done on the remote will only be picked up once the cache expires.

Alternatively, you can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:

kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)

If you configure rclone with a remote control (/rc) then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:

rclone rc vfs/forget

Or individual files or directories:

rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir

File Buffering

The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance.

Each open file descriptor will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one file descriptor and won't be shared between multiple open file descriptors of the same file.

This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per file descriptor. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used. The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files.

File Caching

These flags control the VFS file caching options. The VFS layer is used by rclone mount to make a cloud storage system work more like a normal file system.

You'll need to enable VFS caching if you want, for example, to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.

Note that the VFS cache works in addition to the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.

--cache-dir string                   Directory rclone will use for caching.
--vfs-cache-max-age duration         Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-mode string              Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default "off")
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration   Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size int             Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)

If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable.

The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space.

Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed so if rclone is quit or dies with open files then these won't get written back to the remote. However they will still be in the on disk cache.

If using -vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every -vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache.

-vfs-cache-mode off

In this mode the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.

This will mean some operations are not possible

Files can't be opened for both read AND write
Files opened for write can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only
Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied
Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored
If an upload fails it can't be retried

-vfs-cache-mode minimal

This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disks. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.

These operations are not possible

Files opened for write only can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC
If an upload fails it can't be retried

-vfs-cache-mode writes

In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload fails it will be retried up to -low-level-retries times.

-vfs-cache-mode full

In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When a file is opened for read it will be downloaded in its entirety first.

This may be appropriate for your needs, or you may prefer to look at the cache backend which does a much more sophisticated job of caching, including caching directory hierarchies and chunks of files.

In this mode, unlike the others, when a file is written to the disk, it will be kept on the disk after it is written to the remote. It will be purged on a schedule according to --vfs-cache-max-age.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload or download fails it will be retried up to -low-level-retries times.

Auth Proxy

If you supply the parameter --auth-proxy /path/to/program then rclone will use that program to generate backends on the fly which then are used to authenticate incoming requests. This uses a simple JSON based protocl with input on STDIN and output on STDOUT.

There is an example program bin/test_proxy.py (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/blob/master/test_proxy.py) in the rclone source code.

The program's job is to take a user and pass on the input and turn those into the config for a backend on STDOUT in JSON format. This config will have any default parameters for the backend added, but it won't use configuration from environment variables or command line options - it is the job of the proxy program to make a complete config.

This config generated must have this extra parameter - _root - root to use for the backend

And it may have this parameter - _obscure - comma separated strings for parameters to obscure

For example the program might take this on STDIN

{
    "user": "me",
    "pass": "mypassword"
}

And return this on STDOUT

{
    "type": "sftp",
    "_root": "",
    "_obscure": "pass",
    "user": "me",
    "pass": "mypassword",
    "host": "sftp.example.com"
}

This would mean that an SFTP backend would be created on the fly for the user and pass returned in the output to the host given. Note that since _obscure is set to pass, rclone will obscure the pass parameter before creating the backend (which is required for sftp backends).

The progam can manipulate the supplied user in any way, for example to make proxy to many different sftp backends, you could make the user be user [at] example.com and then set the host to example.com in the output and the user to user. For security you'd probably want to restrict the host to a limited list.

Note that an internal cache is keyed on user so only use that for configuration, don't use pass. This also means that if a user's password is changed the cache will need to expire (which takes 5 mins) before it takes effect.

This can be used to build general purpose proxies to any kind of backend that rclone supports.

rclone serve ftp remote:path [flags]

Options

      --addr string                            IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:2121")
      --auth-proxy string                      A program to use to create the backend from the auth.
      --dir-cache-time duration                Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
      --dir-perms FileMode                     Directory permissions (default 0777)
      --file-perms FileMode                    File permissions (default 0666)
      --gid uint32                             Override the gid field set by the filesystem. (default 1000)
  -h, --help                                   help for ftp
      --no-checksum                            Don't compare checksums on up/download.
      --no-modtime                             Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
      --no-seek                                Don't allow seeking in files.
      --pass string                            Password for authentication. (empty value allow every password)
      --passive-port string                    Passive port range to use. (default "30000-32000")
      --poll-interval duration                 Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)
      --public-ip string                       Public IP address to advertise for passive connections.
      --read-only                              Mount read-only.
      --uid uint32                             Override the uid field set by the filesystem. (default 1000)
      --umask int                              Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. (default 2)
      --user string                            User name for authentication. (default "anonymous")
      --vfs-cache-max-age duration             Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
      --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix          Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
      --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode               Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
      --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration       Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
      --vfs-case-insensitive                   If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match.
      --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix         Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M)
      --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix   If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off)

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol.

rclone serve http

Serve the remote over HTTP.

Synopsis

rclone serve http implements a basic web server to serve the remote over HTTP. This can be viewed in a web browser or you can make a remote of type http read from it.

You can use the filter flags (eg -include, -exclude) to control what is served.

The server will log errors. Use -v to see access logs.

-bwlimit will be respected for file transfers. Use -stats to control the stats printing.

Server options

Use -addr to specify which IP address and port the server should listen on, eg -addr 1.2.3.4:8000 or -addr :8080 to listen to all IPs. By default it only listens on localhost. You can use port :0 to let the OS choose an available port.

If you set -addr to listen on a public or LAN accessible IP address then using Authentication is advised - see the next section for info.

-server-read-timeout and -server-write-timeout can be used to control the timeouts on the server. Note that this is the total time for a transfer.

-max-header-bytes controls the maximum number of bytes the server will accept in the HTTP header.

-baseurl controls the URL prefix that rclone serves from. By default rclone will serve from the root. If you used -baseurl "/rclone" then rclone would serve from a URL starting with "/rclone/". This is useful if you wish to proxy rclone serve. Rclone automatically inserts leading and trailing "/" on -baseurl, so -baseurl "rclone", -baseurl "/rclone" and -baseurl "/rclone/" are all treated identically.

Authentication

By default this will serve files without needing a login.

You can either use an htpasswd file which can take lots of users, or set a single username and password with the -user and -pass flags.

Use -htpasswd /path/to/htpasswd to provide an htpasswd file. This is in standard apache format and supports MD5, SHA1 and BCrypt for basic authentication. Bcrypt is recommended.

To create an htpasswd file:

touch htpasswd
htpasswd -B htpasswd user
htpasswd -B htpasswd anotherUser

The password file can be updated while rclone is running.

Use -realm to set the authentication realm.

SSL/TLS

By default this will serve over http. If you want you can serve over https. You will need to supply the -cert and -key flags. If you wish to do client side certificate validation then you will need to supply -client-ca also.

-cert should be a either a PEM encoded certificate or a concatenation of that with the CA certificate. -key should be the PEM encoded private key and -client-ca should be the PEM encoded client certificate authority certificate.

Directory Cache

Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can set how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made locally in the mount may appear immediately or invalidate the cache. However, changes done on the remote will only be picked up once the cache expires.

Alternatively, you can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:

kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)

If you configure rclone with a remote control (/rc) then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:

rclone rc vfs/forget

Or individual files or directories:

rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir

File Buffering

The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance.

Each open file descriptor will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one file descriptor and won't be shared between multiple open file descriptors of the same file.

This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per file descriptor. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used. The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files.

File Caching

These flags control the VFS file caching options. The VFS layer is used by rclone mount to make a cloud storage system work more like a normal file system.

You'll need to enable VFS caching if you want, for example, to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.

Note that the VFS cache works in addition to the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.

--cache-dir string                   Directory rclone will use for caching.
--vfs-cache-max-age duration         Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-mode string              Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default "off")
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration   Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size int             Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)

If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable.

The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space.

Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed so if rclone is quit or dies with open files then these won't get written back to the remote. However they will still be in the on disk cache.

If using -vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every -vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache.

-vfs-cache-mode off

In this mode the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.

This will mean some operations are not possible

Files can't be opened for both read AND write
Files opened for write can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only
Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied
Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored
If an upload fails it can't be retried

-vfs-cache-mode minimal

This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disks. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.

These operations are not possible

Files opened for write only can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC
If an upload fails it can't be retried

-vfs-cache-mode writes

In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload fails it will be retried up to -low-level-retries times.

-vfs-cache-mode full

In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When a file is opened for read it will be downloaded in its entirety first.

This may be appropriate for your needs, or you may prefer to look at the cache backend which does a much more sophisticated job of caching, including caching directory hierarchies and chunks of files.

In this mode, unlike the others, when a file is written to the disk, it will be kept on the disk after it is written to the remote. It will be purged on a schedule according to --vfs-cache-max-age.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload or download fails it will be retried up to -low-level-retries times.

rclone serve http remote:path [flags]

Options

      --addr string                            IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:8080")
      --baseurl string                         Prefix for URLs - leave blank for root.
      --cert string                            SSL PEM key (concatenation of certificate and CA certificate)
      --client-ca string                       Client certificate authority to verify clients with
      --dir-cache-time duration                Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
      --dir-perms FileMode                     Directory permissions (default 0777)
      --file-perms FileMode                    File permissions (default 0666)
      --gid uint32                             Override the gid field set by the filesystem. (default 1000)
  -h, --help                                   help for http
      --htpasswd string                        htpasswd file - if not provided no authentication is done
      --key string                             SSL PEM Private key
      --max-header-bytes int                   Maximum size of request header (default 4096)
      --no-checksum                            Don't compare checksums on up/download.
      --no-modtime                             Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
      --no-seek                                Don't allow seeking in files.
      --pass string                            Password for authentication.
      --poll-interval duration                 Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)
      --read-only                              Mount read-only.
      --realm string                           realm for authentication (default "rclone")
      --server-read-timeout duration           Timeout for server reading data (default 1h0m0s)
      --server-write-timeout duration          Timeout for server writing data (default 1h0m0s)
      --uid uint32                             Override the uid field set by the filesystem. (default 1000)
      --umask int                              Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. (default 2)
      --user string                            User name for authentication.
      --vfs-cache-max-age duration             Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
      --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix          Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
      --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode               Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
      --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration       Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
      --vfs-case-insensitive                   If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match.
      --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix         Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M)
      --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix   If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off)

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol.

rclone serve restic

Serve the remote for restic's REST API.

Synopsis

rclone serve restic implements restic's REST backend API over HTTP. This allows restic to use rclone as a data storage mechanism for cloud providers that restic does not support directly.

Restic (https://restic.net/) is a command line program for doing backups.

The server will log errors. Use -v to see access logs.

-bwlimit will be respected for file transfers. Use -stats to control the stats printing.

Setting up rclone for use by restic

First set up a remote for your chosen cloud provider (/docs/#configure).

Once you have set up the remote, check it is working with, for example "rclone lsd remote:". You may have called the remote something other than "remote:" - just substitute whatever you called it in the following instructions.

Now start the rclone restic server

rclone serve restic -v remote:backup

Where you can replace "backup" in the above by whatever path in the remote you wish to use.

By default this will serve on "localhost:8080" you can change this with use of the "-addr" flag.

You might wish to start this server on boot.

Setting up restic to use rclone

Now you can follow the restic instructions (http://restic.readthedocs.io/en/latest/030_preparing_a_new_repo.html#rest-server) on setting up restic.

Note that you will need restic 0.8.2 or later to interoperate with rclone.

For the example above you will want to use "http://localhost:8080/" as the URL for the REST server.

For example:

$ export RESTIC_REPOSITORY=rest:http://localhost:8080/
$ export RESTIC_PASSWORD=yourpassword
$ restic init
created restic backend 8b1a4b56ae at rest:http://localhost:8080/

Please note that knowledge of your password is required to access
the repository. Losing your password means that your data is
irrecoverably lost.
$ restic backup /path/to/files/to/backup
scan [/path/to/files/to/backup]
scanned 189 directories, 312 files in 0:00
[0:00] 100.00%  38.128 MiB / 38.128 MiB  501 / 501 items  0 errors  ETA 0:00
duration: 0:00
snapshot 45c8fdd8 saved

Multiple repositories

Note that you can use the endpoint to host multiple repositories. Do this by adding a directory name or path after the URL. Note that these must end with /. Eg

$ export RESTIC_REPOSITORY=rest:http://localhost:8080/user1repo/
# backup user1 stuff
$ export RESTIC_REPOSITORY=rest:http://localhost:8080/user2repo/
# backup user2 stuff

Private repositories

The "-private-repos" flag can be used to limit users to repositories starting with a path of "//".

Server options

Use -addr to specify which IP address and port the server should listen on, eg -addr 1.2.3.4:8000 or -addr :8080 to listen to all IPs. By default it only listens on localhost. You can use port :0 to let the OS choose an available port.

If you set -addr to listen on a public or LAN accessible IP address then using Authentication is advised - see the next section for info.

-server-read-timeout and -server-write-timeout can be used to control the timeouts on the server. Note that this is the total time for a transfer.

-max-header-bytes controls the maximum number of bytes the server will accept in the HTTP header.

-baseurl controls the URL prefix that rclone serves from. By default rclone will serve from the root. If you used -baseurl "/rclone" then rclone would serve from a URL starting with "/rclone/". This is useful if you wish to proxy rclone serve. Rclone automatically inserts leading and trailing "/" on -baseurl, so -baseurl "rclone", -baseurl "/rclone" and -baseurl "/rclone/" are all treated identically.

Authentication

By default this will serve files without needing a login.

You can either use an htpasswd file which can take lots of users, or set a single username and password with the -user and -pass flags.

Use -htpasswd /path/to/htpasswd to provide an htpasswd file. This is in standard apache format and supports MD5, SHA1 and BCrypt for basic authentication. Bcrypt is recommended.

To create an htpasswd file:

touch htpasswd
htpasswd -B htpasswd user
htpasswd -B htpasswd anotherUser

The password file can be updated while rclone is running.

Use -realm to set the authentication realm.

SSL/TLS

By default this will serve over http. If you want you can serve over https. You will need to supply the -cert and -key flags. If you wish to do client side certificate validation then you will need to supply -client-ca also.

-cert should be a either a PEM encoded certificate or a concatenation of that with the CA certificate. -key should be the PEM encoded private key and -client-ca should be the PEM encoded client certificate authority certificate.

rclone serve restic remote:path [flags]

Options

      --addr string                     IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:8080")
      --append-only                     disallow deletion of repository data
      --baseurl string                  Prefix for URLs - leave blank for root.
      --cert string                     SSL PEM key (concatenation of certificate and CA certificate)
      --client-ca string                Client certificate authority to verify clients with
  -h, --help                            help for restic
      --htpasswd string                 htpasswd file - if not provided no authentication is done
      --key string                      SSL PEM Private key
      --max-header-bytes int            Maximum size of request header (default 4096)
      --pass string                     Password for authentication.
      --private-repos                   users can only access their private repo
      --realm string                    realm for authentication (default "rclone")
      --server-read-timeout duration    Timeout for server reading data (default 1h0m0s)
      --server-write-timeout duration   Timeout for server writing data (default 1h0m0s)
      --stdio                           run an HTTP2 server on stdin/stdout
      --user string                     User name for authentication.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol.

rclone serve sftp

Serve the remote over SFTP.

Synopsis

rclone serve sftp implements an SFTP server to serve the remote over SFTP. This can be used with an SFTP client or you can make a remote of type sftp to use with it.

You can use the filter flags (eg -include, -exclude) to control what is served.

The server will log errors. Use -v to see access logs.

-bwlimit will be respected for file transfers. Use -stats to control the stats printing.

You must provide some means of authentication, either with -user/-pass, an authorized keys file (specify location with -authorized-keys - the default is the same as ssh) or set the -no-auth flag for no authentication when logging in.

Note that this also implements a small number of shell commands so that it can provide md5sum/sha1sum/df information for the rclone sftp backend. This means that is can support SHA1SUMs, MD5SUMs and the about command when paired with the rclone sftp backend.

If you don't supply a -key then rclone will generate one and cache it for later use.

By default the server binds to localhost:2022 - if you want it to be reachable externally then supply "-addr :2022" for example.

Note that the default of "-vfs-cache-mode off" is fine for the rclone sftp backend, but it may not be with other SFTP clients.

Directory Cache

Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can set how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made locally in the mount may appear immediately or invalidate the cache. However, changes done on the remote will only be picked up once the cache expires.

Alternatively, you can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:

kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)

If you configure rclone with a remote control (/rc) then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:

rclone rc vfs/forget

Or individual files or directories:

rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir

File Buffering

The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance.

Each open file descriptor will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one file descriptor and won't be shared between multiple open file descriptors of the same file.

This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per file descriptor. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used. The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files.

File Caching

These flags control the VFS file caching options. The VFS layer is used by rclone mount to make a cloud storage system work more like a normal file system.

You'll need to enable VFS caching if you want, for example, to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.

Note that the VFS cache works in addition to the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.

--cache-dir string                   Directory rclone will use for caching.
--vfs-cache-max-age duration         Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-mode string              Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default "off")
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration   Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size int             Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)

If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable.

The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space.

Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed so if rclone is quit or dies with open files then these won't get written back to the remote. However they will still be in the on disk cache.

If using -vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every -vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache.

-vfs-cache-mode off

In this mode the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.

This will mean some operations are not possible

Files can't be opened for both read AND write
Files opened for write can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only
Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied
Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored
If an upload fails it can't be retried

-vfs-cache-mode minimal

This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disks. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.

These operations are not possible

Files opened for write only can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC
If an upload fails it can't be retried

-vfs-cache-mode writes

In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload fails it will be retried up to -low-level-retries times.

-vfs-cache-mode full

In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When a file is opened for read it will be downloaded in its entirety first.

This may be appropriate for your needs, or you may prefer to look at the cache backend which does a much more sophisticated job of caching, including caching directory hierarchies and chunks of files.

In this mode, unlike the others, when a file is written to the disk, it will be kept on the disk after it is written to the remote. It will be purged on a schedule according to --vfs-cache-max-age.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload or download fails it will be retried up to -low-level-retries times.

Auth Proxy

If you supply the parameter --auth-proxy /path/to/program then rclone will use that program to generate backends on the fly which then are used to authenticate incoming requests. This uses a simple JSON based protocl with input on STDIN and output on STDOUT.

There is an example program bin/test_proxy.py (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/blob/master/test_proxy.py) in the rclone source code.

The program's job is to take a user and pass on the input and turn those into the config for a backend on STDOUT in JSON format. This config will have any default parameters for the backend added, but it won't use configuration from environment variables or command line options - it is the job of the proxy program to make a complete config.

This config generated must have this extra parameter - _root - root to use for the backend

And it may have this parameter - _obscure - comma separated strings for parameters to obscure

For example the program might take this on STDIN

{
    "user": "me",
    "pass": "mypassword"
}

And return this on STDOUT

{
    "type": "sftp",
    "_root": "",
    "_obscure": "pass",
    "user": "me",
    "pass": "mypassword",
    "host": "sftp.example.com"
}

This would mean that an SFTP backend would be created on the fly for the user and pass returned in the output to the host given. Note that since _obscure is set to pass, rclone will obscure the pass parameter before creating the backend (which is required for sftp backends).

The progam can manipulate the supplied user in any way, for example to make proxy to many different sftp backends, you could make the user be user [at] example.com and then set the host to example.com in the output and the user to user. For security you'd probably want to restrict the host to a limited list.

Note that an internal cache is keyed on user so only use that for configuration, don't use pass. This also means that if a user's password is changed the cache will need to expire (which takes 5 mins) before it takes effect.

This can be used to build general purpose proxies to any kind of backend that rclone supports.

rclone serve sftp remote:path [flags]

Options

      --addr string                            IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:2022")
      --auth-proxy string                      A program to use to create the backend from the auth.
      --authorized-keys string                 Authorized keys file (default "~/.ssh/authorized_keys")
      --dir-cache-time duration                Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
      --dir-perms FileMode                     Directory permissions (default 0777)
      --file-perms FileMode                    File permissions (default 0666)
      --gid uint32                             Override the gid field set by the filesystem. (default 1000)
  -h, --help                                   help for sftp
      --key string                             SSH private key file (leave blank to auto generate)
      --no-auth                                Allow connections with no authentication if set.
      --no-checksum                            Don't compare checksums on up/download.
      --no-modtime                             Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
      --no-seek                                Don't allow seeking in files.
      --pass string                            Password for authentication.
      --poll-interval duration                 Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)
      --read-only                              Mount read-only.
      --uid uint32                             Override the uid field set by the filesystem. (default 1000)
      --umask int                              Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. (default 2)
      --user string                            User name for authentication.
      --vfs-cache-max-age duration             Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
      --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix          Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
      --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode               Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
      --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration       Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
      --vfs-case-insensitive                   If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match.
      --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix         Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M)
      --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix   If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off)

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol.

rclone serve webdav

Serve remote:path over webdav.

Synopsis

rclone serve webdav implements a basic webdav server to serve the remote over HTTP via the webdav protocol. This can be viewed with a webdav client, through a web browser, or you can make a remote of type webdav to read and write it.

Webdav options

-etag-hash

This controls the ETag header. Without this flag the ETag will be based on the ModTime and Size of the object.

If this flag is set to "auto" then rclone will choose the first supported hash on the backend or you can use a named hash such as "MD5" or "SHA-1".

Use "rclone hashsum" to see the full list.

Server options

Use -addr to specify which IP address and port the server should listen on, eg -addr 1.2.3.4:8000 or -addr :8080 to listen to all IPs. By default it only listens on localhost. You can use port :0 to let the OS choose an available port.

If you set -addr to listen on a public or LAN accessible IP address then using Authentication is advised - see the next section for info.

-server-read-timeout and -server-write-timeout can be used to control the timeouts on the server. Note that this is the total time for a transfer.

-max-header-bytes controls the maximum number of bytes the server will accept in the HTTP header.

-baseurl controls the URL prefix that rclone serves from. By default rclone will serve from the root. If you used -baseurl "/rclone" then rclone would serve from a URL starting with "/rclone/". This is useful if you wish to proxy rclone serve. Rclone automatically inserts leading and trailing "/" on -baseurl, so -baseurl "rclone", -baseurl "/rclone" and -baseurl "/rclone/" are all treated identically.

Authentication

By default this will serve files without needing a login.

You can either use an htpasswd file which can take lots of users, or set a single username and password with the -user and -pass flags.

Use -htpasswd /path/to/htpasswd to provide an htpasswd file. This is in standard apache format and supports MD5, SHA1 and BCrypt for basic authentication. Bcrypt is recommended.

To create an htpasswd file:

touch htpasswd
htpasswd -B htpasswd user
htpasswd -B htpasswd anotherUser

The password file can be updated while rclone is running.

Use -realm to set the authentication realm.

SSL/TLS

By default this will serve over http. If you want you can serve over https. You will need to supply the -cert and -key flags. If you wish to do client side certificate validation then you will need to supply -client-ca also.

-cert should be a either a PEM encoded certificate or a concatenation of that with the CA certificate. -key should be the PEM encoded private key and -client-ca should be the PEM encoded client certificate authority certificate.

Directory Cache

Using the --dir-cache-time flag, you can set how long a directory should be considered up to date and not refreshed from the backend. Changes made locally in the mount may appear immediately or invalidate the cache. However, changes done on the remote will only be picked up once the cache expires.

Alternatively, you can send a SIGHUP signal to rclone for it to flush all directory caches, regardless of how old they are. Assuming only one rclone instance is running, you can reset the cache like this:

kill -SIGHUP $(pidof rclone)

If you configure rclone with a remote control (/rc) then you can use rclone rc to flush the whole directory cache:

rclone rc vfs/forget

Or individual files or directories:

rclone rc vfs/forget file=path/to/file dir=path/to/dir

File Buffering

The --buffer-size flag determines the amount of memory, that will be used to buffer data in advance.

Each open file descriptor will try to keep the specified amount of data in memory at all times. The buffered data is bound to one file descriptor and won't be shared between multiple open file descriptors of the same file.

This flag is a upper limit for the used memory per file descriptor. The buffer will only use memory for data that is downloaded but not not yet read. If the buffer is empty, only a small amount of memory will be used. The maximum memory used by rclone for buffering can be up to --buffer-size * open files.

File Caching

These flags control the VFS file caching options. The VFS layer is used by rclone mount to make a cloud storage system work more like a normal file system.

You'll need to enable VFS caching if you want, for example, to read and write simultaneously to a file. See below for more details.

Note that the VFS cache works in addition to the cache backend and you may find that you need one or the other or both.

--cache-dir string                   Directory rclone will use for caching.
--vfs-cache-max-age duration         Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
--vfs-cache-mode string              Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default "off")
--vfs-cache-poll-interval duration   Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
--vfs-cache-max-size int             Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)

If run with -vv rclone will print the location of the file cache. The files are stored in the user cache file area which is OS dependent but can be controlled with --cache-dir or setting the appropriate environment variable.

The cache has 4 different modes selected by --vfs-cache-mode. The higher the cache mode the more compatible rclone becomes at the cost of using disk space.

Note that files are written back to the remote only when they are closed so if rclone is quit or dies with open files then these won't get written back to the remote. However they will still be in the on disk cache.

If using -vfs-cache-max-size note that the cache may exceed this size for two reasons. Firstly because it is only checked every -vfs-cache-poll-interval. Secondly because open files cannot be evicted from the cache.

-vfs-cache-mode off

In this mode the cache will read directly from the remote and write directly to the remote without caching anything on disk.

This will mean some operations are not possible

Files can't be opened for both read AND write
Files opened for write can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files open for read with O_TRUNC will be opened write only
Files open for write only will behave as if O_TRUNC was supplied
Open modes O_APPEND, O_TRUNC are ignored
If an upload fails it can't be retried

-vfs-cache-mode minimal

This is very similar to "off" except that files opened for read AND write will be buffered to disks. This means that files opened for write will be a lot more compatible, but uses the minimal disk space.

These operations are not possible

Files opened for write only can't be seeked
Existing files opened for write must have O_TRUNC set
Files opened for write only will ignore O_APPEND, O_TRUNC
If an upload fails it can't be retried

-vfs-cache-mode writes

In this mode files opened for read only are still read directly from the remote, write only and read/write files are buffered to disk first.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload fails it will be retried up to -low-level-retries times.

-vfs-cache-mode full

In this mode all reads and writes are buffered to and from disk. When a file is opened for read it will be downloaded in its entirety first.

This may be appropriate for your needs, or you may prefer to look at the cache backend which does a much more sophisticated job of caching, including caching directory hierarchies and chunks of files.

In this mode, unlike the others, when a file is written to the disk, it will be kept on the disk after it is written to the remote. It will be purged on a schedule according to --vfs-cache-max-age.

This mode should support all normal file system operations.

If an upload or download fails it will be retried up to -low-level-retries times.

Auth Proxy

If you supply the parameter --auth-proxy /path/to/program then rclone will use that program to generate backends on the fly which then are used to authenticate incoming requests. This uses a simple JSON based protocl with input on STDIN and output on STDOUT.

There is an example program bin/test_proxy.py (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/blob/master/test_proxy.py) in the rclone source code.

The program's job is to take a user and pass on the input and turn those into the config for a backend on STDOUT in JSON format. This config will have any default parameters for the backend added, but it won't use configuration from environment variables or command line options - it is the job of the proxy program to make a complete config.

This config generated must have this extra parameter - _root - root to use for the backend

And it may have this parameter - _obscure - comma separated strings for parameters to obscure

For example the program might take this on STDIN

{
    "user": "me",
    "pass": "mypassword"
}

And return this on STDOUT

{
    "type": "sftp",
    "_root": "",
    "_obscure": "pass",
    "user": "me",
    "pass": "mypassword",
    "host": "sftp.example.com"
}

This would mean that an SFTP backend would be created on the fly for the user and pass returned in the output to the host given. Note that since _obscure is set to pass, rclone will obscure the pass parameter before creating the backend (which is required for sftp backends).

The progam can manipulate the supplied user in any way, for example to make proxy to many different sftp backends, you could make the user be user [at] example.com and then set the host to example.com in the output and the user to user. For security you'd probably want to restrict the host to a limited list.

Note that an internal cache is keyed on user so only use that for configuration, don't use pass. This also means that if a user's password is changed the cache will need to expire (which takes 5 mins) before it takes effect.

This can be used to build general purpose proxies to any kind of backend that rclone supports.

rclone serve webdav remote:path [flags]

Options

      --addr string                            IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:8080")
      --auth-proxy string                      A program to use to create the backend from the auth.
      --baseurl string                         Prefix for URLs - leave blank for root.
      --cert string                            SSL PEM key (concatenation of certificate and CA certificate)
      --client-ca string                       Client certificate authority to verify clients with
      --dir-cache-time duration                Time to cache directory entries for. (default 5m0s)
      --dir-perms FileMode                     Directory permissions (default 0777)
      --disable-dir-list                       Disable HTML directory list on GET request for a directory
      --etag-hash string                       Which hash to use for the ETag, or auto or blank for off
      --file-perms FileMode                    File permissions (default 0666)
      --gid uint32                             Override the gid field set by the filesystem. (default 1000)
  -h, --help                                   help for webdav
      --htpasswd string                        htpasswd file - if not provided no authentication is done
      --key string                             SSL PEM Private key
      --max-header-bytes int                   Maximum size of request header (default 4096)
      --no-checksum                            Don't compare checksums on up/download.
      --no-modtime                             Don't read/write the modification time (can speed things up).
      --no-seek                                Don't allow seeking in files.
      --pass string                            Password for authentication.
      --poll-interval duration                 Time to wait between polling for changes. Must be smaller than dir-cache-time. Only on supported remotes. Set to 0 to disable. (default 1m0s)
      --read-only                              Mount read-only.
      --realm string                           realm for authentication (default "rclone")
      --server-read-timeout duration           Timeout for server reading data (default 1h0m0s)
      --server-write-timeout duration          Timeout for server writing data (default 1h0m0s)
      --uid uint32                             Override the uid field set by the filesystem. (default 1000)
      --umask int                              Override the permission bits set by the filesystem. (default 2)
      --user string                            User name for authentication.
      --vfs-cache-max-age duration             Max age of objects in the cache. (default 1h0m0s)
      --vfs-cache-max-size SizeSuffix          Max total size of objects in the cache. (default off)
      --vfs-cache-mode CacheMode               Cache mode off|minimal|writes|full (default off)
      --vfs-cache-poll-interval duration       Interval to poll the cache for stale objects. (default 1m0s)
      --vfs-case-insensitive                   If a file name not found, find a case insensitive match.
      --vfs-read-chunk-size SizeSuffix         Read the source objects in chunks. (default 128M)
      --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit SizeSuffix   If greater than --vfs-read-chunk-size, double the chunk size after each chunk read, until the limit is reached. 'off' is unlimited. (default off)

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone serve (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_serve/) - Serve a remote over a protocol.

rclone settier

Changes storage class/tier of objects in remote.

Synopsis

rclone settier changes storage tier or class at remote if supported. Few cloud storage services provides different storage classes on objects, for example AWS S3 and Glacier, Azure Blob storage - Hot, Cool and Archive, Google Cloud Storage, Regional Storage, Nearline, Coldline etc.

Note that, certain tier changes make objects not available to access immediately. For example tiering to archive in azure blob storage makes objects in frozen state, user can restore by setting tier to Hot/Cool, similarly S3 to Glacier makes object inaccessible.true

You can use it to tier single object

rclone settier Cool remote:path/file

Or use rclone filters to set tier on only specific files

rclone --include "*.txt" settier Hot remote:path/dir

Or just provide remote directory and all files in directory will be tiered

rclone settier tier remote:path/dir
rclone settier tier remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help   help for settier

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone touch

Create new file or change file modification time.

Synopsis

Create new file or change file modification time.

rclone touch remote:path [flags]

Options

  -h, --help               help for touch
  -C, --no-create          Do not create the file if it does not exist.
  -t, --timestamp string   Change the modification times to the specified time instead of the current time of day. The argument is of the form 'YYMMDD' (ex. 17.10.30) or 'YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS' (ex. 2006-01-02T15:04:05)

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

rclone tree

List the contents of the remote in a tree like fashion.

Synopsis

rclone tree lists the contents of a remote in a similar way to the unix tree command.

For example

$ rclone tree remote:path
/
1C0000 file1
1C0000 file2
1C0000 file3
140000 subdir
    1C0000 file4
    140000 file5

1 directories, 5 files

You can use any of the filtering options with the tree command (eg -include and -exclude). You can also use -fast-list.

The tree command has many options for controlling the listing which are compatible with the tree command. Note that not all of them have short options as they conflict with rclone's short options.

rclone tree remote:path [flags]

Options

  -a, --all             All files are listed (list . files too).
  -C, --color           Turn colorization on always.
  -d, --dirs-only       List directories only.
      --dirsfirst       List directories before files (-U disables).
      --full-path       Print the full path prefix for each file.
  -h, --help            help for tree
      --human           Print the size in a more human readable way.
      --level int       Descend only level directories deep.
  -D, --modtime         Print the date of last modification.
  -i, --noindent        Don't print indentation lines.
      --noreport        Turn off file/directory count at end of tree listing.
  -o, --output string   Output to file instead of stdout.
  -p, --protections     Print the protections for each file.
  -Q, --quote           Quote filenames with double quotes.
  -s, --size            Print the size in bytes of each file.
      --sort string     Select sort: name,version,size,mtime,ctime.
      --sort-ctime      Sort files by last status change time.
  -t, --sort-modtime    Sort files by last modification time.
  -r, --sort-reverse    Reverse the order of the sort.
  -U, --unsorted        Leave files unsorted.
      --version         Sort files alphanumerically by version.

See the global flags page (https://rclone.org/flags/) for global options not listed here.

SEE ALSO

rclone (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone/) - Show help for rclone commands, flags and backends.

Copying single files

rclone normally syncs or copies directories. However, if the source remote points to a file, rclone will just copy that file. The destination remote must point to a directory - rclone will give the error Failed to create file system for "remote:file": is a file not a directory if it isn't.

For example, suppose you have a remote with a file in called test.jpg, then you could copy just that file like this

rclone copy remote:test.jpg /tmp/download

The file test.jpg will be placed inside /tmp/download.

This is equivalent to specifying

rclone copy --files-from /tmp/files remote: /tmp/download

Where /tmp/files contains the single line

test.jpg

It is recommended to use copy when copying individual files, not sync. They have pretty much the same effect but copy will use a lot less memory.

Syntax of remote paths

The syntax of the paths passed to the rclone command are as follows.

/path/to/dir

This refers to the local file system.

On Windows only \ may be used instead of / in local paths only, non local paths must use /.

These paths needn't start with a leading / - if they don't then they will be relative to the current directory.

remote:path/to/dir

This refers to a directory path/to/dir on remote: as defined in the config file (configured with rclone config).

remote:/path/to/dir

On most backends this is refers to the same directory as remote:path/to/dir and that format should be preferred. On a very small number of remotes (FTP, SFTP, Dropbox for business) this will refer to a different directory. On these, paths without a leading / will refer to your "home" directory and paths with a leading / will refer to the root.

:backend:path/to/dir

This is an advanced form for creating remotes on the fly. backend should be the name or prefix of a backend (the type in the config file) and all the configuration for the backend should be provided on the command line (or in environment variables).

Here are some examples:

rclone lsd --http-url https://pub.rclone.org :http:

To list all the directories in the root of https://pub.rclone.org/.

rclone lsf --http-url https://example.com :http:path/to/dir

To list files and directories in https://example.com/path/to/dir/

rclone copy --http-url https://example.com :http:path/to/dir /tmp/dir

To copy files and directories in https://example.com/path/to/dir to /tmp/dir.

rclone copy --sftp-host example.com :sftp:path/to/dir /tmp/dir

To copy files and directories from example.com in the relative directory path/to/dir to /tmp/dir using sftp.

Quoting and the shell

When you are typing commands to your computer you are using something called the command line shell. This interprets various characters in an OS specific way.

Here are some gotchas which may help users unfamiliar with the shell rules

Linux / OSX

If your names have spaces or shell metacharacters (eg *, ?, $, ', " etc) then you must quote them. Use single quotes ' by default.

rclone copy 'Important files?' remote:backup

If you want to send a ' you will need to use ", eg

rclone copy "O'Reilly Reviews" remote:backup

The rules for quoting metacharacters are complicated and if you want the full details you'll have to consult the manual page for your shell.

Windows

If your names have spaces in you need to put them in ", eg

rclone copy "E:\folder name\folder name\folder name" remote:backup

If you are using the root directory on its own then don't quote it (see #464 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/464) for why), eg

rclone copy E:\ remote:backup

Copying files or directories with : in the names

rclone uses : to mark a remote name. This is, however, a valid filename component in non-Windows OSes. The remote name parser will only search for a : up to the first / so if you need to act on a file or directory like this then use the full path starting with a /, or use ./ as a current directory prefix.

So to sync a directory called sync:me to a remote called remote: use

rclone sync ./sync:me remote:path

or

rclone sync /full/path/to/sync:me remote:path

Server Side Copy

Most remotes (but not all - see the overview (/overview/#optional-features)) support server side copy.

This means if you want to copy one folder to another then rclone won't download all the files and re-upload them; it will instruct the server to copy them in place.

Eg

rclone copy s3:oldbucket s3:newbucket

Will copy the contents of oldbucket to newbucket without downloading and re-uploading.

Remotes which don't support server side copy will download and re-upload in this case.

Server side copies are used with sync and copy and will be identified in the log when using the -v flag. The move command may also use them if remote doesn't support server side move directly. This is done by issuing a server side copy then a delete which is much quicker than a download and re-upload.

Server side copies will only be attempted if the remote names are the same.

This can be used when scripting to make aged backups efficiently, eg

rclone sync remote:current-backup remote:previous-backup
rclone sync /path/to/files remote:current-backup

Options

Rclone has a number of options to control its behaviour.

Options that take parameters can have the values passed in two ways, --option=value or --option value. However boolean (true/false) options behave slightly differently to the other options in that --boolean sets the option to true and the absence of the flag sets it to false. It is also possible to specify --boolean=false or --boolean=true. Note that --boolean false is not valid - this is parsed as --boolean and the false is parsed as an extra command line argument for rclone.

Options which use TIME use the go time parser. A duration string is a possibly signed sequence of decimal numbers, each with optional fraction and a unit suffix, such as "300ms", "-1.5h" or "2h45m". Valid time units are "ns", "us" (or "µs"), "ms", "s", "m", "h".

Options which use SIZE use kByte by default. However, a suffix of b for bytes, k for kBytes, M for MBytes, G for GBytes, T for TBytes and P for PBytes may be used. These are the binary units, eg 1, 2**10, 2**20, 2**30 respectively.

-backup-dir=DIR

When using sync, copy or move any files which would have been overwritten or deleted are moved in their original hierarchy into this directory.

If --suffix is set, then the moved files will have the suffix added to them. If there is a file with the same path (after the suffix has been added) in DIR, then it will be overwritten.

The remote in use must support server side move or copy and you must use the same remote as the destination of the sync. The backup directory must not overlap the destination directory.

For example

rclone sync /path/to/local remote:current --backup-dir remote:old

will sync /path/to/local to remote:current, but for any files which would have been updated or deleted will be stored in remote:old.

If running rclone from a script you might want to use today's date as the directory name passed to --backup-dir to store the old files, or you might want to pass --suffix with today's date.

See --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

-bind string

Local address to bind to for outgoing connections. This can be an IPv4 address (1.2.3.4), an IPv6 address (1234::789A) or host name. If the host name doesn't resolve or resolves to more than one IP address it will give an error.

-bwlimit=BANDWIDTH_SPEC

This option controls the bandwidth limit. Limits can be specified in two ways: As a single limit, or as a timetable.

Single limits last for the duration of the session. To use a single limit, specify the desired bandwidth in kBytes/s, or use a suffix b|k|M|G. The default is 0 which means to not limit bandwidth.

For example, to limit bandwidth usage to 10 MBytes/s use --bwlimit 10M

It is also possible to specify a "timetable" of limits, which will cause certain limits to be applied at certain times. To specify a timetable, format your entries as "WEEKDAY-HH:MM,BANDWIDTH WEEKDAY-HH:MM,BANDWIDTH..." where: WEEKDAY is optional element. It could be written as whole world or only using 3 first characters. HH:MM is an hour from 00:00 to 23:59.

An example of a typical timetable to avoid link saturation during daytime working hours could be:

--bwlimit "08:00,512 12:00,10M 13:00,512 18:00,30M 23:00,off"

In this example, the transfer bandwidth will be every day set to 512kBytes/sec at 8am. At noon, it will raise to 10Mbytes/s, and drop back to 512kBytes/sec at 1pm. At 6pm, the bandwidth limit will be set to 30MBytes/s, and at 11pm it will be completely disabled (full speed). Anything between 11pm and 8am will remain unlimited.

An example of timetable with WEEKDAY could be:

--bwlimit "Mon-00:00,512 Fri-23:59,10M Sat-10:00,1M Sun-20:00,off"

It mean that, the transfer bandwidth will be set to 512kBytes/sec on Monday. It will raise to 10Mbytes/s before the end of Friday. At 10:00 on Sunday it will be set to 1Mbyte/s. From 20:00 at Sunday will be unlimited.

Timeslots without weekday are extended to whole week. So this one example:

--bwlimit "Mon-00:00,512 12:00,1M Sun-20:00,off"

Is equal to this:

--bwlimit "Mon-00:00,512Mon-12:00,1M Tue-12:00,1M Wed-12:00,1M Thu-12:00,1M Fri-12:00,1M Sat-12:00,1M Sun-12:00,1M Sun-20:00,off"

Bandwidth limits only apply to the data transfer. They don't apply to the bandwidth of the directory listings etc.

Note that the units are Bytes/s, not Bits/s. Typically connections are measured in Bits/s - to convert divide by 8. For example, let's say you have a 10 Mbit/s connection and you wish rclone to use half of it - 5 Mbit/s. This is 5/8 = 0.625MByte/s so you would use a --bwlimit 0.625M parameter for rclone.

On Unix systems (Linux, MacOS, ...) the bandwidth limiter can be toggled by sending a SIGUSR2 signal to rclone. This allows to remove the limitations of a long running rclone transfer and to restore it back to the value specified with --bwlimit quickly when needed. Assuming there is only one rclone instance running, you can toggle the limiter like this:

kill -SIGUSR2 $(pidof rclone)

If you configure rclone with a remote control (/rc) then you can use change the bwlimit dynamically:

rclone rc core/bwlimit rate=1M

-buffer-size=SIZE

Use this sized buffer to speed up file transfers. Each --transfer will use this much memory for buffering.

When using mount or cmount each open file descriptor will use this much memory for buffering. See the mount (/commands/rclone_mount/#file-buffering) documentation for more details.

Set to 0 to disable the buffering for the minimum memory usage.

Note that the memory allocation of the buffers is influenced by the -use-mmap flag.

-checkers=N

The number of checkers to run in parallel. Checkers do the equality checking of files during a sync. For some storage systems (eg S3, Swift, Dropbox) this can take a significant amount of time so they are run in parallel.

The default is to run 8 checkers in parallel.

-c, -checksum

Normally rclone will look at modification time and size of files to see if they are equal. If you set this flag then rclone will check the file hash and size to determine if files are equal.

This is useful when the remote doesn't support setting modified time and a more accurate sync is desired than just checking the file size.

This is very useful when transferring between remotes which store the same hash type on the object, eg Drive and Swift. For details of which remotes support which hash type see the table in the overview section (https://rclone.org/overview/).

Eg rclone --checksum sync s3:/bucket swift:/bucket would run much quicker than without the --checksum flag.

When using this flag, rclone won't update mtimes of remote files if they are incorrect as it would normally.

-compare-dest=DIR

When using sync, copy or move DIR is checked in addition to the destination for files. If a file identical to the source is found that file is NOT copied from source. This is useful to copy just files that have changed since the last backup.

You must use the same remote as the destination of the sync. The compare directory must not overlap the destination directory.

See --copy-dest and --backup-dir.

-config=CONFIG_FILE

Specify the location of the rclone config file.

Normally the config file is in your home directory as a file called .config/rclone/rclone.conf (or .rclone.conf if created with an older version). If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is set it will be at $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/rclone/rclone.conf.

If there is a file rclone.conf in the same directory as the rclone executable it will be preferred. This file must be created manually for Rclone to use it, it will never be created automatically.

If you run rclone config file you will see where the default location is for you.

Use this flag to override the config location, eg rclone --config=".myconfig" .config.

-contimeout=TIME

Set the connection timeout. This should be in go time format which looks like 5s for 5 seconds, 10m for 10 minutes, or 3h30m.

The connection timeout is the amount of time rclone will wait for a connection to go through to a remote object storage system. It is 1m by default.

-copy-dest=DIR

When using sync, copy or move DIR is checked in addition to the destination for files. If a file identical to the source is found that file is server side copied from DIR to the destination. This is useful for incremental backup.

The remote in use must support server side copy and you must use the same remote as the destination of the sync. The compare directory must not overlap the destination directory.

See --compare-dest and --backup-dir.

-dedupe-mode MODE

Mode to run dedupe command in. One of interactive, skip, first, newest, oldest, rename. The default is interactive. See the dedupe command for more information as to what these options mean.

-disable FEATURE,FEATURE,...

This disables a comma separated list of optional features. For example to disable server side move and server side copy use:

--disable move,copy

The features can be put in in any case.

To see a list of which features can be disabled use:

--disable help

See the overview features (/overview/#features) and optional features (/overview/#optional-features) to get an idea of which feature does what.

This flag can be useful for debugging and in exceptional circumstances (eg Google Drive limiting the total volume of Server Side Copies to 100GB/day).

-n, -dry-run

Do a trial run with no permanent changes. Use this to see what rclone would do without actually doing it. Useful when setting up the sync command which deletes files in the destination.

-ignore-case-sync

Using this option will cause rclone to ignore the case of the files when synchronizing so files will not be copied/synced when the existing filenames are the same, even if the casing is different.

-ignore-checksum

Normally rclone will check that the checksums of transferred files match, and give an error "corrupted on transfer" if they don't.

You can use this option to skip that check. You should only use it if you have had the "corrupted on transfer" error message and you are sure you might want to transfer potentially corrupted data.

-ignore-existing

Using this option will make rclone unconditionally skip all files that exist on the destination, no matter the content of these files.

While this isn't a generally recommended option, it can be useful in cases where your files change due to encryption. However, it cannot correct partial transfers in case a transfer was interrupted.

-ignore-size

Normally rclone will look at modification time and size of files to see if they are equal. If you set this flag then rclone will check only the modification time. If --checksum is set then it only checks the checksum.

It will also cause rclone to skip verifying the sizes are the same after transfer.

This can be useful for transferring files to and from OneDrive which occasionally misreports the size of image files (see #399 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/399) for more info).

-I, -ignore-times

Using this option will cause rclone to unconditionally upload all files regardless of the state of files on the destination.

Normally rclone would skip any files that have the same modification time and are the same size (or have the same checksum if using --checksum).

-immutable

Treat source and destination files as immutable and disallow modification.

With this option set, files will be created and deleted as requested, but existing files will never be updated. If an existing file does not match between the source and destination, rclone will give the error Source and destination exist but do not match: immutable file modified.

Note that only commands which transfer files (e.g. sync, copy, move) are affected by this behavior, and only modification is disallowed. Files may still be deleted explicitly (e.g. delete, purge) or implicitly (e.g. sync, move). Use copy --immutable if it is desired to avoid deletion as well as modification.

This can be useful as an additional layer of protection for immutable or append-only data sets (notably backup archives), where modification implies corruption and should not be propagated.

-leave-root

During rmdirs it will not remove root directory, even if it's empty.

-log-file=FILE

Log all of rclone's output to FILE. This is not active by default. This can be useful for tracking down problems with syncs in combination with the -v flag. See the Logging section for more info.

Note that if you are using the logrotate program to manage rclone's logs, then you should use the copytruncate option as rclone doesn't have a signal to rotate logs.

-log-format LIST

Comma separated list of log format options. date, time, microseconds, longfile, shortfile, UTC. The default is "date,time".

-log-level LEVEL

This sets the log level for rclone. The default log level is NOTICE.

DEBUG is equivalent to -vv. It outputs lots of debug info - useful for bug reports and really finding out what rclone is doing.

INFO is equivalent to -v. It outputs information about each transfer and prints stats once a minute by default.

NOTICE is the default log level if no logging flags are supplied. It outputs very little when things are working normally. It outputs warnings and significant events.

ERROR is equivalent to -q. It only outputs error messages.

-use-json-log

This switches the log format to JSON for rclone. The fields of json log are level, msg, source, time.

-low-level-retries NUMBER

This controls the number of low level retries rclone does.

A low level retry is used to retry a failing operation - typically one HTTP request. This might be uploading a chunk of a big file for example. You will see low level retries in the log with the -v flag.

This shouldn't need to be changed from the default in normal operations. However, if you get a lot of low level retries you may wish to reduce the value so rclone moves on to a high level retry (see the --retries flag) quicker.

Disable low level retries with --low-level-retries 1.

-max-backlog=N

This is the maximum allowable backlog of files in a sync/copy/move queued for being checked or transferred.

This can be set arbitrarily large. It will only use memory when the queue is in use. Note that it will use in the order of N kB of memory when the backlog is in use.

Setting this large allows rclone to calculate how many files are pending more accurately and give a more accurate estimated finish time.

Setting this small will make rclone more synchronous to the listings of the remote which may be desirable.

-max-delete=N

This tells rclone not to delete more than N files. If that limit is exceeded then a fatal error will be generated and rclone will stop the operation in progress.

-max-depth=N

This modifies the recursion depth for all the commands except purge.

So if you do rclone --max-depth 1 ls remote:path you will see only the files in the top level directory. Using --max-depth 2 means you will see all the files in first two directory levels and so on.

For historical reasons the lsd command defaults to using a --max-depth of 1 - you can override this with the command line flag.

You can use this command to disable recursion (with --max-depth 1).

Note that if you use this with sync and --delete-excluded the files not recursed through are considered excluded and will be deleted on the destination. Test first with --dry-run if you are not sure what will happen.

-max-transfer=SIZE

Rclone will stop transferring when it has reached the size specified. Defaults to off.

When the limit is reached all transfers will stop immediately.

Rclone will exit with exit code 8 if the transfer limit is reached.

-modify-window=TIME

When checking whether a file has been modified, this is the maximum allowed time difference that a file can have and still be considered equivalent.

The default is 1ns unless this is overridden by a remote. For example OS X only stores modification times to the nearest second so if you are reading and writing to an OS X filing system this will be 1s by default.

This command line flag allows you to override that computed default.

-multi-thread-cutoff=SIZE

When downloading files to the local backend above this size, rclone will use multiple threads to download the file. (default 250M)

Rclone preallocates the file (using fallocate(FALLOC_FL_KEEP_SIZE) on unix or NTSetInformationFile on Windows both of which takes no time) then each thread writes directly into the file at the correct place. This means that rclone won't create fragmented or sparse files and there won't be any assembly time at the end of the transfer.

The number of threads used to dowload is controlled by --multi-thread-streams.

Use -vv if you wish to see info about the threads.

This will work with the sync/copy/move commands and friends copyto/moveto. Multi thread downloads will be used with rclone mount and rclone serve if --vfs-cache-mode is set to writes or above.

NB that this only works for a local destination but will work with any source.

NB that multi thread copies are disabled for local to local copies as they are faster without unless --multi-thread-streams is set explicitly.

-multi-thread-streams=N

When using multi thread downloads (see above --multi-thread-cutoff) this sets the maximum number of streams to use. Set to 0 to disable multi thread downloads. (Default 4)

Exactly how many streams rclone uses for the download depends on the size of the file. To calculate the number of download streams Rclone divides the size of the file by the --multi-thread-cutoff and rounds up, up to the maximum set with --multi-thread-streams.

So if --multi-thread-cutoff 250MB and --multi-thread-streams 4 are in effect (the defaults):

0MB.250MB files will be downloaded with 1 stream
250MB..500MB files will be downloaded with 2 streams
500MB..750MB files will be downloaded with 3 streams
750MB+ files will be downloaded with 4 streams

-no-gzip-encoding

Don't set Accept-Encoding: gzip. This means that rclone won't ask the server for compressed files automatically. Useful if you've set the server to return files with Content-Encoding: gzip but you uploaded compressed files.

There is no need to set this in normal operation, and doing so will decrease the network transfer efficiency of rclone.

-no-traverse

The --no-traverse flag controls whether the destination file system is traversed when using the copy or move commands. --no-traverse is not compatible with sync and will be ignored if you supply it with sync.

If you are only copying a small number of files (or are filtering most of the files) and/or have a large number of files on the destination then --no-traverse will stop rclone listing the destination and save time.

However, if you are copying a large number of files, especially if you are doing a copy where lots of the files under consideration haven't changed and won't need copying then you shouldn't use --no-traverse.

See rclone copy (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_copy/) for an example of how to use it.

-no-update-modtime

When using this flag, rclone won't update modification times of remote files if they are incorrect as it would normally.

This can be used if the remote is being synced with another tool also (eg the Google Drive client).

-P, -progress

This flag makes rclone update the stats in a static block in the terminal providing a realtime overview of the transfer.

Any log messages will scroll above the static block. Log messages will push the static block down to the bottom of the terminal where it will stay.

Normally this is updated every 500mS but this period can be overridden with the --stats flag.

This can be used with the --stats-one-line flag for a simpler display.

Note: On Windows untilthis bug (https://github.com/Azure/go-ansiterm/issues/26) is fixed all non-ASCII characters will be replaced with . when --progress is in use.

-q, -quiet

Normally rclone outputs stats and a completion message. If you set this flag it will make as little output as possible.

-retries int

Retry the entire sync if it fails this many times it fails (default 3).

Some remotes can be unreliable and a few retries help pick up the files which didn't get transferred because of errors.

Disable retries with --retries 1.

-retries-sleep=TIME

This sets the interval between each retry specified by --retries

The default is 0. Use 0 to disable.

-size-only

Normally rclone will look at modification time and size of files to see if they are equal. If you set this flag then rclone will check only the size.

This can be useful transferring files from Dropbox which have been modified by the desktop sync client which doesn't set checksums of modification times in the same way as rclone.

-stats=TIME

Commands which transfer data (sync, copy, copyto, move, moveto) will print data transfer stats at regular intervals to show their progress.

This sets the interval.

The default is 1m. Use 0 to disable.

If you set the stats interval then all commands can show stats. This can be useful when running other commands, check or mount for example.

Stats are logged at INFO level by default which means they won't show at default log level NOTICE. Use --stats-log-level NOTICE or -v to make them show. See the Logging section for more info on log levels.

Note that on macOS you can send a SIGINFO (which is normally ctrl-T in the terminal) to make the stats print immediately.

-stats-file-name-length integer

By default, the --stats output will truncate file names and paths longer than 40 characters. This is equivalent to providing --stats-file-name-length 40. Use --stats-file-name-length 0 to disable any truncation of file names printed by stats.

-stats-log-level string

Log level to show --stats output at. This can be DEBUG, INFO, NOTICE, or ERROR. The default is INFO. This means at the default level of logging which is NOTICE the stats won't show - if you want them to then use --stats-log-level NOTICE. See the Logging section for more info on log levels.

-stats-one-line

When this is specified, rclone condenses the stats into a single line showing the most important stats only.

-stats-one-line-date

When this is specified, rclone enables the single-line stats and prepends the display with a date string. The default is 2006/01/02 15:04:05 -

-stats-one-line-date-format

When this is specified, rclone enables the single-line stats and prepends the display with a user-supplied date string. The date string MUST be enclosed in quotes. Follow golang specs (https://golang.org/pkg/time/#Time.Format) for date formatting syntax.

-stats-unit=bits|bytes

By default, data transfer rates will be printed in bytes/second.

This option allows the data rate to be printed in bits/second.

Data transfer volume will still be reported in bytes.

The rate is reported as a binary unit, not SI unit. So 1 Mbit/s equals 1,048,576 bits/s and not 1,000,000 bits/s.

The default is bytes.

-suffix=SUFFIX

When using sync, copy or move any files which would have been overwritten or deleted will have the suffix added to them. If there is a file with the same path (after the suffix has been added), then it will be overwritten.

The remote in use must support server side move or copy and you must use the same remote as the destination of the sync.

This is for use with files to add the suffix in the current directory or with --backup-dir. See --backup-dir for more info.

For example

rclone sync /path/to/local/file remote:current --suffix .bak

will sync /path/to/local to remote:current, but for any files which would have been updated or deleted have .bak added.

-suffix-keep-extension

When using --suffix, setting this causes rclone put the SUFFIX before the extension of the files that it backs up rather than after.

So let's say we had --suffix -2019-01-01, without the flag file.txt would be backed up to file.txt-2019-01-01 and with the flag it would be backed up to file-2019-01-01.txt. This can be helpful to make sure the suffixed files can still be opened.

-syslog

On capable OSes (not Windows or Plan9) send all log output to syslog.

This can be useful for running rclone in a script or rclone mount.

-syslog-facility string

If using --syslog this sets the syslog facility (eg KERN, USER). See man syslog for a list of possible facilities. The default facility is DAEMON.

-tpslimit float

Limit HTTP transactions per second to this. Default is 0 which is used to mean unlimited transactions per second.

For example to limit rclone to 10 HTTP transactions per second use --tpslimit 10, or to 1 transaction every 2 seconds use --tpslimit 0.5.

Use this when the number of transactions per second from rclone is causing a problem with the cloud storage provider (eg getting you banned or rate limited).

This can be very useful for rclone mount to control the behaviour of applications using it.

See also --tpslimit-burst.

-tpslimit-burst int

Max burst of transactions for --tpslimit. (default 1)

Normally --tpslimit will do exactly the number of transaction per second specified. However if you supply --tps-burst then rclone can save up some transactions from when it was idle giving a burst of up to the parameter supplied.

For example if you provide --tpslimit-burst 10 then if rclone has been idle for more than 10*--tpslimit then it can do 10 transactions very quickly before they are limited again.

This may be used to increase performance of --tpslimit without changing the long term average number of transactions per second.

-track-renames

By default, rclone doesn't keep track of renamed files, so if you rename a file locally then sync it to a remote, rclone will delete the old file on the remote and upload a new copy.

If you use this flag, and the remote supports server side copy or server side move, and the source and destination have a compatible hash, then this will track renames during sync operations and perform renaming server-side.

Files will be matched by size and hash - if both match then a rename will be considered.

If the destination does not support server-side copy or move, rclone will fall back to the default behaviour and log an error level message to the console. Note: Encrypted destinations are not supported by --track-renames.

Note that --track-renames is incompatible with --no-traverse and that it uses extra memory to keep track of all the rename candidates.

Note also that --track-renames is incompatible with --delete-before and will select --delete-after instead of --delete-during.

-delete-(before,during,after)

This option allows you to specify when files on your destination are deleted when you sync folders.

Specifying the value --delete-before will delete all files present on the destination, but not on the source before starting the transfer of any new or updated files. This uses two passes through the file systems, one for the deletions and one for the copies.

Specifying --delete-during will delete files while checking and uploading files. This is the fastest option and uses the least memory.

Specifying --delete-after (the default value) will delay deletion of files until all new/updated files have been successfully transferred. The files to be deleted are collected in the copy pass then deleted after the copy pass has completed successfully. The files to be deleted are held in memory so this mode may use more memory. This is the safest mode as it will only delete files if there have been no errors subsequent to that. If there have been errors before the deletions start then you will get the message not deleting files as there were IO errors.

-fast-list

When doing anything which involves a directory listing (eg sync, copy, ls - in fact nearly every command), rclone normally lists a directory and processes it before using more directory lists to process any subdirectories. This can be parallelised and works very quickly using the least amount of memory.

However, some remotes have a way of listing all files beneath a directory in one (or a small number) of transactions. These tend to be the bucket based remotes (eg S3, B2, GCS, Swift, Hubic).

If you use the --fast-list flag then rclone will use this method for listing directories. This will have the following consequences for the listing:

It will use fewer transactions (important if you pay for them)
It will use more memory. Rclone has to load the whole listing into memory.
It may be faster because it uses fewer transactions
It may be slower because it can't be parallelized

rclone should always give identical results with and without --fast-list.

If you pay for transactions and can fit your entire sync listing into memory then --fast-list is recommended. If you have a very big sync to do then don't use --fast-list otherwise you will run out of memory.

If you use --fast-list on a remote which doesn't support it, then rclone will just ignore it.

-timeout=TIME

This sets the IO idle timeout. If a transfer has started but then becomes idle for this long it is considered broken and disconnected.

The default is 5m. Set to 0 to disable.

-transfers=N

The number of file transfers to run in parallel. It can sometimes be useful to set this to a smaller number if the remote is giving a lot of timeouts or bigger if you have lots of bandwidth and a fast remote.

The default is to run 4 file transfers in parallel.

-u, -update

This forces rclone to skip any files which exist on the destination and have a modified time that is newer than the source file.

This can be useful when transferring to a remote which doesn't support mod times directly (or when using --use-server-modtime to avoid extra API calls) as it is more accurate than a --size-only check and faster than using --checksum.

If an existing destination file has a modification time equal (within the computed modify window precision) to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are different. If --checksum is set then rclone will update the destination if the checksums differ too.

If an existing destination file is older than the source file then it will be updated if the size or checksum differs from the source file.

On remotes which don't support mod time directly (or when using --use-server-modtime) the time checked will be the uploaded time. This means that if uploading to one of these remotes, rclone will skip any files which exist on the destination and have an uploaded time that is newer than the modification time of the source file.

-use-mmap

If this flag is set then rclone will use anonymous memory allocated by mmap on Unix based platforms and VirtualAlloc on Windows for its transfer buffers (size controlled by --buffer-size). Memory allocated like this does not go on the Go heap and can be returned to the OS immediately when it is finished with.

If this flag is not set then rclone will allocate and free the buffers using the Go memory allocator which may use more memory as memory pages are returned less aggressively to the OS.

It is possible this does not work well on all platforms so it is disabled by default; in the future it may be enabled by default.

-use-server-modtime

Some object-store backends (e.g, Swift, S3) do not preserve file modification times (modtime). On these backends, rclone stores the original modtime as additional metadata on the object. By default it will make an API call to retrieve the metadata when the modtime is needed by an operation.

Use this flag to disable the extra API call and rely instead on the server's modified time. In cases such as a local to remote sync using --update, knowing the local file is newer than the time it was last uploaded to the remote is sufficient. In those cases, this flag can speed up the process and reduce the number of API calls necessary.

Using this flag on a sync operation without also using --update would cause all files modified at any time other than the last upload time to be uploaded again, which is probably not what you want.

-v, -vv, -verbose

With -v rclone will tell you about each file that is transferred and a small number of significant events.

With -vv rclone will become very verbose telling you about every file it considers and transfers. Please send bug reports with a log with this setting.

-V, -version

Prints the version number

SSL/TLS options

The outoing SSL/TLS connections rclone makes can be controlled with these options. For example this can be very useful with the HTTP or WebDAV backends. Rclone HTTP servers have their own set of configuration for SSL/TLS which you can find in their documentation.

-ca-cert string

This loads the PEM encoded certificate authority certificate and uses it to verify the certificates of the servers rclone connects to.

If you have generated certificates signed with a local CA then you will need this flag to connect to servers using those certificates.

-client-cert string

This loads the PEM encoded client side certificate.

This is used for mutual TLS authentication (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutual_authentication).

The --client-key flag is required too when using this.

-client-key string

This loads the PEM encoded client side private key used for mutual TLS authentication. Used in conjunction with --client-cert.

-no-check-certificate=true/false

--no-check-certificate controls whether a client verifies the server's certificate chain and host name. If --no-check-certificate is true, TLS accepts any certificate presented by the server and any host name in that certificate. In this mode, TLS is susceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks.

This option defaults to false.

This should be used only for testing.

Configuration Encryption

Your configuration file contains information for logging in to your cloud services. This means that you should keep your .rclone.conf file in a secure location.

If you are in an environment where that isn't possible, you can add a password to your configuration. This means that you will have to enter the password every time you start rclone.

To add a password to your rclone configuration, execute rclone config.

>rclone config
Current remotes:

e) Edit existing remote
n) New remote
d) Delete remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
e/n/d/s/q>

Go into s, Set configuration password:

e/n/d/s/q> s
Your configuration is not encrypted.
If you add a password, you will protect your login information to cloud services.
a) Add Password
q) Quit to main menu
a/q> a
Enter NEW configuration password:
password:
Confirm NEW password:
password:
Password set
Your configuration is encrypted.
c) Change Password
u) Unencrypt configuration
q) Quit to main menu
c/u/q>

Your configuration is now encrypted, and every time you start rclone you will now be asked for the password. In the same menu, you can change the password or completely remove encryption from your configuration.

There is no way to recover the configuration if you lose your password.

rclone uses nacl secretbox (https://godoc.org/golang.org/x/crypto/nacl/secretbox) which in turn uses XSalsa20 and Poly1305 to encrypt and authenticate your configuration with secret-key cryptography. The password is SHA-256 hashed, which produces the key for secretbox. The hashed password is not stored.

While this provides very good security, we do not recommend storing your encrypted rclone configuration in public if it contains sensitive information, maybe except if you use a very strong password.

If it is safe in your environment, you can set the RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS environment variable to contain your password, in which case it will be used for decrypting the configuration.

You can set this for a session from a script. For unix like systems save this to a file called set-rclone-password:

#!/bin/echo Source this file don't run it

read -s RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS
export RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS

Then source the file when you want to use it. From the shell you would do source set-rclone-password. It will then ask you for the password and set it in the environment variable.

If you are running rclone inside a script, you might want to disable password prompts. To do that, pass the parameter --ask-password=false to rclone. This will make rclone fail instead of asking for a password if RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS doesn't contain a valid password.

Developer options

These options are useful when developing or debugging rclone. There are also some more remote specific options which aren't documented here which are used for testing. These start with remote name eg --drive-test-option - see the docs for the remote in question.

-cpuprofile=FILE

Write CPU profile to file. This can be analysed with go tool pprof.

-dump flag,flag,flag

The --dump flag takes a comma separated list of flags to dump info about. These are:

-dump headers

Dump HTTP headers with Authorization: lines removed. May still contain sensitive info. Can be very verbose. Useful for debugging only.

Use --dump auth if you do want the Authorization: headers.

-dump bodies

Dump HTTP headers and bodies - may contain sensitive info. Can be very verbose. Useful for debugging only.

Note that the bodies are buffered in memory so don't use this for enormous files.

-dump requests

Like --dump bodies but dumps the request bodies and the response headers. Useful for debugging download problems.

-dump responses

Like --dump bodies but dumps the response bodies and the request headers. Useful for debugging upload problems.

-dump auth

Dump HTTP headers - will contain sensitive info such as Authorization: headers - use --dump headers to dump without Authorization: headers. Can be very verbose. Useful for debugging only.

-dump filters

Dump the filters to the output. Useful to see exactly what include and exclude options are filtering on.

-dump goroutines

This dumps a list of the running go-routines at the end of the command to standard output.

-dump openfiles

This dumps a list of the open files at the end of the command. It uses the lsof command to do that so you'll need that installed to use it.

-memprofile=FILE

Write memory profile to file. This can be analysed with go tool pprof.

Filtering

For the filtering options

--delete-excluded
--filter
--filter-from
--exclude
--exclude-from
--include
--include-from
--files-from
--min-size
--max-size
--min-age
--max-age
--dump filters

See the filtering section (https://rclone.org/filtering/).

Remote control

For the remote control options and for instructions on how to remote control rclone

--rc
and anything starting with --rc-

See the remote control section (https://rclone.org/rc/).

Logging

rclone has 4 levels of logging, ERROR, NOTICE, INFO and DEBUG.

By default, rclone logs to standard error. This means you can redirect standard error and still see the normal output of rclone commands (eg rclone ls).

By default, rclone will produce Error and Notice level messages.

If you use the -q flag, rclone will only produce Error messages.

If you use the -v flag, rclone will produce Error, Notice and Info messages.

If you use the -vv flag, rclone will produce Error, Notice, Info and Debug messages.

You can also control the log levels with the --log-level flag.

If you use the --log-file=FILE option, rclone will redirect Error, Info and Debug messages along with standard error to FILE.

If you use the --syslog flag then rclone will log to syslog and the --syslog-facility control which facility it uses.

Rclone prefixes all log messages with their level in capitals, eg INFO which makes it easy to grep the log file for different kinds of information.

Exit Code

If any errors occur during the command execution, rclone will exit with a non-zero exit code. This allows scripts to detect when rclone operations have failed.

During the startup phase, rclone will exit immediately if an error is detected in the configuration. There will always be a log message immediately before exiting.

When rclone is running it will accumulate errors as it goes along, and only exit with a non-zero exit code if (after retries) there were still failed transfers. For every error counted there will be a high priority log message (visible with -q) showing the message and which file caused the problem. A high priority message is also shown when starting a retry so the user can see that any previous error messages may not be valid after the retry. If rclone has done a retry it will log a high priority message if the retry was successful.

List of exit codes

0 - success
1 - Syntax or usage error
2 - Error not otherwise categorised
3 - Directory not found
4 - File not found
5 - Temporary error (one that more retries might fix) (Retry errors)
6 - Less serious errors (like 461 errors from dropbox) (NoRetry errors)
7 - Fatal error (one that more retries won't fix, like account suspended) (Fatal errors)
8 - Transfer exceeded - limit set by -max-transfer reached

Environment Variables

Rclone can be configured entirely using environment variables. These can be used to set defaults for options or config file entries.

Options

Every option in rclone can have its default set by environment variable.

To find the name of the environment variable, first, take the long option name, strip the leading --, change - to _, make upper case and prepend RCLONE_.

For example, to always set --stats 5s, set the environment variable RCLONE_STATS=5s. If you set stats on the command line this will override the environment variable setting.

Or to always use the trash in drive --drive-use-trash, set RCLONE_DRIVE_USE_TRASH=true.

The same parser is used for the options and the environment variables so they take exactly the same form.

Config file

You can set defaults for values in the config file on an individual remote basis. If you want to use this feature, you will need to discover the name of the config items that you want. The easiest way is to run through rclone config by hand, then look in the config file to see what the values are (the config file can be found by looking at the help for --config in rclone help).

To find the name of the environment variable, you need to set, take RCLONE_CONFIG_ + name of remote + _ + name of config file option and make it all uppercase.

For example, to configure an S3 remote named mys3: without a config file (using unix ways of setting environment variables):

$ export RCLONE_CONFIG_MYS3_TYPE=s3
$ export RCLONE_CONFIG_MYS3_ACCESS_KEY_ID=XXX
$ export RCLONE_CONFIG_MYS3_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=XXX
$ rclone lsd MYS3:
          -1 2016-09-21 12:54:21        -1 my-bucket
$ rclone listremotes | grep mys3
mys3:

Note that if you want to create a remote using environment variables you must create the ..._TYPE variable as above.

Other environment variables

RCLONE_CONFIG_PASS` set to contain your config file password (see Configuration Encryption section)
HTTP_PROXY, HTTPS_PROXY and NO_PROXY (or the lowercase versions thereof).
HTTPS_PROXY takes precedence over HTTP_PROXY for https requests.
The environment values may be either a complete URL or a "host[:port]" for, in which case the "http" scheme is assumed.

Configuring rclone on a remote / headless machine

Some of the configurations (those involving oauth2) require an Internet connected web browser.

If you are trying to set rclone up on a remote or headless box with no browser available on it (eg a NAS or a server in a datacenter) then you will need to use an alternative means of configuration. There are two ways of doing it, described below.

Configuring using rclone authorize

On the headless box

...
Remote config
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> n
For this to work, you will need rclone available on a machine that has a web browser available.
Execute the following on your machine:
    rclone authorize "amazon cloud drive"
Then paste the result below:
result>

Then on your main desktop machine

rclone authorize "amazon cloud drive"
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code
Paste the following into your remote machine --->
SECRET_TOKEN
<---End paste

Then back to the headless box, paste in the code

result> SECRET_TOKEN
--------------------
[acd12]
client_id = 
client_secret = 
token = SECRET_TOKEN
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d>

Configuring by copying the config file

Rclone stores all of its config in a single configuration file. This can easily be copied to configure a remote rclone.

So first configure rclone on your desktop machine

rclone config

to set up the config file.

Find the config file by running rclone config file, for example

$ rclone config file
Configuration file is stored at:
/home/user/.rclone.conf

Now transfer it to the remote box (scp, cut paste, ftp, sftp etc) and place it in the correct place (use rclone config file on the remote box to find out where).

Filtering, includes and excludes

Rclone has a sophisticated set of include and exclude rules. Some of these are based on patterns and some on other things like file size.

The filters are applied for the copy, sync, move, ls, lsl, md5sum, sha1sum, size, delete and check operations. Note that purge does not obey the filters.

Each path as it passes through rclone is matched against the include and exclude rules like --include, --exclude, --include-from, --exclude-from, --filter, or --filter-from. The simplest way to try them out is using the ls command, or --dry-run together with -v.

Patterns

The patterns used to match files for inclusion or exclusion are based on "file globs" as used by the unix shell.

If the pattern starts with a / then it only matches at the top level of the directory tree, relative to the root of the remote (not necessarily the root of the local drive). If it doesn't start with / then it is matched starting at the end of the path, but it will only match a complete path element:

file.jpg  - matches "file.jpg"
          - matches "directory/file.jpg"
          - doesn't match "afile.jpg"
          - doesn't match "directory/afile.jpg"
/file.jpg - matches "file.jpg" in the root directory of the remote
          - doesn't match "afile.jpg"
          - doesn't match "directory/file.jpg"

Important Note that you must use / in patterns and not \ even if running on Windows.

A * matches anything but not a /.

*.jpg  - matches "file.jpg"
       - matches "directory/file.jpg"
       - doesn't match "file.jpg/something"

Use ** to match anything, including slashes (/).

dir/** - matches "dir/file.jpg"
       - matches "dir/dir1/dir2/file.jpg"
       - doesn't match "directory/file.jpg"
       - doesn't match "adir/file.jpg"

A ? matches any character except a slash /.

l?ss  - matches "less"
      - matches "lass"
      - doesn't match "floss"

A [ and ] together make a character class, such as [a-z] or [aeiou] or [[:alpha:]]. See the go regexp docs (https://golang.org/pkg/regexp/syntax/) for more info on these.

h[ae]llo - matches "hello"
         - matches "hallo"
         - doesn't match "hullo"

A { and } define a choice between elements. It should contain a comma separated list of patterns, any of which might match. These patterns can contain wildcards.

{one,two}_potato - matches "one_potato"
                 - matches "two_potato"
                 - doesn't match "three_potato"
                 - doesn't match "_potato"

Special characters can be escaped with a \ before them.

\*.jpg       - matches "*.jpg"
\\.jpg       - matches "\.jpg"
\[one\].jpg  - matches "[one].jpg"

Patterns are case sensitive unless the --ignore-case flag is used.

Without --ignore-case (default)

potato - matches "potato"
       - doesn't match "POTATO"

With --ignore-case

potato - matches "potato"
       - matches "POTATO"

Note also that rclone filter globs can only be used in one of the filter command line flags, not in the specification of the remote, so rclone copy "remote:dir*.jpg" /path/to/dir won't work - what is required is rclone --include "*.jpg" copy remote:dir /path/to/dir

Directories

Rclone keeps track of directories that could match any file patterns.

Eg if you add the include rule

/a/*.jpg

Rclone will synthesize the directory include rule

/a/

If you put any rules which end in / then it will only match directories.

Directory matches are only used to optimise directory access patterns - you must still match the files that you want to match. Directory matches won't optimise anything on bucket based remotes (eg s3, swift, google compute storage, b2) which don't have a concept of directory.

Differences between rsync and rclone patterns

Rclone implements bash style {a,b,c} glob matching which rsync doesn't.

Rclone always does a wildcard match so \ must always escape a \.

How the rules are used

Rclone maintains a combined list of include rules and exclude rules.

Each file is matched in order, starting from the top, against the rule in the list until it finds a match. The file is then included or excluded according to the rule type.

If the matcher fails to find a match after testing against all the entries in the list then the path is included.

For example given the following rules, + being include, - being exclude,

- secret*.jpg
+ *.jpg
+ *.png
+ file2.avi
- *

This would include

file1.jpg
file3.png
file2.avi

This would exclude

secret17.jpg
non *.jpg and *.png

A similar process is done on directory entries before recursing into them. This only works on remotes which have a concept of directory (Eg local, google drive, onedrive, amazon drive) and not on bucket based remotes (eg s3, swift, google compute storage, b2).

Adding filtering rules

Filtering rules are added with the following command line flags.

Repeating options

You can repeat the following options to add more than one rule of that type.

--include
--include-from
--exclude
--exclude-from
--filter
--filter-from

Important You should not use --include* together with --exclude*. It may produce different results than you expected. In that case try to use: --filter*.

Note that all the options of the same type are processed together in the order above, regardless of what order they were placed on the command line.

So all --include options are processed first in the order they appeared on the command line, then all --include-from options etc.

To mix up the order includes and excludes, the --filter flag can be used.

--exclude - Exclude files matching pattern

Add a single exclude rule with --exclude.

This flag can be repeated. See above for the order the flags are processed in.

Eg --exclude *.bak to exclude all bak files from the sync.

--exclude-from - Read exclude patterns from file

Add exclude rules from a file.

This flag can be repeated. See above for the order the flags are processed in.

Prepare a file like this exclude-file.txt

# a sample exclude rule file
*.bak
file2.jpg

Then use as --exclude-from exclude-file.txt. This will sync all files except those ending in bak and file2.jpg.

This is useful if you have a lot of rules.

--include - Include files matching pattern

Add a single include rule with --include.

This flag can be repeated. See above for the order the flags are processed in.

Eg --include *.{png,jpg} to include all png and jpg files in the backup and no others.

This adds an implicit --exclude * at the very end of the filter list. This means you can mix --include and --include-from with the other filters (eg --exclude) but you must include all the files you want in the include statement. If this doesn't provide enough flexibility then you must use --filter-from.

--include-from - Read include patterns from file

Add include rules from a file.

This flag can be repeated. See above for the order the flags are processed in.

Prepare a file like this include-file.txt

# a sample include rule file
*.jpg
*.png
file2.avi

Then use as --include-from include-file.txt. This will sync all jpg, png files and file2.avi.

This is useful if you have a lot of rules.

This adds an implicit --exclude * at the very end of the filter list. This means you can mix --include and --include-from with the other filters (eg --exclude) but you must include all the files you want in the include statement. If this doesn't provide enough flexibility then you must use --filter-from.

--filter - Add a file-filtering rule

This can be used to add a single include or exclude rule. Include rules start with + and exclude rules start with -. A special rule called ! can be used to clear the existing rules.

This flag can be repeated. See above for the order the flags are processed in.

Eg --filter "- *.bak" to exclude all bak files from the sync.

--filter-from - Read filtering patterns from a file

Add include/exclude rules from a file.

This flag can be repeated. See above for the order the flags are processed in.

Prepare a file like this filter-file.txt

# a sample filter rule file
- secret*.jpg
+ *.jpg
+ *.png
+ file2.avi
- /dir/Trash/**
+ /dir/**
# exclude everything else
- *

Then use as --filter-from filter-file.txt. The rules are processed in the order that they are defined.

This example will include all jpg and png files, exclude any files matching secret*.jpg and include file2.avi. It will also include everything in the directory dir at the root of the sync, except dir/Trash which it will exclude. Everything else will be excluded from the sync.

--files-from - Read list of source-file names

This reads a list of file names from the file passed in and only these files are transferred. The filtering rules are ignored completely if you use this option.

Rclone will traverse the file system if you use --files-from, effectively using the files in --files-from as a set of filters. Rclone will not error if any of the files are missing.

If you use --no-traverse as well as --files-from then rclone will not traverse the destination file system, it will find each file individually using approximately 1 API call. This can be more efficient for small lists of files.

This option can be repeated to read from more than one file. These are read in the order that they are placed on the command line.

Paths within the --files-from file will be interpreted as starting with the root specified in the command. Leading / characters are ignored.

For example, suppose you had files-from.txt with this content:

# comment
file1.jpg
subdir/file2.jpg

You could then use it like this:

rclone copy --files-from files-from.txt /home/me/pics remote:pics

This will transfer these files only (if they exist)

/home/me/pics/file1.jpg        → remote:pics/file1.jpg
/home/me/pics/subdir/file2.jpg → remote:pics/subdir/file2.jpg

To take a more complicated example, let's say you had a few files you want to back up regularly with these absolute paths:

/home/user1/important
/home/user1/dir/file
/home/user2/stuff

To copy these you'd find a common subdirectory - in this case /home and put the remaining files in files-from.txt with or without leading /, eg

user1/important
user1/dir/file
user2/stuff

You could then copy these to a remote like this

rclone copy --files-from files-from.txt /home remote:backup

The 3 files will arrive in remote:backup with the paths as in the files-from.txt like this:

/home/user1/important → remote:backup/user1/important
/home/user1/dir/file  → remote:backup/user1/dir/file
/home/user2/stuff     → remote:backup/user2/stuff

You could of course choose / as the root too in which case your files-from.txt might look like this.

/home/user1/important
/home/user1/dir/file
/home/user2/stuff

And you would transfer it like this

rclone copy --files-from files-from.txt / remote:backup

In this case there will be an extra home directory on the remote:

/home/user1/important → remote:backup/home/user1/important
/home/user1/dir/file  → remote:backup/home/user1/dir/file
/home/user2/stuff     → remote:backup/home/user2/stuff

--min-size - Don't transfer any file smaller than this

This option controls the minimum size file which will be transferred. This defaults to kBytes but a suffix of k, M, or G can be used.

For example --min-size 50k means no files smaller than 50kByte will be transferred.

--max-size - Don't transfer any file larger than this

This option controls the maximum size file which will be transferred. This defaults to kBytes but a suffix of k, M, or G can be used.

For example --max-size 1G means no files larger than 1GByte will be transferred.

--max-age - Don't transfer any file older than this

This option controls the maximum age of files to transfer. Give in seconds or with a suffix of:

ms - Milliseconds
s - Seconds
m - Minutes
h - Hours
d - Days
w - Weeks
M - Months
y - Years

For example --max-age 2d means no files older than 2 days will be transferred.

--min-age - Don't transfer any file younger than this

This option controls the minimum age of files to transfer. Give in seconds or with a suffix (see --max-age for list of suffixes)

For example --min-age 2d means no files younger than 2 days will be transferred.

--delete-excluded - Delete files on dest excluded from sync

Important this flag is dangerous - use with --dry-run and -v first.

When doing rclone sync this will delete any files which are excluded from the sync on the destination.

If for example you did a sync from A to B without the --min-size 50k flag

rclone sync A: B:

Then you repeated it like this with the --delete-excluded

rclone --min-size 50k --delete-excluded sync A: B:

This would delete all files on B which are less than 50 kBytes as these are now excluded from the sync.

Always test first with --dry-run and -v before using this flag.

--dump filters - dump the filters to the output

This dumps the defined filters to the output as regular expressions.

Useful for debugging.

--ignore-case - make searches case insensitive

Normally filter patterns are case sensitive. If this flag is supplied then filter patterns become case insensitive.

Normally a --include "file.txt" will not match a file called FILE.txt. However if you use the --ignore-case flag then --include "file.txt" this will match a file called FILE.txt.

Quoting shell metacharacters

The examples above may not work verbatim in your shell as they have shell metacharacters in them (eg *), and may require quoting.

Eg linux, OSX

--include \*.jpg
--include '*.jpg'
--include='*.jpg'

In Windows the expansion is done by the command not the shell so this should work fine

--include *.jpg

Exclude directory based on a file

It is possible to exclude a directory based on a file, which is present in this directory. Filename should be specified using the --exclude-if-present flag. This flag has a priority over the other filtering flags.

Imagine, you have the following directory structure:

dir1/file1
dir1/dir2/file2
dir1/dir2/dir3/file3
dir1/dir2/dir3/.ignore

You can exclude dir3 from sync by running the following command:

rclone sync --exclude-if-present .ignore dir1 remote:backup

Currently only one filename is supported, i.e. --exclude-if-present should not be used multiple times.

GUI (Experimental)

Rclone can serve a web based GUI (graphical user interface). This is somewhat experimental at the moment so things may be subject to change.

Run this command in a terminal and rclone will download and then display the GUI in a web browser.

rclone rcd --rc-web-gui

This will produce logs like this and rclone needs to continue to run to serve the GUI:

2019/08/25 11:40:14 NOTICE: A new release for gui is present at https://github.com/rclone/rclone-webui-react/releases/download/v0.0.6/currentbuild.zip
2019/08/25 11:40:14 NOTICE: Downloading webgui binary. Please wait. [Size: 3813937, Path :  /home/USER/.cache/rclone/webgui/v0.0.6.zip]
2019/08/25 11:40:16 NOTICE: Unzipping
2019/08/25 11:40:16 NOTICE: Serving remote control on http://127.0.0.1:5572/

This assumes you are running rclone locally on your machine. It is possible to separate the rclone and the GUI - see below for details.

If you wish to update to the latest API version then you can add --rc-web-gui-update to the command line.

Using the GUI

Once the GUI opens, you will be looking at the dashboard which has an overall overview.

On the left hand side you will see a series of view buttons you can click on:

Dashboard - main overview
Configs - examine and create new configurations
Explorer - view, download and upload files to the cloud storage systems
Backend - view or alter the backend config
Log out

(More docs and walkthrough video to come!)

How it works

When you run the rclone rcd --rc-web-gui this is what happens

Rclone starts but only runs the remote control API ("rc").
The API is bound to localhost with an auto generated username and password.
If the API bundle is missing then rclone will download it.
rclone will start serving the files from the API bundle over the same port as the API
rclone will open the browser with a login_token so it can log straight in.

Advanced use

The rclone rcd may use any of the flags documented on the rc page (https://rclone.org/rc/#supported-parameters).

The flag --rc-web-gui is shorthand for

Download the web GUI if necessary
Check we are using some authentication
--rc-user gui
--rc-pass <random password>
--rc-serve

These flags can be overidden as desired.

See also the rclone rcd documentation (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_rcd/).

Example: Running a public GUI

For example the GUI could be served on a public port over SSL using an htpasswd file using the following flags:

--rc-web-gui
--rc-addr :443
--rc-htpasswd /path/to/htpasswd
--rc-cert /path/to/ssl.crt
--rc-key /path/to/ssl.key

Example: Running a GUI behind a proxy

If you want to run the GUI behind a proxy at /rclone you could use these flags:

--rc-web-gui
--rc-baseurl rclone
--rc-htpasswd /path/to/htpasswd

Or instead of htpassword if you just want a single user and password:

--rc-user me
--rc-pass mypassword

Project

The GUI is being developed in the: rclone/rclone-webui-react respository (https://github.com/rclone/rclone-webui-react).

Bug reports and contributions very welcome welcome :-)

If you have questions then please ask them on the rclone forum (https://forum.rclone.org/).

Remote controlling rclone

If rclone is run with the --rc flag then it starts an http server which can be used to remote control rclone.

If you just want to run a remote control then see the rcd command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_rcd/).

NB this is experimental and everything here is subject to change!

Supported parameters

-rc

Flag to start the http server listen on remote requests

-rc-addr=IP

IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:5572")

-rc-cert=KEY

SSL PEM key (concatenation of certificate and CA certificate)

-rc-client-ca=PATH

Client certificate authority to verify clients with

-rc-htpasswd=PATH

htpasswd file - if not provided no authentication is done

-rc-key=PATH

SSL PEM Private key

-rc-max-header-bytes=VALUE

Maximum size of request header (default 4096)

-rc-user=VALUE

User name for authentication.

-rc-pass=VALUE

Password for authentication.

-rc-realm=VALUE

Realm for authentication (default "rclone")

-rc-server-read-timeout=DURATION

Timeout for server reading data (default 1h0m0s)

-rc-server-write-timeout=DURATION

Timeout for server writing data (default 1h0m0s)

-rc-serve

Enable the serving of remote objects via the HTTP interface. This means objects will be accessible at http://127.0.0.1:5572/ by default, so you can browse to http://127.0.0.1:5572/ or http://127.0.0.1:5572/* to see a listing of the remotes. Objects may be requested from remotes using this syntax http://127.0.0.1:5572/[remote:path]/path/to/object

Default Off.

-rc-files /path/to/directory

Path to local files to serve on the HTTP server.

If this is set then rclone will serve the files in that directory. It will also open the root in the web browser if specified. This is for implementing browser based GUIs for rclone functions.

If --rc-user or --rc-pass is set then the URL that is opened will have the authorization in the URL in the http://user:pass@localhost/ style.

Default Off.

-rc-web-gui

Set this flag to serve the default web gui on the same port as rclone.

Default Off.

-rc-allow-origin

Set the allowed Access-Control-Allow-Origin for rc requests.

Can be used with -rc-web-gui if the rclone is running on different IP than the web-gui.

Default is IP address on which rc is running.

-rc-web-fetch-url

Set the URL to fetch the rclone-web-gui files from.

Default https://api.github.com/repos/rclone/rclone-webui-react/releases/latest.

-rc-web-gui-update

Set this flag to Download / Force update rclone-webui-react from the rc-web-fetch-url.

Default Off.

-rc-job-expire-duration=DURATION

Expire finished async jobs older than DURATION (default 60s).

-rc-job-expire-interval=DURATION

Interval duration to check for expired async jobs (default 10s).

-rc-no-auth

By default rclone will require authorisation to have been set up on the rc interface in order to use any methods which access any rclone remotes. Eg operations/list is denied as it involved creating a remote as is sync/copy.

If this is set then no authorisation will be required on the server to use these methods. The alternative is to use --rc-user and --rc-pass and use these credentials in the request.

Default Off.

Accessing the remote control via the rclone rc command

Rclone itself implements the remote control protocol in its rclone rc command.

You can use it like this

$ rclone rc rc/noop param1=one param2=two
{
    "param1": "one",
    "param2": "two"
}

Run rclone rc on its own to see the help for the installed remote control commands.

rclone rc also supports a --json flag which can be used to send more complicated input parameters.

$ rclone rc --json '{ "p1": [1,"2",null,4], "p2": { "a":1, "b":2 } }' rc/noop
{
    "p1": [
        1,
        "2",
        null,
        4
    ],
    "p2": {
        "a": 1,
        "b": 2
    }
}

Special parameters

The rc interface supports some special parameters which apply to all commands. These start with _ to show they are different.

Running asynchronous jobs with _async = true

Each rc call is classified as a job and it is assigned its own id. By default jobs are executed immediately as they are created or synchronously.

If _async has a true value when supplied to an rc call then it will return immediately with a job id and the task will be run in the background. The job/status call can be used to get information of the background job. The job can be queried for up to 1 minute after it has finished.

It is recommended that potentially long running jobs, eg sync/sync, sync/copy, sync/move, operations/purge are run with the _async flag to avoid any potential problems with the HTTP request and response timing out.

Starting a job with the _async flag:

$ rclone rc --json '{ "p1": [1,"2",null,4], "p2": { "a":1, "b":2 }, "_async": true }' rc/noop
{
    "jobid": 2
}

Query the status to see if the job has finished. For more information on the meaning of these return parameters see the job/status call.

$ rclone rc --json '{ "jobid":2 }' job/status
{
    "duration": 0.000124163,
    "endTime": "2018-10-27T11:38:07.911245881+01:00",
    "error": "",
    "finished": true,
    "id": 2,
    "output": {
        "_async": true,
        "p1": [
            1,
            "2",
            null,
            4
        ],
        "p2": {
            "a": 1,
            "b": 2
        }
    },
    "startTime": "2018-10-27T11:38:07.911121728+01:00",
    "success": true
}

job/list can be used to show the running or recently completed jobs

$ rclone rc job/list
{
    "jobids": [
        2
    ]
}

Assigning operations to groups with _group =

Each rc call has it's own stats group for tracking it's metrics. By default grouping is done by the composite group name from prefix job/ and id of the job like so job/1.

If _group has a value then stats for that request will be grouped under that value. This allows caller to group stats under their own name.

Stats for specific group can be accessed by passing group to core/stats:

$ rclone rc --json '{ "group": "job/1" }' core/stats
{
    "speed": 12345
    ...
}

Supported commands

cache/expire: Purge a remote from cache {#cache/expire}

Purge a remote from the cache backend. Supports either a directory or a file. Params: - remote = path to remote (required) - withData = true/false to delete cached data (chunks) as well (optional)

Eg

rclone rc cache/expire remote=path/to/sub/folder/
rclone rc cache/expire remote=/ withData=true

cache/fetch: Fetch file chunks {#cache/fetch}

Ensure the specified file chunks are cached on disk.

The chunks= parameter specifies the file chunks to check. It takes a comma separated list of array slice indices. The slice indices are similar to Python slices: start[:end]

start is the 0 based chunk number from the beginning of the file to fetch inclusive. end is 0 based chunk number from the beginning of the file to fetch exclusive. Both values can be negative, in which case they count from the back of the file. The value "-5:" represents the last 5 chunks of a file.

Some valid examples are: ":5,-5:" -> the first and last five chunks "0,-2" -> the first and the second last chunk "0:10" -> the first ten chunks

Any parameter with a key that starts with "file" can be used to specify files to fetch, eg

rclone rc cache/fetch chunks=0 file=hello file2=home/goodbye

File names will automatically be encrypted when the a crypt remote is used on top of the cache.

cache/stats: Get cache stats {#cache/stats}

Show statistics for the cache remote.

config/create: create the config for a remote. {#config/create}

This takes the following parameters

name - name of remote
parameters - a map of { "key": "value" } pairs
type - type of the new remote

See the config create command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_create/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

config/delete: Delete a remote in the config file. {#config/delete}

Parameters:

name - name of remote to delete

See the config delete command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_delete/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

config/dump: Dumps the config file. {#config/dump}

Returns a JSON object: - key: value

Where keys are remote names and values are the config parameters.

See the config dump command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_dump/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

config/get: Get a remote in the config file. {#config/get}

Parameters:

name - name of remote to get

See the config dump command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_dump/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

config/listremotes: Lists the remotes in the config file. {#config/listremotes}

Returns - remotes - array of remote names

See the listremotes command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_listremotes/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

config/password: password the config for a remote. {#config/password}

This takes the following parameters

name - name of remote
parameters - a map of { "key": "value" } pairs

See the config password command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_password/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

config/providers: Shows how providers are configured in the config file. {#config/providers}

Returns a JSON object: - providers - array of objects

See the config providers command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_providers/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

config/update: update the config for a remote. {#config/update}

This takes the following parameters

name - name of remote
parameters - a map of { "key": "value" } pairs

See the config update command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_config_update/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

core/bwlimit: Set the bandwidth limit. {#core/bwlimit}

This sets the bandwidth limit to that passed in.

Eg

rclone rc core/bwlimit rate=off
{
    "bytesPerSecond": -1,
    "rate": "off"
}
rclone rc core/bwlimit rate=1M
{
    "bytesPerSecond": 1048576,
    "rate": "1M"
}

If the rate parameter is not suppied then the bandwidth is queried

rclone rc core/bwlimit
{
    "bytesPerSecond": 1048576,
    "rate": "1M"
}

The format of the parameter is exactly the same as passed to -bwlimit except only one bandwidth may be specified.

In either case "rate" is returned as a human readable string, and "bytesPerSecond" is returned as a number.

core/gc: Runs a garbage collection. {#core/gc}

This tells the go runtime to do a garbage collection run. It isn't necessary to call this normally, but it can be useful for debugging memory problems.

core/group-list: Returns list of stats. {#core/group-list}

This returns list of stats groups currently in memory.

Returns the following values:

{
    "groups":  an array of group names:
        [
            "group1",
            "group2",
            ...
        ]
}

core/memstats: Returns the memory statistics {#core/memstats}

This returns the memory statistics of the running program. What the values mean are explained in the go docs: https://golang.org/pkg/runtime/#MemStats

The most interesting values for most people are:

HeapAlloc: This is the amount of memory rclone is actually using
HeapSys: This is the amount of memory rclone has obtained from the OS
Sys: this is the total amount of memory requested from the OS
It is virtual memory so may include unused memory

core/obscure: Obscures a string passed in. {#core/obscure}

Pass a clear string and rclone will obscure it for the config file: - clear - string

Returns - obscured - string

core/pid: Return PID of current process {#core/pid}

This returns PID of current process. Useful for stopping rclone process.

core/quit: Terminates the app. {#core/quit}

(optional) Pass an exit code to be used for terminating the app: - exitCode - int

core/stats: Returns stats about current transfers. {#core/stats}

This returns all available stats:

rclone rc core/stats

If group is not provided then summed up stats for all groups will be returned.

Parameters

group - name of the stats group (string)

Returns the following values:

{
    "speed": average speed in bytes/sec since start of the process,
    "bytes": total transferred bytes since the start of the process,
    "errors": number of errors,
    "fatalError": whether there has been at least one FatalError,
    "retryError": whether there has been at least one non-NoRetryError,
    "checks": number of checked files,
    "transfers": number of transferred files,
    "deletes" : number of deleted files,
    "elapsedTime": time in seconds since the start of the process,
    "lastError": last occurred error,
    "transferring": an array of currently active file transfers:
        [
            {
                "bytes": total transferred bytes for this file,
                "eta": estimated time in seconds until file transfer completion
                "name": name of the file,
                "percentage": progress of the file transfer in percent,
                "speed": speed in bytes/sec,
                "speedAvg": speed in bytes/sec as an exponentially weighted moving average,
                "size": size of the file in bytes
            }
        ],
    "checking": an array of names of currently active file checks
        []
}

Values for "transferring", "checking" and "lastError" are only assigned if data is available. The value for "eta" is null if an eta cannot be determined.

core/stats-reset: Reset stats. {#core/stats-reset}

This clears counters and errors for all stats or specific stats group if group is provided.

Parameters

group - name of the stats group (string)

core/transferred: Returns stats about completed transfers. {#core/transferred}

This returns stats about completed transfers:

rclone rc core/transferred

If group is not provided then completed transfers for all groups will be returned.

Note only the last 100 completed transfers are returned.

Parameters

group - name of the stats group (string)

Returns the following values:

{
    "transferred":  an array of completed transfers (including failed ones):
        [
            {
                "name": name of the file,
                "size": size of the file in bytes,
                "bytes": total transferred bytes for this file,
                "checked": if the transfer is only checked (skipped, deleted),
                "timestamp": integer representing millisecond unix epoch,
                "error": string description of the error (empty if successfull),
                "jobid": id of the job that this transfer belongs to
            }
        ]
}

core/version: Shows the current version of rclone and the go runtime. {#core/version}

This shows the current version of go and the go runtime

version - rclone version, eg "v1.44"
decomposed - version number as [major, minor, patch, subpatch]
note patch and subpatch will be 999 for a git compiled version
isGit - boolean - true if this was compiled from the git version
os - OS in use as according to Go
arch - cpu architecture in use according to Go
goVersion - version of Go runtime in use

job/list: Lists the IDs of the running jobs {#job/list}

Parameters - None

Results

jobids - array of integer job ids

job/status: Reads the status of the job ID {#job/status}

Parameters

jobid - id of the job (integer)

Results

finished - boolean
duration - time in seconds that the job ran for
endTime - time the job finished (eg "2018-10-26T18:50:20.528746884+01:00")
error - error from the job or empty string for no error
finished - boolean whether the job has finished or not
id - as passed in above
startTime - time the job started (eg "2018-10-26T18:50:20.528336039+01:00")
success - boolean - true for success false otherwise
output - output of the job as would have been returned if called synchronously
progress - output of the progress related to the underlying job

job/stop: Stop the running job {#job/stop}

Parameters

jobid - id of the job (integer)

operations/about: Return the space used on the remote {#operations/about}

This takes the following parameters

fs - a remote name string eg "drive:"

The result is as returned from rclone about -json

See the about command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_size/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

operations/cleanup: Remove trashed files in the remote or path {#operations/cleanup}

This takes the following parameters

fs - a remote name string eg "drive:"

See the cleanup command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_cleanup/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

operations/copyfile: Copy a file from source remote to destination remote {#operations/copyfile}

This takes the following parameters

srcFs - a remote name string eg "drive:" for the source
srcRemote - a path within that remote eg "file.txt" for the source
dstFs - a remote name string eg "drive2:" for the destination
dstRemote - a path within that remote eg "file2.txt" for the destination

Authentication is required for this call.

operations/copyurl: Copy the URL to the object {#operations/copyurl}

This takes the following parameters

fs - a remote name string eg "drive:"
remote - a path within that remote eg "dir"
url - string, URL to read from
autoFilename - boolean, set to true to retrieve destination file name from url See the copyurl command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_copyurl/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

operations/delete: Remove files in the path {#operations/delete}

This takes the following parameters

fs - a remote name string eg "drive:"

See the delete command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_delete/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

operations/deletefile: Remove the single file pointed to {#operations/deletefile}

This takes the following parameters

fs - a remote name string eg "drive:"
remote - a path within that remote eg "dir"

See the deletefile command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_deletefile/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

operations/fsinfo: Return information about the remote {#operations/fsinfo}

This takes the following parameters

fs - a remote name string eg "drive:"

This returns info about the remote passed in;

{
    // optional features and whether they are available or not
    "Features": {
        "About": true,
        "BucketBased": false,
        "CanHaveEmptyDirectories": true,
        "CaseInsensitive": false,
        "ChangeNotify": false,
        "CleanUp": false,
        "Copy": false,
        "DirCacheFlush": false,
        "DirMove": true,
        "DuplicateFiles": false,
        "GetTier": false,
        "ListR": false,
        "MergeDirs": false,
        "Move": true,
        "OpenWriterAt": true,
        "PublicLink": false,
        "Purge": true,
        "PutStream": true,
        "PutUnchecked": false,
        "ReadMimeType": false,
        "ServerSideAcrossConfigs": false,
        "SetTier": false,
        "SetWrapper": false,
        "UnWrap": false,
        "WrapFs": false,
        "WriteMimeType": false
    },
    // Names of hashes available
    "Hashes": [
        "MD5",
        "SHA-1",
        "DropboxHash",
        "QuickXorHash"
    ],
    "Name": "local",    // Name as created
    "Precision": 1,     // Precision of timestamps in ns
    "Root": "/",        // Path as created
    "String": "Local file system at /" // how the remote will appear in logs
}

This command does not have a command line equivalent so use this instead:

rclone rc --loopback operations/fsinfo fs=remote:

operations/list: List the given remote and path in JSON format {#operations/list}

This takes the following parameters

fs - a remote name string eg "drive:"
remote - a path within that remote eg "dir"
opt - a dictionary of options to control the listing (optional)
recurse - If set recurse directories
noModTime - If set return modification time
showEncrypted - If set show decrypted names
showOrigIDs - If set show the IDs for each item if known
showHash - If set return a dictionary of hashes

The result is

list
This is an array of objects as described in the lsjson command

See the lsjson command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_lsjson/) for more information on the above and examples.

Authentication is required for this call.

operations/mkdir: Make a destination directory or container {#operations/mkdir}

This takes the following parameters

fs - a remote name string eg "drive:"
remote - a path within that remote eg "dir"

See the mkdir command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_mkdir/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

operations/movefile: Move a file from source remote to destination remote {#operations/movefile}

This takes the following parameters

srcFs - a remote name string eg "drive:" for the source
srcRemote - a path within that remote eg "file.txt" for the source
dstFs - a remote name string eg "drive2:" for the destination
dstRemote - a path within that remote eg "file2.txt" for the destination

Authentication is required for this call.

operations/publiclink: Create or retrieve a public link to the given file or folder. {#operations/publiclink}

This takes the following parameters

fs - a remote name string eg "drive:"
remote - a path within that remote eg "dir"

Returns

url - URL of the resource

See the link command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_link/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

operations/purge: Remove a directory or container and all of its contents {#operations/purge}

This takes the following parameters

fs - a remote name string eg "drive:"
remote - a path within that remote eg "dir"

See the purge command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_purge/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

operations/rmdir: Remove an empty directory or container {#operations/rmdir}

This takes the following parameters

fs - a remote name string eg "drive:"
remote - a path within that remote eg "dir"

See the rmdir command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_rmdir/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

operations/rmdirs: Remove all the empty directories in the path {#operations/rmdirs}

This takes the following parameters

fs - a remote name string eg "drive:"
remote - a path within that remote eg "dir"
leaveRoot - boolean, set to true not to delete the root

See the rmdirs command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_rmdirs/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

operations/size: Count the number of bytes and files in remote {#operations/size}

This takes the following parameters

fs - a remote name string eg "drive:path/to/dir"

Returns

count - number of files
bytes - number of bytes in those files

See the size command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_size/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

options/blocks: List all the option blocks {#options/blocks}

Returns - options - a list of the options block names

options/get: Get all the options {#options/get}

Returns an object where keys are option block names and values are an object with the current option values in.

This shows the internal names of the option within rclone which should map to the external options very easily with a few exceptions.

options/set: Set an option {#options/set}

Parameters

option block name containing an object with
key: value

Repeated as often as required.

Only supply the options you wish to change. If an option is unknown it will be silently ignored. Not all options will have an effect when changed like this.

For example:

This sets DEBUG level logs (-vv)

rclone rc options/set --json '{"main": {"LogLevel": 8}}'

And this sets INFO level logs (-v)

rclone rc options/set --json '{"main": {"LogLevel": 7}}'

And this sets NOTICE level logs (normal without -v)

rclone rc options/set --json '{"main": {"LogLevel": 6}}'

rc/error: This returns an error {#rc/error}

This returns an error with the input as part of its error string. Useful for testing error handling.

rc/list: List all the registered remote control commands {#rc/list}

This lists all the registered remote control commands as a JSON map in the commands response.

rc/noop: Echo the input to the output parameters {#rc/noop}

This echoes the input parameters to the output parameters for testing purposes. It can be used to check that rclone is still alive and to check that parameter passing is working properly.

rc/noopauth: Echo the input to the output parameters requiring auth {#rc/noopauth}

This echoes the input parameters to the output parameters for testing purposes. It can be used to check that rclone is still alive and to check that parameter passing is working properly.

Authentication is required for this call.

sync/copy: copy a directory from source remote to destination remote {#sync/copy}

This takes the following parameters

srcFs - a remote name string eg "drive:src" for the source
dstFs - a remote name string eg "drive:dst" for the destination

See the copy command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_copy/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

sync/move: move a directory from source remote to destination remote {#sync/move}

This takes the following parameters

srcFs - a remote name string eg "drive:src" for the source
dstFs - a remote name string eg "drive:dst" for the destination
deleteEmptySrcDirs - delete empty src directories if set

See the move command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_move/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

sync/sync: sync a directory from source remote to destination remote {#sync/sync}

This takes the following parameters

srcFs - a remote name string eg "drive:src" for the source
dstFs - a remote name string eg "drive:dst" for the destination

See the sync command (https://rclone.org/commands/rclone_sync/) command for more information on the above.

Authentication is required for this call.

vfs/forget: Forget files or directories in the directory cache. {#vfs/forget}

This forgets the paths in the directory cache causing them to be re-read from the remote when needed.

If no paths are passed in then it will forget all the paths in the directory cache.

rclone rc vfs/forget

Otherwise pass files or dirs in as file=path or dir=path. Any parameter key starting with file will forget that file and any starting with dir will forget that dir, eg

rclone rc vfs/forget file=hello file2=goodbye dir=home/junk

vfs/poll-interval: Get the status or update the value of the poll-interval option. {#vfs/poll-interval}

Without any parameter given this returns the current status of the poll-interval setting.

When the interval=duration parameter is set, the poll-interval value is updated and the polling function is notified. Setting interval=0 disables poll-interval.

rclone rc vfs/poll-interval interval=5m

The timeout=duration parameter can be used to specify a time to wait for the current poll function to apply the new value. If timeout is less or equal 0, which is the default, wait indefinitely.

The new poll-interval value will only be active when the timeout is not reached.

If poll-interval is updated or disabled temporarily, some changes might not get picked up by the polling function, depending on the used remote.

vfs/refresh: Refresh the directory cache. {#vfs/refresh}

This reads the directories for the specified paths and freshens the directory cache.

If no paths are passed in then it will refresh the root directory.

rclone rc vfs/refresh

Otherwise pass directories in as dir=path. Any parameter key starting with dir will refresh that directory, eg

rclone rc vfs/refresh dir=home/junk dir2=data/misc

If the parameter recursive=true is given the whole directory tree will get refreshed. This refresh will use -fast-list if enabled.

Accessing the remote control via HTTP

Rclone implements a simple HTTP based protocol.

Each endpoint takes an JSON object and returns a JSON object or an error. The JSON objects are essentially a map of string names to values.

All calls must made using POST.

The input objects can be supplied using URL parameters, POST parameters or by supplying "Content-Type: application/json" and a JSON blob in the body. There are examples of these below using curl.

The response will be a JSON blob in the body of the response. This is formatted to be reasonably human readable.

Error returns

If an error occurs then there will be an HTTP error status (eg 500) and the body of the response will contain a JSON encoded error object, eg

{
    "error": "Expecting string value for key \"remote\" (was float64)",
    "input": {
        "fs": "/tmp",
        "remote": 3
    },
    "status": 400
    "path": "operations/rmdir",
}

The keys in the error response are - error - error string - input - the input parameters to the call - status - the HTTP status code - path - the path of the call

CORS

The sever implements basic CORS support and allows all origins for that. The response to a preflight OPTIONS request will echo the requested "Access-Control-Request-Headers" back.

Using POST with URL parameters only

curl -X POST 'http://localhost:5572/rc/noop?potato=1&sausage=2'

Response

{
    "potato": "1",
    "sausage": "2"
}

Here is what an error response looks like:

curl -X POST 'http://localhost:5572/rc/error?potato=1&sausage=2'
{
    "error": "arbitrary error on input map[potato:1 sausage:2]",
    "input": {
        "potato": "1",
        "sausage": "2"
    }
}

Note that curl doesn't return errors to the shell unless you use the -f option

$ curl -f -X POST 'http://localhost:5572/rc/error?potato=1&sausage=2'
curl: (22) The requested URL returned error: 400 Bad Request
$ echo $?
22

Using POST with a form

curl --data "potato=1" --data "sausage=2" http://localhost:5572/rc/noop

Response

{
    "potato": "1",
    "sausage": "2"
}

Note that you can combine these with URL parameters too with the POST parameters taking precedence.

curl --data "potato=1" --data "sausage=2" "http://localhost:5572/rc/noop?rutabaga=3&sausage=4"

Response

{
    "potato": "1",
    "rutabaga": "3",
    "sausage": "4"
}

Using POST with a JSON blob

curl -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d '{"potato":2,"sausage":1}' http://localhost:5572/rc/noop

response

{
    "password": "xyz",
    "username": "xyz"
}

This can be combined with URL parameters too if required. The JSON blob takes precedence.

curl -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d '{"potato":2,"sausage":1}' 'http://localhost:5572/rc/noop?rutabaga=3&potato=4'
{
    "potato": 2,
    "rutabaga": "3",
    "sausage": 1
}

Debugging rclone with pprof

If you use the --rc flag this will also enable the use of the go profiling tools on the same port.

To use these, first install go (https://golang.org/doc/install).

Debugging memory use

To profile rclone's memory use you can run:

go tool pprof -web http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/heap

This should open a page in your browser showing what is using what memory.

You can also use the -text flag to produce a textual summary

$ go tool pprof -text http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/heap
Showing nodes accounting for 1537.03kB, 100% of 1537.03kB total
      flat  flat%   sum%        cum   cum%
 1024.03kB 66.62% 66.62%  1024.03kB 66.62%  github.com/rclone/rclone/vendor/golang.org/x/net/http2/hpack.addDecoderNode
     513kB 33.38%   100%      513kB 33.38%  net/http.newBufioWriterSize
         0     0%   100%  1024.03kB 66.62%  github.com/rclone/rclone/cmd/all.init
         0     0%   100%  1024.03kB 66.62%  github.com/rclone/rclone/cmd/serve.init
         0     0%   100%  1024.03kB 66.62%  github.com/rclone/rclone/cmd/serve/restic.init
         0     0%   100%  1024.03kB 66.62%  github.com/rclone/rclone/vendor/golang.org/x/net/http2.init
         0     0%   100%  1024.03kB 66.62%  github.com/rclone/rclone/vendor/golang.org/x/net/http2/hpack.init
         0     0%   100%  1024.03kB 66.62%  github.com/rclone/rclone/vendor/golang.org/x/net/http2/hpack.init.0
         0     0%   100%  1024.03kB 66.62%  main.init
         0     0%   100%      513kB 33.38%  net/http.(*conn).readRequest
         0     0%   100%      513kB 33.38%  net/http.(*conn).serve
         0     0%   100%  1024.03kB 66.62%  runtime.main

Debugging go routine leaks

Memory leaks are most often caused by go routine leaks keeping memory alive which should have been garbage collected.

See all active go routines using

curl http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/goroutine?debug=1

Or go to http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/goroutine?debug=1 in your browser.

Other profiles to look at

You can see a summary of profiles available at http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/

Here is how to use some of them:

Memory: go tool pprof http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/heap
Go routines: curl http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/goroutine?debug=1
30-second CPU profile: go tool pprof http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/profile
5-second execution trace: wget http://localhost:5572/debug/pprof/trace?seconds=5

See the net/http/pprof docs (https://golang.org/pkg/net/http/pprof/) for more info on how to use the profiling and for a general overview see the Go team's blog post on profiling go programs (https://blog.golang.org/profiling-go-programs).

The profiling hook is zero overhead unless it is used (https://stackoverflow.com/q/26545159/164234).

Overview of cloud storage systems

Each cloud storage system is slightly different. Rclone attempts to provide a unified interface to them, but some underlying differences show through.

Features

Here is an overview of the major features of each cloud storage system.

Name Hash ModTime Case Insensitive Duplicate Files MIME Type

1Fichier Whirlpool No No Yes R
Amazon Drive MD5 No Yes No R
Amazon S3 MD5 Yes No No R/W
Backblaze B2 SHA1 Yes No No R/W
Box SHA1 Yes Yes No -
Citrix ShareFile MD5 Yes Yes No -
Dropbox DBHASH - Yes Yes No -
FTP - No No No -
Google Cloud Storage MD5 Yes No No R/W
Google Drive MD5 Yes No Yes R/W
Google Photos - No No Yes R
HTTP - No No No R
Hubic MD5 Yes No No R/W
Jottacloud MD5 Yes Yes No R/W
Koofr MD5 No Yes No -
Mail.ru Cloud Mailru === Yes Yes No -
Mega - No No Yes -
Microsoft Azure Blob Storage MD5 Yes No No R/W
Microsoft OneDrive SHA1 == Yes Yes No R
OpenDrive MD5 Yes Yes No -
Openstack Swift MD5 Yes No No R/W
pCloud MD5, SHA1 Yes No No W
premiumize.me - No Yes No R
put.io CRC-32 Yes No Yes R
QingStor MD5 No No No R/W
SFTP MD5, SHA1 = Yes Depends No -
WebDAV MD5, SHA1 -- Yes --- Depends No -
Yandex Disk MD5 Yes No No R/W
The local filesystem All Yes Depends No -

Hash

The cloud storage system supports various hash types of the objects. The hashes are used when transferring data as an integrity check and can be specifically used with the --checksum flag in syncs and in the check command.

To use the verify checksums when transferring between cloud storage systems they must support a common hash type.

- Note that Dropbox supports its own custom hash (https://www.dropbox.com/developers/reference/content-hash). This is an SHA256 sum of all the 4MB block SHA256s.

= SFTP supports checksums if the same login has shell access and md5sum or sha1sum as well as echo are in the remote's PATH.

-- WebDAV supports hashes when used with Owncloud and Nextcloud only.

--- WebDAV supports modtimes when used with Owncloud and Nextcloud only.

== Microsoft OneDrive Personal supports SHA1 hashes, whereas OneDrive for business and SharePoint server support Microsoft's own QuickXorHash (https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/onedrive/developer/code-snippets/quickxorhash).

=== Mail.ru uses its own modified SHA1 hash

ModTime

The cloud storage system supports setting modification times on objects. If it does then this enables a using the modification times as part of the sync. If not then only the size will be checked by default, though the MD5SUM can be checked with the --checksum flag.

All cloud storage systems support some kind of date on the object and these will be set when transferring from the cloud storage system.

Case Insensitive

If a cloud storage systems is case sensitive then it is possible to have two files which differ only in case, eg file.txt and FILE.txt. If a cloud storage system is case insensitive then that isn't possible.

This can cause problems when syncing between a case insensitive system and a case sensitive system. The symptom of this is that no matter how many times you run the sync it never completes fully.

The local filesystem and SFTP may or may not be case sensitive depending on OS.

Windows - usually case insensitive, though case is preserved
OSX - usually case insensitive, though it is possible to format case sensitive
Linux - usually case sensitive, but there are case insensitive file systems (eg FAT formatted USB keys)

Most of the time this doesn't cause any problems as people tend to avoid files whose name differs only by case even on case sensitive systems.

Duplicate files

If a cloud storage system allows duplicate files then it can have two objects with the same name.

This confuses rclone greatly when syncing - use the rclone dedupe command to rename or remove duplicates.

Restricted filenames

Some cloud storage systems might have restrictions on the characters that are usable in file or directory names. When rclone detects such a name during a file upload, it will transparently replace the restricted characters with similar looking Unicode characters.

This process is designed to avoid ambiguous file names as much as possible and allow to move files between many cloud storage systems transparently.

The name shown by rclone to the user or during log output will only contain a minimal set of replaced characters to ensure correct formatting and not necessarily the actual name used on the cloud storage.

This transformation is reversed when downloading a file or parsing rclone arguments. For example, when uploading a file named my file?.txt to Onedrive will be displayed as my file?.txt on the console, but stored as my file1F.txt (the ? gets replaced by the similar looking 1F character) to Onedrive. The reverse transformation allows to read a fileunusual/name.txt from Google Drive, by passing the name unusual0Fname.txt (the / needs to be replaced by the similar looking 0F character) on the command line.

Default restricted characters

The table below shows the characters that are replaced by default.

When a replacement character is found in a filename, this character will be escaped with the 1B character to avoid ambiguous file names. (e.g. a file named 00.txt would shown as 1B00.txt)

Each cloud storage backend can use a different set of characters, which will be specified in the documentation for each backend.

Character Value Replacement

NUL 0x00 00
SOH 0x01 01
STX 0x02 02
ETX 0x03 03
EOT 0x04 04
ENQ 0x05 05
ACK 0x06 06
BEL 0x07 07
BS 0x08 08
HT 0x09 09
LF 0x0A 0A
VT 0x0B 0B
FF 0x0C 0C
CR 0x0D 0D
SO 0x0E 0E
SI 0x0F 0F
DLE 0x10 10
DC1 0x11 11
DC2 0x12 12
DC3 0x13 13
DC4 0x14 14
NAK 0x15 15
SYN 0x16 16
ETB 0x17 17
CAN 0x18 18
EM 0x19 19
SUB 0x1A 1A
ESC 0x1B 1B
FS 0x1C 1C
GS 0x1D 1D
RS 0x1E 1E
US 0x1F 1F
/ 0x2F 0F
DEL 0x7F 21

The default encoding will also encode these file names as they are problematic with many cloud storage systems.

File name Replacement

. 0E
.. 0E0E

Invalid UTF-8 bytes

Some backends only support a sequence of well formed UTF-8 bytes as file or directory names.

In this case all invalid UTF-8 bytes will be replaced with a quoted representation of the byte value to allow uploading a file to such a backend. For example, the invalid byte 0xFE will be encoded as 1BFE.

A common source of invalid UTF-8 bytes are local filesystems, that store names in a different encoding than UTF-8 or UTF-16, like latin1. See the local filenames (/local/#filenames) section for details.

MIME Type

MIME types (also known as media types) classify types of documents using a simple text classification, eg text/html or application/pdf.

Some cloud storage systems support reading (R) the MIME type of objects and some support writing (W) the MIME type of objects.

The MIME type can be important if you are serving files directly to HTTP from the storage system.

If you are copying from a remote which supports reading (R) to a remote which supports writing (W) then rclone will preserve the MIME types. Otherwise they will be guessed from the extension, or the remote itself may assign the MIME type.

Optional Features

All the remotes support a basic set of features, but there are some optional features supported by some remotes used to make some operations more efficient.

Name Purge Copy Move DirMove CleanUp ListR StreamUpload LinkSharing About EmptyDir

1Fichier No No No No No No No No No Yes
Amazon Drive Yes No Yes Yes No #575 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/575) No No No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) No Yes
Amazon S3 No Yes No No No Yes Yes No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) No No
Backblaze B2 No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Box Yes Yes Yes Yes No #575 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/575) No Yes Yes No Yes
Citrix ShareFile Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes
Dropbox Yes Yes Yes Yes No #575 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/575) No Yes Yes Yes Yes
FTP No No Yes Yes No No Yes No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) No Yes
Google Cloud Storage Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) No No
Google Drive Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Google Photos No No No No No No No No No No
HTTP No No No No No No No No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) No Yes
Hubic Yes - Yes No No No Yes Yes No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) Yes No
Jottacloud Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Mail.ru Cloud Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
Mega Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) Yes Yes
Microsoft Azure Blob Storage Yes Yes No No No Yes No No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) No No
Microsoft OneDrive Yes Yes Yes Yes No #575 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/575) No No Yes Yes Yes
OpenDrive Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes
Openstack Swift Yes - Yes No No No Yes Yes No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) Yes No
pCloud Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) Yes Yes
premiumize.me Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes
put.io Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) Yes Yes
QingStor No Yes No No No Yes No No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) No No
SFTP No No Yes Yes No No Yes No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) Yes Yes
WebDAV Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes = No #2178 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2178) Yes Yes
Yandex Disk Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
The local filesystem Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes

Purge

This deletes a directory quicker than just deleting all the files in the directory.

- Note Swift and Hubic implement this in order to delete directory markers but they don't actually have a quicker way of deleting files other than deleting them individually.

= StreamUpload is not supported with Nextcloud

Copy

Used when copying an object to and from the same remote. This known as a server side copy so you can copy a file without downloading it and uploading it again. It is used if you use rclone copy or rclone move if the remote doesn't support Move directly.

If the server doesn't support Copy directly then for copy operations the file is downloaded then re-uploaded.

Move

Used when moving/renaming an object on the same remote. This is known as a server side move of a file. This is used in rclone move if the server doesn't support DirMove.

If the server isn't capable of Move then rclone simulates it with Copy then delete. If the server doesn't support Copy then rclone will download the file and re-upload it.

DirMove

This is used to implement rclone move to move a directory if possible. If it isn't then it will use Move on each file (which falls back to Copy then download and upload - see Move section).

CleanUp

This is used for emptying the trash for a remote by rclone cleanup.

If the server can't do CleanUp then rclone cleanup will return an error.

ListR

The remote supports a recursive list to list all the contents beneath a directory quickly. This enables the --fast-list flag to work. See the rclone docs (/docs/#fast-list) for more details.

StreamUpload

Some remotes allow files to be uploaded without knowing the file size in advance. This allows certain operations to work without spooling the file to local disk first, e.g. rclone rcat.

LinkSharing

Sets the necessary permissions on a file or folder and prints a link that allows others to access them, even if they don't have an account on the particular cloud provider.

About

This is used to fetch quota information from the remote, like bytes used/free/quota and bytes used in the trash.

This is also used to return the space used, available for rclone mount.

If the server can't do About then rclone about will return an error.

EmptyDir

The remote supports empty directories. See Limitations (/bugs/#limitations) for details. Most Object/Bucket based remotes do not support this.

Global Flags

This describes the global flags available to every rclone command split into two groups, non backend and backend flags.

Non Backend Flags

These flags are available for every command.

      --ask-password                         Allow prompt for password for encrypted configuration. (default true)
      --auto-confirm                         If enabled, do not request console confirmation.
      --backup-dir string                    Make backups into hierarchy based in DIR.
      --bind string                          Local address to bind to for outgoing connections, IPv4, IPv6 or name.
      --buffer-size SizeSuffix               In memory buffer size when reading files for each --transfer. (default 16M)
      --bwlimit BwTimetable                  Bandwidth limit in kBytes/s, or use suffix b|k|M|G or a full timetable.
      --ca-cert string                       CA certificate used to verify servers
      --cache-dir string                     Directory rclone will use for caching. (default "$HOME/.cache/rclone")
      --checkers int                         Number of checkers to run in parallel. (default 8)
  -c, --checksum                             Skip based on checksum (if available) & size, not mod-time & size
      --client-cert string                   Client SSL certificate (PEM) for mutual TLS auth
      --client-key string                    Client SSL private key (PEM) for mutual TLS auth
      --compare-dest string                  use DIR to server side copy flies from.
      --config string                        Config file. (default "$HOME/.config/rclone/rclone.conf")
      --contimeout duration                  Connect timeout (default 1m0s)
      --copy-dest string                     Compare dest to DIR also.
      --cpuprofile string                    Write cpu profile to file
      --delete-after                         When synchronizing, delete files on destination after transferring (default)
      --delete-before                        When synchronizing, delete files on destination before transferring
      --delete-during                        When synchronizing, delete files during transfer
      --delete-excluded                      Delete files on dest excluded from sync
      --disable string                       Disable a comma separated list of features.  Use help to see a list.
  -n, --dry-run                              Do a trial run with no permanent changes
      --dump DumpFlags                       List of items to dump from: headers,bodies,requests,responses,auth,filters,goroutines,openfiles
      --dump-bodies                          Dump HTTP headers and bodies - may contain sensitive info
      --dump-headers                         Dump HTTP headers - may contain sensitive info
      --exclude stringArray                  Exclude files matching pattern
      --exclude-from stringArray             Read exclude patterns from file
      --exclude-if-present string            Exclude directories if filename is present
      --fast-list                            Use recursive list if available. Uses more memory but fewer transactions.
      --files-from stringArray               Read list of source-file names from file
  -f, --filter stringArray                   Add a file-filtering rule
      --filter-from stringArray              Read filtering patterns from a file
      --ignore-case                          Ignore case in filters (case insensitive)
      --ignore-case-sync                     Ignore case when synchronizing
      --ignore-checksum                      Skip post copy check of checksums.
      --ignore-errors                        delete even if there are I/O errors
      --ignore-existing                      Skip all files that exist on destination
      --ignore-size                          Ignore size when skipping use mod-time or checksum.
  -I, --ignore-times                         Don't skip files that match size and time - transfer all files
      --immutable                            Do not modify files. Fail if existing files have been modified.
      --include stringArray                  Include files matching pattern
      --include-from stringArray             Read include patterns from file
      --log-file string                      Log everything to this file
      --log-format string                    Comma separated list of log format options (default "date,time")
      --log-level string                     Log level DEBUG|INFO|NOTICE|ERROR (default "NOTICE")
      --low-level-retries int                Number of low level retries to do. (default 10)
      --max-age Duration                     Only transfer files younger than this in s or suffix ms|s|m|h|d|w|M|y (default off)
      --max-backlog int                      Maximum number of objects in sync or check backlog. (default 10000)
      --max-delete int                       When synchronizing, limit the number of deletes (default -1)
      --max-depth int                        If set limits the recursion depth to this. (default -1)
      --max-size SizeSuffix                  Only transfer files smaller than this in k or suffix b|k|M|G (default off)
      --max-stats-groups int                 Maximum number of stats groups to keep in memory. On max oldest is discarded. (default 1000)
      --max-transfer SizeSuffix              Maximum size of data to transfer. (default off)
      --memprofile string                    Write memory profile to file
      --min-age Duration                     Only transfer files older than this in s or suffix ms|s|m|h|d|w|M|y (default off)
      --min-size SizeSuffix                  Only transfer files bigger than this in k or suffix b|k|M|G (default off)
      --modify-window duration               Max time diff to be considered the same (default 1ns)
      --multi-thread-cutoff SizeSuffix       Use multi-thread downloads for files above this size. (default 250M)
      --multi-thread-streams int             Max number of streams to use for multi-thread downloads. (default 4)
      --no-check-certificate                 Do not verify the server SSL certificate. Insecure.
      --no-gzip-encoding                     Don't set Accept-Encoding: gzip.
      --no-traverse                          Don't traverse destination file system on copy.
      --no-update-modtime                    Don't update destination mod-time if files identical.
  -P, --progress                             Show progress during transfer.
  -q, --quiet                                Print as little stuff as possible
      --rc                                   Enable the remote control server.
      --rc-addr string                       IPaddress:Port or :Port to bind server to. (default "localhost:5572")
      --rc-allow-origin string               Set the allowed origin for CORS.
      --rc-baseurl string                    Prefix for URLs - leave blank for root.
      --rc-cert string                       SSL PEM key (concatenation of certificate and CA certificate)
      --rc-client-ca string                  Client certificate authority to verify clients with
      --rc-files string                      Path to local files to serve on the HTTP server.
      --rc-htpasswd string                   htpasswd file - if not provided no authentication is done
      --rc-job-expire-duration duration      expire finished async jobs older than this value (default 1m0s)
      --rc-job-expire-interval duration      interval to check for expired async jobs (default 10s)
      --rc-key string                        SSL PEM Private key
      --rc-max-header-bytes int              Maximum size of request header (default 4096)
      --rc-no-auth                           Don't require auth for certain methods.
      --rc-pass string                       Password for authentication.
      --rc-realm string                      realm for authentication (default "rclone")
      --rc-serve                             Enable the serving of remote objects.
      --rc-server-read-timeout duration      Timeout for server reading data (default 1h0m0s)
      --rc-server-write-timeout duration     Timeout for server writing data (default 1h0m0s)
      --rc-user string                       User name for authentication.
      --rc-web-fetch-url string              URL to fetch the releases for webgui. (default "https://api.github.com/repos/rclone/rclone-webui-react/releases/latest")
      --rc-web-gui                           Launch WebGUI on localhost
      --rc-web-gui-update                    Update / Force update to latest version of web gui
      --retries int                          Retry operations this many times if they fail (default 3)
      --retries-sleep duration               Interval between retrying operations if they fail, e.g 500ms, 60s, 5m. (0 to disable)
      --size-only                            Skip based on size only, not mod-time or checksum
      --stats duration                       Interval between printing stats, e.g 500ms, 60s, 5m. (0 to disable) (default 1m0s)
      --stats-file-name-length int           Max file name length in stats. 0 for no limit (default 45)
      --stats-log-level string               Log level to show --stats output DEBUG|INFO|NOTICE|ERROR (default "INFO")
      --stats-one-line                       Make the stats fit on one line.
      --stats-one-line-date                  Enables --stats-one-line and add current date/time prefix.
      --stats-one-line-date-format string    Enables --stats-one-line-date and uses custom formatted date. Enclose date string in double quotes ("). See https://golang.org/pkg/time/#Time.Format
      --stats-unit string                    Show data rate in stats as either 'bits' or 'bytes'/s (default "bytes")
      --streaming-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix   Cutoff for switching to chunked upload if file size is unknown. Upload starts after reaching cutoff or when file ends. (default 100k)
      --suffix string                        Suffix to add to changed files.
      --suffix-keep-extension                Preserve the extension when using --suffix.
      --syslog                               Use Syslog for logging
      --syslog-facility string               Facility for syslog, eg KERN,USER,... (default "DAEMON")
      --timeout duration                     IO idle timeout (default 5m0s)
      --tpslimit float                       Limit HTTP transactions per second to this.
      --tpslimit-burst int                   Max burst of transactions for --tpslimit. (default 1)
      --track-renames                        When synchronizing, track file renames and do a server side move if possible
      --transfers int                        Number of file transfers to run in parallel. (default 4)
  -u, --update                               Skip files that are newer on the destination.
      --use-cookies                          Enable session cookiejar.
      --use-json-log                         Use json log format.
      --use-mmap                             Use mmap allocator (see docs).
      --use-server-modtime                   Use server modified time instead of object metadata
      --user-agent string                    Set the user-agent to a specified string. The default is rclone/ version (default "rclone/v1.50.2")
  -v, --verbose count                        Print lots more stuff (repeat for more)

Backend Flags

These flags are available for every command. They control the backends and may be set in the config file.

      --acd-auth-url string                          Auth server URL.
      --acd-client-id string                         Amazon Application Client ID.
      --acd-client-secret string                     Amazon Application Client Secret.
      --acd-templink-threshold SizeSuffix            Files >= this size will be downloaded via their tempLink. (default 9G)
      --acd-token-url string                         Token server url.
      --acd-upload-wait-per-gb Duration              Additional time per GB to wait after a failed complete upload to see if it appears. (default 3m0s)
      --alias-remote string                          Remote or path to alias.
      --azureblob-access-tier string                 Access tier of blob: hot, cool or archive.
      --azureblob-account string                     Storage Account Name (leave blank to use SAS URL or Emulator)
      --azureblob-chunk-size SizeSuffix              Upload chunk size (<= 100MB). (default 4M)
      --azureblob-endpoint string                    Endpoint for the service
      --azureblob-key string                         Storage Account Key (leave blank to use SAS URL or Emulator)
      --azureblob-list-chunk int                     Size of blob list. (default 5000)
      --azureblob-sas-url string                     SAS URL for container level access only
      --azureblob-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix           Cutoff for switching to chunked upload (<= 256MB). (default 256M)
      --azureblob-use-emulator                       Uses local storage emulator if provided as 'true' (leave blank if using real azure storage endpoint)
      --b2-account string                            Account ID or Application Key ID
      --b2-chunk-size SizeSuffix                     Upload chunk size. Must fit in memory. (default 96M)
      --b2-disable-checksum                          Disable checksums for large (> upload cutoff) files
      --b2-download-auth-duration Duration           Time before the authorization token will expire in s or suffix ms|s|m|h|d. (default 1w)
      --b2-download-url string                       Custom endpoint for downloads.
      --b2-endpoint string                           Endpoint for the service.
      --b2-hard-delete                               Permanently delete files on remote removal, otherwise hide files.
      --b2-key string                                Application Key
      --b2-test-mode string                          A flag string for X-Bz-Test-Mode header for debugging.
      --b2-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix                  Cutoff for switching to chunked upload. (default 200M)
      --b2-versions                                  Include old versions in directory listings.
      --box-box-config-file string                   Box App config.json location
      --box-box-sub-type string                       (default "user")
      --box-client-id string                         Box App Client Id.
      --box-client-secret string                     Box App Client Secret
      --box-commit-retries int                       Max number of times to try committing a multipart file. (default 100)
      --box-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix                 Cutoff for switching to multipart upload (>= 50MB). (default 50M)
      --cache-chunk-clean-interval Duration          How often should the cache perform cleanups of the chunk storage. (default 1m0s)
      --cache-chunk-no-memory                        Disable the in-memory cache for storing chunks during streaming.
      --cache-chunk-path string                      Directory to cache chunk files. (default "$HOME/.cache/rclone/cache-backend")
      --cache-chunk-size SizeSuffix                  The size of a chunk (partial file data). (default 5M)
      --cache-chunk-total-size SizeSuffix            The total size that the chunks can take up on the local disk. (default 10G)
      --cache-db-path string                         Directory to store file structure metadata DB. (default "$HOME/.cache/rclone/cache-backend")
      --cache-db-purge                               Clear all the cached data for this remote on start.
      --cache-db-wait-time Duration                  How long to wait for the DB to be available - 0 is unlimited (default 1s)
      --cache-info-age Duration                      How long to cache file structure information (directory listings, file size, times etc). (default 6h0m0s)
      --cache-plex-insecure string                   Skip all certificate verifications when connecting to the Plex server
      --cache-plex-password string                   The password of the Plex user
      --cache-plex-url string                        The URL of the Plex server
      --cache-plex-username string                   The username of the Plex user
      --cache-read-retries int                       How many times to retry a read from a cache storage. (default 10)
      --cache-remote string                          Remote to cache.
      --cache-rps int                                Limits the number of requests per second to the source FS (-1 to disable) (default -1)
      --cache-tmp-upload-path string                 Directory to keep temporary files until they are uploaded.
      --cache-tmp-wait-time Duration                 How long should files be stored in local cache before being uploaded (default 15s)
      --cache-workers int                            How many workers should run in parallel to download chunks. (default 4)
      --cache-writes                                 Cache file data on writes through the FS
      --chunker-chunk-size SizeSuffix                Files larger than chunk size will be split in chunks. (default 2G)
      --chunker-fail-hard                            Choose how chunker should handle files with missing or invalid chunks.
      --chunker-hash-type string                     Choose how chunker handles hash sums. All modes but "none" require metadata. (default "md5")
      --chunker-meta-format string                   Format of the metadata object or "none". By default "simplejson". (default "simplejson")
      --chunker-name-format string                   String format of chunk file names. (default "*.rclone_chunk.###")
      --chunker-remote string                        Remote to chunk/unchunk.
      --chunker-start-from int                       Minimum valid chunk number. Usually 0 or 1. (default 1)
  -L, --copy-links                                   Follow symlinks and copy the pointed to item.
      --crypt-directory-name-encryption              Option to either encrypt directory names or leave them intact. (default true)
      --crypt-filename-encryption string             How to encrypt the filenames. (default "standard")
      --crypt-password string                        Password or pass phrase for encryption.
      --crypt-password2 string                       Password or pass phrase for salt. Optional but recommended.
      --crypt-remote string                          Remote to encrypt/decrypt.
      --crypt-show-mapping                           For all files listed show how the names encrypt.
      --drive-acknowledge-abuse                      Set to allow files which return cannotDownloadAbusiveFile to be downloaded.
      --drive-allow-import-name-change               Allow the filetype to change when uploading Google docs (e.g. file.doc to file.docx). This will confuse sync and reupload every time.
      --drive-alternate-export                       Use alternate export URLs for google documents export.,
      --drive-auth-owner-only                        Only consider files owned by the authenticated user.
      --drive-chunk-size SizeSuffix                  Upload chunk size. Must a power of 2 >= 256k. (default 8M)
      --drive-client-id string                       Google Application Client Id
      --drive-client-secret string                   Google Application Client Secret
      --drive-disable-http2                          Disable drive using http2 (default true)
      --drive-export-formats string                  Comma separated list of preferred formats for downloading Google docs. (default "docx,xlsx,pptx,svg")
      --drive-formats string                         Deprecated: see export_formats
      --drive-impersonate string                     Impersonate this user when using a service account.
      --drive-import-formats string                  Comma separated list of preferred formats for uploading Google docs.
      --drive-keep-revision-forever                  Keep new head revision of each file forever.
      --drive-list-chunk int                         Size of listing chunk 100-1000. 0 to disable. (default 1000)
      --drive-pacer-burst int                        Number of API calls to allow without sleeping. (default 100)
      --drive-pacer-min-sleep Duration               Minimum time to sleep between API calls. (default 100ms)
      --drive-root-folder-id string                  ID of the root folder
      --drive-scope string                           Scope that rclone should use when requesting access from drive.
      --drive-server-side-across-configs             Allow server side operations (eg copy) to work across different drive configs.
      --drive-service-account-credentials string     Service Account Credentials JSON blob
      --drive-service-account-file string            Service Account Credentials JSON file path
      --drive-shared-with-me                         Only show files that are shared with me.
      --drive-size-as-quota                          Show storage quota usage for file size.
      --drive-skip-checksum-gphotos                  Skip MD5 checksum on Google photos and videos only.
      --drive-skip-gdocs                             Skip google documents in all listings.
      --drive-team-drive string                      ID of the Team Drive
      --drive-trashed-only                           Only show files that are in the trash.
      --drive-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix               Cutoff for switching to chunked upload (default 8M)
      --drive-use-created-date                       Use file created date instead of modified date.,
      --drive-use-trash                              Send files to the trash instead of deleting permanently. (default true)
      --drive-v2-download-min-size SizeSuffix        If Object's are greater, use drive v2 API to download. (default off)
      --dropbox-chunk-size SizeSuffix                Upload chunk size. (< 150M). (default 48M)
      --dropbox-client-id string                     Dropbox App Client Id
      --dropbox-client-secret string                 Dropbox App Client Secret
      --dropbox-impersonate string                   Impersonate this user when using a business account.
      --fichier-api-key string                       Your API Key, get it from https://1fichier.com/console/params.pl
      --fichier-shared-folder string                 If you want to download a shared folder, add this parameter
      --ftp-concurrency int                          Maximum number of FTP simultaneous connections, 0 for unlimited
      --ftp-disable-epsv                             Disable using EPSV even if server advertises support
      --ftp-host string                              FTP host to connect to
      --ftp-no-check-certificate                     Do not verify the TLS certificate of the server
      --ftp-pass string                              FTP password
      --ftp-port string                              FTP port, leave blank to use default (21)
      --ftp-tls                                      Use FTP over TLS (Implicit)
      --ftp-user string                              FTP username, leave blank for current username, $USER
      --gcs-bucket-acl string                        Access Control List for new buckets.
      --gcs-bucket-policy-only                       Access checks should use bucket-level IAM policies.
      --gcs-client-id string                         Google Application Client Id
      --gcs-client-secret string                     Google Application Client Secret
      --gcs-location string                          Location for the newly created buckets.
      --gcs-object-acl string                        Access Control List for new objects.
      --gcs-project-number string                    Project number.
      --gcs-service-account-file string              Service Account Credentials JSON file path
      --gcs-storage-class string                     The storage class to use when storing objects in Google Cloud Storage.
      --gphotos-client-id string                     Google Application Client Id
      --gphotos-client-secret string                 Google Application Client Secret
      --gphotos-read-only                            Set to make the Google Photos backend read only.
      --gphotos-read-size                            Set to read the size of media items.
      --http-headers CommaSepList                    Set HTTP headers for all transactions
      --http-no-head                                 Don't use HEAD requests to find file sizes in dir listing
      --http-no-slash                                Set this if the site doesn't end directories with /
      --http-url string                              URL of http host to connect to
      --hubic-chunk-size SizeSuffix                  Above this size files will be chunked into a _segments container. (default 5G)
      --hubic-client-id string                       Hubic Client Id
      --hubic-client-secret string                   Hubic Client Secret
      --hubic-no-chunk                               Don't chunk files during streaming upload.
      --jottacloud-hard-delete                       Delete files permanently rather than putting them into the trash.
      --jottacloud-md5-memory-limit SizeSuffix       Files bigger than this will be cached on disk to calculate the MD5 if required. (default 10M)
      --jottacloud-unlink                            Remove existing public link to file/folder with link command rather than creating.
      --jottacloud-upload-resume-limit SizeSuffix    Files bigger than this can be resumed if the upload fail's. (default 10M)
      --koofr-endpoint string                        The Koofr API endpoint to use (default "https://app.koofr.net")
      --koofr-mountid string                         Mount ID of the mount to use. If omitted, the primary mount is used.
      --koofr-password string                        Your Koofr password for rclone (generate one at https://app.koofr.net/app/admin/preferences/password)
      --koofr-setmtime                               Does the backend support setting modification time. Set this to false if you use a mount ID that points to a Dropbox or Amazon Drive backend. (default true)
      --koofr-user string                            Your Koofr user name
  -l, --links                                        Translate symlinks to/from regular files with a '.rclonelink' extension
      --local-case-insensitive                       Force the filesystem to report itself as case insensitive
      --local-case-sensitive                         Force the filesystem to report itself as case sensitive.
      --local-no-check-updated                       Don't check to see if the files change during upload
      --local-no-unicode-normalization               Don't apply unicode normalization to paths and filenames (Deprecated)
      --local-nounc string                           Disable UNC (long path names) conversion on Windows
      --mailru-check-hash                            What should copy do if file checksum is mismatched or invalid (default true)
      --mailru-pass string                           Password
      --mailru-speedup-enable                        Skip full upload if there is another file with same data hash. (default true)
      --mailru-speedup-file-patterns string          Comma separated list of file name patterns eligible for speedup (put by hash). (default "*.mkv,*.avi,*.mp4,*.mp3,*.zip,*.gz,*.rar,*.pdf")
      --mailru-speedup-max-disk SizeSuffix           This option allows you to disable speedup (put by hash) for large files (default 3G)
      --mailru-speedup-max-memory SizeSuffix         Files larger than the size given below will always be hashed on disk. (default 32M)
      --mailru-user string                           User name (usually email)
      --mega-debug                                   Output more debug from Mega.
      --mega-hard-delete                             Delete files permanently rather than putting them into the trash.
      --mega-pass string                             Password.
      --mega-user string                             User name
  -x, --one-file-system                              Don't cross filesystem boundaries (unix/macOS only).
      --onedrive-chunk-size SizeSuffix               Chunk size to upload files with - must be multiple of 320k (327,680 bytes). (default 10M)
      --onedrive-client-id string                    Microsoft App Client Id
      --onedrive-client-secret string                Microsoft App Client Secret
      --onedrive-drive-id string                     The ID of the drive to use
      --onedrive-drive-type string                   The type of the drive ( personal | business | documentLibrary )
      --onedrive-expose-onenote-files                Set to make OneNote files show up in directory listings.
      --opendrive-password string                    Password.
      --opendrive-username string                    Username
      --pcloud-client-id string                      Pcloud App Client Id
      --pcloud-client-secret string                  Pcloud App Client Secret
      --qingstor-access-key-id string                QingStor Access Key ID
      --qingstor-chunk-size SizeSuffix               Chunk size to use for uploading. (default 4M)
      --qingstor-connection-retries int              Number of connection retries. (default 3)
      --qingstor-endpoint string                     Enter a endpoint URL to connection QingStor API.
      --qingstor-env-auth                            Get QingStor credentials from runtime. Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank.
      --qingstor-secret-access-key string            QingStor Secret Access Key (password)
      --qingstor-upload-concurrency int              Concurrency for multipart uploads. (default 1)
      --qingstor-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix            Cutoff for switching to chunked upload (default 200M)
      --qingstor-zone string                         Zone to connect to.
      --s3-access-key-id string                      AWS Access Key ID.
      --s3-acl string                                Canned ACL used when creating buckets and storing or copying objects.
      --s3-bucket-acl string                         Canned ACL used when creating buckets.
      --s3-chunk-size SizeSuffix                     Chunk size to use for uploading. (default 5M)
      --s3-disable-checksum                          Don't store MD5 checksum with object metadata
      --s3-endpoint string                           Endpoint for S3 API.
      --s3-env-auth                                  Get AWS credentials from runtime (environment variables or EC2/ECS meta data if no env vars).
      --s3-force-path-style                          If true use path style access if false use virtual hosted style. (default true)
      --s3-leave-parts-on-error                      If true avoid calling abort upload on a failure, leaving all successfully uploaded parts on S3 for manual recovery.
      --s3-location-constraint string                Location constraint - must be set to match the Region.
      --s3-provider string                           Choose your S3 provider.
      --s3-region string                             Region to connect to.
      --s3-secret-access-key string                  AWS Secret Access Key (password)
      --s3-server-side-encryption string             The server-side encryption algorithm used when storing this object in S3.
      --s3-session-token string                      An AWS session token
      --s3-sse-kms-key-id string                     If using KMS ID you must provide the ARN of Key.
      --s3-storage-class string                      The storage class to use when storing new objects in S3.
      --s3-upload-concurrency int                    Concurrency for multipart uploads. (default 4)
      --s3-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix                  Cutoff for switching to chunked upload (default 200M)
      --s3-use-accelerate-endpoint                   If true use the AWS S3 accelerated endpoint.
      --s3-v2-auth                                   If true use v2 authentication.
      --sftp-ask-password                            Allow asking for SFTP password when needed.
      --sftp-disable-hashcheck                       Disable the execution of SSH commands to determine if remote file hashing is available.
      --sftp-host string                             SSH host to connect to
      --sftp-key-file string                         Path to PEM-encoded private key file, leave blank or set key-use-agent to use ssh-agent.
      --sftp-key-file-pass string                    The passphrase to decrypt the PEM-encoded private key file.
      --sftp-key-use-agent                           When set forces the usage of the ssh-agent.
      --sftp-md5sum-command string                   The command used to read md5 hashes. Leave blank for autodetect.
      --sftp-pass string                             SSH password, leave blank to use ssh-agent.
      --sftp-path-override string                    Override path used by SSH connection.
      --sftp-port string                             SSH port, leave blank to use default (22)
      --sftp-set-modtime                             Set the modified time on the remote if set. (default true)
      --sftp-sha1sum-command string                  The command used to read sha1 hashes. Leave blank for autodetect.
      --sftp-use-insecure-cipher                     Enable the use of insecure ciphers and key exchange methods.
      --sftp-user string                             SSH username, leave blank for current username, ncw
      --sharefile-chunk-size SizeSuffix              Upload chunk size. Must a power of 2 >= 256k. (default 64M)
      --sharefile-endpoint string                    Endpoint for API calls.
      --sharefile-root-folder-id string              ID of the root folder
      --sharefile-upload-cutoff SizeSuffix           Cutoff for switching to multipart upload. (default 128M)
      --skip-links                                   Don't warn about skipped symlinks.
      --swift-application-credential-id string       Application Credential ID (OS_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_ID)
      --swift-application-credential-name string     Application Credential Name (OS_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_NAME)
      --swift-application-credential-secret string   Application Credential Secret (OS_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_SECRET)
      --swift-auth string                            Authentication URL for server (OS_AUTH_URL).
      --swift-auth-token string                      Auth Token from alternate authentication - optional (OS_AUTH_TOKEN)
      --swift-auth-version int                       AuthVersion - optional - set to (1,2,3) if your auth URL has no version (ST_AUTH_VERSION)
      --swift-chunk-size SizeSuffix                  Above this size files will be chunked into a _segments container. (default 5G)
      --swift-domain string                          User domain - optional (v3 auth) (OS_USER_DOMAIN_NAME)
      --swift-endpoint-type string                   Endpoint type to choose from the service catalogue (OS_ENDPOINT_TYPE) (default "public")
      --swift-env-auth                               Get swift credentials from environment variables in standard OpenStack form.
      --swift-key string                             API key or password (OS_PASSWORD).
      --swift-no-chunk                               Don't chunk files during streaming upload.
      --swift-region string                          Region name - optional (OS_REGION_NAME)
      --swift-storage-policy string                  The storage policy to use when creating a new container
      --swift-storage-url string                     Storage URL - optional (OS_STORAGE_URL)
      --swift-tenant string                          Tenant name - optional for v1 auth, this or tenant_id required otherwise (OS_TENANT_NAME or OS_PROJECT_NAME)
      --swift-tenant-domain string                   Tenant domain - optional (v3 auth) (OS_PROJECT_DOMAIN_NAME)
      --swift-tenant-id string                       Tenant ID - optional for v1 auth, this or tenant required otherwise (OS_TENANT_ID)
      --swift-user string                            User name to log in (OS_USERNAME).
      --swift-user-id string                         User ID to log in - optional - most swift systems use user and leave this blank (v3 auth) (OS_USER_ID).
      --union-remotes string                         List of space separated remotes.
      --webdav-bearer-token string                   Bearer token instead of user/pass (eg a Macaroon)
      --webdav-bearer-token-command string           Command to run to get a bearer token
      --webdav-pass string                           Password.
      --webdav-url string                            URL of http host to connect to
      --webdav-user string                           User name
      --webdav-vendor string                         Name of the Webdav site/service/software you are using
      --yandex-client-id string                      Yandex Client Id
      --yandex-client-secret string                  Yandex Client Secret
      --yandex-unlink                                Remove existing public link to file/folder with link command rather than creating.

1Fichier

This is a backend for the 1ficher (https://1fichier.com) cloud storage service. Note that a Premium subscription is required to use the API.

Paths are specified as remote:path

Paths may be as deep as required, eg remote:directory/subdirectory.

The initial setup for 1Fichier involves getting the API key from the website which you need to do in your browser.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / 1Fichier
   \ "fichier"
[snip]
Storage> fichier
** See help for fichier backend at: https://rclone.org/fichier/ **

Your API Key, get it from https://1fichier.com/console/params.pl
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
api_key> example_key

Edit advanced config? (y/n)
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> 
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
type = fichier
api_key = example_key
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your 1Fichier account

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your 1Fichier account

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to a 1Fichier directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup

Modified time and hashes

1Fichier does not support modification times. It supports the Whirlpool hash algorithm.

Duplicated files

1Fichier can have two files with exactly the same name and path (unlike a normal file system).

Duplicated files cause problems with the syncing and you will see messages in the log about duplicates.

Restricted filename characters

In addition to the default restricted characters set (/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:

Character Value Replacement

\ 0x5C 3C
< 0x3C 1C
> 0x3E 1E
" 0x22 02
$ 0x24 04
` 0x60 40
' 0x27 07

File names can also not start or end with the following characters. These only get replaced if they are first or last character in the name:

Character Value Replacement

SP 0x20 20

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to fichier (1Fichier).

-fichier-api-key

Your API Key, get it from https://1fichier.com/console/params.pl

Config: api_key
Env Var: RCLONE_FICHIER_API_KEY
Type: string
Default: ""

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to fichier (1Fichier).

-fichier-shared-folder

If you want to download a shared folder, add this parameter

Config: shared_folder
Env Var: RCLONE_FICHIER_SHARED_FOLDER
Type: string
Default: ""

Alias

The alias remote provides a new name for another remote.

Paths may be as deep as required or a local path, eg remote:directory/subdirectory or /directory/subdirectory.

During the initial setup with rclone config you will specify the target remote. The target remote can either be a local path or another remote.

Subfolders can be used in target remote. Assume a alias remote named backup with the target mydrive:private/backup. Invoking rclone mkdir backup:desktop is exactly the same as invoking rclone mkdir mydrive:private/backup/desktop.

There will be no special handling of paths containing .. segments. Invoking rclone mkdir backup:../desktop is exactly the same as invoking rclone mkdir mydrive:private/backup/../desktop. The empty path is not allowed as a remote. To alias the current directory use . instead.

Here is an example of how to make a alias called remote for local folder. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Alias for an existing remote
   \ "alias"
[snip]
Storage> alias
Remote or path to alias.
Can be "myremote:path/to/dir", "myremote:bucket", "myremote:" or "/local/path".
remote> /mnt/storage/backup
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
remote = /mnt/storage/backup
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y
Current remotes:

Name                 Type
====                 ====
remote               alias

e) Edit existing remote
n) New remote
d) Delete remote
r) Rename remote
c) Copy remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
e/n/d/r/c/s/q> q

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level in /mnt/storage/backup

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in /mnt/storage/backup

rclone ls remote:

Copy another local directory to the alias directory called source

rclone copy /home/source remote:source

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to alias (Alias for an existing remote).

-alias-remote

Remote or path to alias. Can be "myremote:path/to/dir", "myremote:bucket", "myremote:" or "/local/path".

Config: remote
Env Var: RCLONE_ALIAS_REMOTE
Type: string
Default: ""

Amazon Drive

Amazon Drive, formerly known as Amazon Cloud Drive, is a cloud storage service run by Amazon for consumers.

Status

Important: rclone supports Amazon Drive only if you have your own set of API keys. Unfortunately the Amazon Drive developer program (https://developer.amazon.com/amazon-drive) is now closed to new entries so if you don't already have your own set of keys you will not be able to use rclone with Amazon Drive.

For the history on why rclone no longer has a set of Amazon Drive API keys see the forum (https://forum.rclone.org/t/rclone-has-been-banned-from-amazon-drive/2314).

If you happen to know anyone who works at Amazon then please ask them to re-instate rclone into the Amazon Drive developer program - thanks!

Setup

The initial setup for Amazon Drive involves getting a token from Amazon which you need to do in your browser. rclone config walks you through it.

The configuration process for Amazon Drive may involve using an oauth proxy (https://github.com/ncw/oauthproxy). This is used to keep the Amazon credentials out of the source code. The proxy runs in Google's very secure App Engine environment and doesn't store any credentials which pass through it.

Since rclone doesn't currently have its own Amazon Drive credentials so you will either need to have your own client_id and client_secret with Amazon Drive, or use a a third party ouath proxy in which case you will need to enter client_id, client_secret, auth_url and token_url.

Note also if you are not using Amazon's auth_url and token_url, (ie you filled in something for those) then if setting up on a remote machine you can only use the copying the config method of configuration (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/#configuring-by-copying-the-config-file) - rclone authorize will not work.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
r) Rename remote
c) Copy remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/r/c/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Amazon Drive
   \ "amazon cloud drive"
[snip]
Storage> amazon cloud drive
Amazon Application Client Id - required.
client_id> your client ID goes here
Amazon Application Client Secret - required.
client_secret> your client secret goes here
Auth server URL - leave blank to use Amazon's.
auth_url> Optional auth URL
Token server url - leave blank to use Amazon's.
token_url> Optional token URL
Remote config
Make sure your Redirect URL is set to "http://127.0.0.1:53682/" in your custom config.
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code
--------------------
[remote]
client_id = your client ID goes here
client_secret = your client secret goes here
auth_url = Optional auth URL
token_url = Optional token URL
token = {"access_token":"xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx","token_type":"bearer","refresh_token":"xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx","expiry":"2015-09-06T16:07:39.658438471+01:00"}
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

See the remote setup docs (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/) for how to set it up on a machine with no Internet browser available.

Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from Amazon. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this it may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall.

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your Amazon Drive

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your Amazon Drive

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to an Amazon Drive directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup

Modified time and MD5SUMs

Amazon Drive doesn't allow modification times to be changed via the API so these won't be accurate or used for syncing.

It does store MD5SUMs so for a more accurate sync, you can use the --checksum flag.

Restricted filename characters

Character Value Replacement

NUL 0x00 00
/ 0x2F 0F

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

Deleting files

Any files you delete with rclone will end up in the trash. Amazon don't provide an API to permanently delete files, nor to empty the trash, so you will have to do that with one of Amazon's apps or via the Amazon Drive website. As of November 17, 2016, files are automatically deleted by Amazon from the trash after 30 days.

Using with non .com Amazon accounts

Let's say you usually use amazon.co.uk. When you authenticate with rclone it will take you to an amazon.com page to log in. Your amazon.co.uk email and password should work here just fine.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to amazon cloud drive (Amazon Drive).

-acd-client-id

Amazon Application Client ID.

Config: client_id
Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_CLIENT_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

-acd-client-secret

Amazon Application Client Secret.

Config: client_secret
Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_CLIENT_SECRET
Type: string
Default: ""

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to amazon cloud drive (Amazon Drive).

-acd-auth-url

Auth server URL. Leave blank to use Amazon's.

Config: auth_url
Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_AUTH_URL
Type: string
Default: ""

-acd-token-url

Token server url. leave blank to use Amazon's.

Config: token_url
Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_TOKEN_URL
Type: string
Default: ""

-acd-checkpoint

Checkpoint for internal polling (debug).

Config: checkpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_CHECKPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""

-acd-upload-wait-per-gb

Additional time per GB to wait after a failed complete upload to see if it appears.

Sometimes Amazon Drive gives an error when a file has been fully uploaded but the file appears anyway after a little while. This happens sometimes for files over 1GB in size and nearly every time for files bigger than 10GB. This parameter controls the time rclone waits for the file to appear.

The default value for this parameter is 3 minutes per GB, so by default it will wait 3 minutes for every GB uploaded to see if the file appears.

You can disable this feature by setting it to 0. This may cause conflict errors as rclone retries the failed upload but the file will most likely appear correctly eventually.

These values were determined empirically by observing lots of uploads of big files for a range of file sizes.

Upload with the "-v" flag to see more info about what rclone is doing in this situation.

Config: upload_wait_per_gb
Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_UPLOAD_WAIT_PER_GB
Type: Duration
Default: 3m0s

-acd-templink-threshold

Files >= this size will be downloaded via their tempLink.

Files this size or more will be downloaded via their "tempLink". This is to work around a problem with Amazon Drive which blocks downloads of files bigger than about 10GB. The default for this is 9GB which shouldn't need to be changed.

To download files above this threshold, rclone requests a "tempLink" which downloads the file through a temporary URL directly from the underlying S3 storage.

Config: templink_threshold
Env Var: RCLONE_ACD_TEMPLINK_THRESHOLD
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 9G

Limitations

Note that Amazon Drive is case insensitive so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and one called "hello.doc".

Amazon Drive has rate limiting so you may notice errors in the sync (429 errors). rclone will automatically retry the sync up to 3 times by default (see --retries flag) which should hopefully work around this problem.

Amazon Drive has an internal limit of file sizes that can be uploaded to the service. This limit is not officially published, but all files larger than this will fail.

At the time of writing (Jan 2016) is in the area of 50GB per file. This means that larger files are likely to fail.

Unfortunately there is no way for rclone to see that this failure is because of file size, so it will retry the operation, as any other failure. To avoid this problem, use --max-size 50000M option to limit the maximum size of uploaded files. Note that --max-size does not split files into segments, it only ignores files over this size.

Amazon S3 Storage Providers

The S3 backend can be used with a number of different providers:

AWS S3
Alibaba Cloud (Aliyun) Object Storage System (OSS)
Ceph
DigitalOcean Spaces
Dreamhost
IBM COS S3
Minio
Wasabi

Paths are specified as remote:bucket (or remote: for the lsd command.) You may put subdirectories in too, eg remote:bucket/path/to/dir.

Once you have made a remote (see the provider specific section above) you can use it like this:

See all buckets

rclone lsd remote:

Make a new bucket

rclone mkdir remote:bucket

List the contents of a bucket

rclone ls remote:bucket

Sync /home/local/directory to the remote bucket, deleting any excess files in the bucket.

rclone sync /home/local/directory remote:bucket

AWS S3

Here is an example of making an s3 configuration. First run

rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process.

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Amazon S3 Compliant Storage Providers (AWS, Ceph, Dreamhost, IBM COS, Minio)
   \ "s3"
[snip]
Storage> s3
Choose your S3 provider.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Amazon Web Services (AWS) S3
   \ "AWS"
 2 / Ceph Object Storage
   \ "Ceph"
 3 / Digital Ocean Spaces
   \ "DigitalOcean"
 4 / Dreamhost DreamObjects
   \ "Dreamhost"
 5 / IBM COS S3
   \ "IBMCOS"
 6 / Minio Object Storage
   \ "Minio"
 7 / Wasabi Object Storage
   \ "Wasabi"
 8 / Any other S3 compatible provider
   \ "Other"
provider> 1
Get AWS credentials from runtime (environment variables or EC2/ECS meta data if no env vars). Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Enter AWS credentials in the next step
   \ "false"
 2 / Get AWS credentials from the environment (env vars or IAM)
   \ "true"
env_auth> 1
AWS Access Key ID - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
access_key_id> XXX
AWS Secret Access Key (password) - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
secret_access_key> YYY
Region to connect to.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
   / The default endpoint - a good choice if you are unsure.
 1 | US Region, Northern Virginia or Pacific Northwest.
   | Leave location constraint empty.
   \ "us-east-1"
   / US East (Ohio) Region
 2 | Needs location constraint us-east-2.
   \ "us-east-2"
   / US West (Oregon) Region
 3 | Needs location constraint us-west-2.
   \ "us-west-2"
   / US West (Northern California) Region
 4 | Needs location constraint us-west-1.
   \ "us-west-1"
   / Canada (Central) Region
 5 | Needs location constraint ca-central-1.
   \ "ca-central-1"
   / EU (Ireland) Region
 6 | Needs location constraint EU or eu-west-1.
   \ "eu-west-1"
   / EU (London) Region
 7 | Needs location constraint eu-west-2.
   \ "eu-west-2"
   / EU (Frankfurt) Region
 8 | Needs location constraint eu-central-1.
   \ "eu-central-1"
   / Asia Pacific (Singapore) Region
 9 | Needs location constraint ap-southeast-1.
   \ "ap-southeast-1"
   / Asia Pacific (Sydney) Region
10 | Needs location constraint ap-southeast-2.
   \ "ap-southeast-2"
   / Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Region
11 | Needs location constraint ap-northeast-1.
   \ "ap-northeast-1"
   / Asia Pacific (Seoul)
12 | Needs location constraint ap-northeast-2.
   \ "ap-northeast-2"
   / Asia Pacific (Mumbai)
13 | Needs location constraint ap-south-1.
   \ "ap-south-1"
   / South America (Sao Paulo) Region
14 | Needs location constraint sa-east-1.
   \ "sa-east-1"
region> 1
Endpoint for S3 API.
Leave blank if using AWS to use the default endpoint for the region.
endpoint> 
Location constraint - must be set to match the Region. Used when creating buckets only.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Empty for US Region, Northern Virginia or Pacific Northwest.
   \ ""
 2 / US East (Ohio) Region.
   \ "us-east-2"
 3 / US West (Oregon) Region.
   \ "us-west-2"
 4 / US West (Northern California) Region.
   \ "us-west-1"
 5 / Canada (Central) Region.
   \ "ca-central-1"
 6 / EU (Ireland) Region.
   \ "eu-west-1"
 7 / EU (London) Region.
   \ "eu-west-2"
 8 / EU Region.
   \ "EU"
 9 / Asia Pacific (Singapore) Region.
   \ "ap-southeast-1"
10 / Asia Pacific (Sydney) Region.
   \ "ap-southeast-2"
11 / Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Region.
   \ "ap-northeast-1"
12 / Asia Pacific (Seoul)
   \ "ap-northeast-2"
13 / Asia Pacific (Mumbai)
   \ "ap-south-1"
14 / South America (Sao Paulo) Region.
   \ "sa-east-1"
location_constraint> 1
Canned ACL used when creating buckets and/or storing objects in S3.
For more info visit https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/acl-overview.html#canned-acl
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default).
   \ "private"
 2 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access.
   \ "public-read"
   / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access.
 3 | Granting this on a bucket is generally not recommended.
   \ "public-read-write"
 4 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AuthenticatedUsers group gets READ access.
   \ "authenticated-read"
   / Object owner gets FULL_CONTROL. Bucket owner gets READ access.
 5 | If you specify this canned ACL when creating a bucket, Amazon S3 ignores it.
   \ "bucket-owner-read"
   / Both the object owner and the bucket owner get FULL_CONTROL over the object.
 6 | If you specify this canned ACL when creating a bucket, Amazon S3 ignores it.
   \ "bucket-owner-full-control"
acl> 1
The server-side encryption algorithm used when storing this object in S3.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / None
   \ ""
 2 / AES256
   \ "AES256"
server_side_encryption> 1
The storage class to use when storing objects in S3.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Default
   \ ""
 2 / Standard storage class
   \ "STANDARD"
 3 / Reduced redundancy storage class
   \ "REDUCED_REDUNDANCY"
 4 / Standard Infrequent Access storage class
   \ "STANDARD_IA"
 5 / One Zone Infrequent Access storage class
   \ "ONEZONE_IA"
 6 / Glacier storage class
   \ "GLACIER"
 7 / Glacier Deep Archive storage class
   \ "DEEP_ARCHIVE"
 8 / Intelligent-Tiering storage class
   \ "INTELLIGENT_TIERING"
storage_class> 1
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
type = s3
provider = AWS
env_auth = false
access_key_id = XXX
secret_access_key = YYY
region = us-east-1
endpoint = 
location_constraint = 
acl = private
server_side_encryption = 
storage_class = 
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> 

-fast-list

This remote supports --fast-list which allows you to use fewer transactions in exchange for more memory. See the rclone docs (/docs/#fast-list) for more details.

-update and -use-server-modtime

As noted below, the modified time is stored on metadata on the object. It is used by default for all operations that require checking the time a file was last updated. It allows rclone to treat the remote more like a true filesystem, but it is inefficient because it requires an extra API call to retrieve the metadata.

For many operations, the time the object was last uploaded to the remote is sufficient to determine if it is "dirty". By using --update along with --use-server-modtime, you can avoid the extra API call and simply upload files whose local modtime is newer than the time it was last uploaded.

Modified time

The modified time is stored as metadata on the object as X-Amz-Meta-Mtime as floating point since the epoch accurate to 1 ns.

If the modification time needs to be updated rclone will attempt to perform a server side copy to update the modification if the object can be copied in a single part.

In the case the object is larger than 5Gb or is in Glacier or Glacier Deep Archive storage the object will be uploaded rather than copied.

Restricted filename characters

S3 allows any valid UTF-8 string as a key.

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in XML.

The following characters are replaced since these are problematic when dealing with the REST API:

Character Value Replacement

NUL 0x00 00
/ 0x2F 0F

The encoding will also encode these file names as they don't seem to work with the SDK properly:

File name Replacement

. 0E
.. 0E0E

Multipart uploads

rclone supports multipart uploads with S3 which means that it can upload files bigger than 5GB.

Note that files uploaded both with multipart upload and through crypt remotes do not have MD5 sums.

rclone switches from single part uploads to multipart uploads at the point specified by --s3-upload-cutoff. This can be a maximum of 5GB and a minimum of 0 (ie always upload multipart files).

The chunk sizes used in the multipart upload are specified by --s3-chunk-size and the number of chunks uploaded concurrently is specified by --s3-upload-concurrency.

Multipart uploads will use --transfers * --s3-upload-concurrency * --s3-chunk-size extra memory. Single part uploads to not use extra memory.

Single part transfers can be faster than multipart transfers or slower depending on your latency from S3 - the more latency, the more likely single part transfers will be faster.

Increasing --s3-upload-concurrency will increase throughput (8 would be a sensible value) and increasing --s3-chunk-size also increases throughput (16M would be sensible). Increasing either of these will use more memory. The default values are high enough to gain most of the possible performance without using too much memory.

Buckets and Regions

With Amazon S3 you can list buckets (rclone lsd) using any region, but you can only access the content of a bucket from the region it was created in. If you attempt to access a bucket from the wrong region, you will get an error, incorrect region, the bucket is not in 'XXX' region.

Authentication

There are a number of ways to supply rclone with a set of AWS credentials, with and without using the environment.

The different authentication methods are tried in this order:

Directly in the rclone configuration file (env_auth = false in the config file):
access_key_id and secret_access_key are required.
session_token can be optionally set when using AWS STS.
Runtime configuration (env_auth = true in the config file):
Export the following environment variables before running rclone:
Access Key ID: AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID or AWS_ACCESS_KEY
Secret Access Key: AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY or AWS_SECRET_KEY
Session Token: AWS_SESSION_TOKEN (optional)
Or, use a named profile (https://docs.aws.amazon.com/cli/latest/userguide/cli-multiple-profiles.html):
Profile files are standard files used by AWS CLI tools
By default it will use the profile in your home directory (eg ~/.aws/credentials on unix based systems) file and the "default" profile, to change set these environment variables:
AWS_SHARED_CREDENTIALS_FILE to control which file.
AWS_PROFILE to control which profile to use.
Or, run rclone in an ECS task with an IAM role (AWS only).
Or, run rclone on an EC2 instance with an IAM role (AWS only).

If none of these option actually end up providing rclone with AWS credentials then S3 interaction will be non-authenticated (see below).

S3 Permissions

When using the sync subcommand of rclone the following minimum permissions are required to be available on the bucket being written to:

ListBucket
DeleteObject
GetObject
PutObject
PutObjectACL

When using the lsd subcommand, the ListAllMyBuckets permission is required.

Example policy:

{
    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
        {
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Principal": {
                "AWS": "arn:aws:iam::USER_SID:user/USER_NAME"
            },
            "Action": [
                "s3:ListBucket",
                "s3:DeleteObject",
                "s3:GetObject",
                "s3:PutObject",
                "s3:PutObjectAcl"
            ],
            "Resource": [
              "arn:aws:s3:::BUCKET_NAME/*",
              "arn:aws:s3:::BUCKET_NAME"
            ]
        },
        {
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": "s3:ListAllMyBuckets",
            "Resource": "arn:aws:s3:::*"
        }   
    ]
}

Notes on above:

1.
This is a policy that can be used when creating bucket. It assumes that USER_NAME has been created.
2.
The Resource entry must include both resource ARNs, as one implies the bucket and the other implies the bucket's objects.

For reference, here's an Ansible script (https://gist.github.com/ebridges/ebfc9042dd7c756cd101cfa807b7ae2b) that will generate one or more buckets that will work with rclone sync.

Key Management System (KMS)

If you are using server side encryption with KMS then you will find you can't transfer small objects. As a work-around you can use the --ignore-checksum flag.

A proper fix is being worked on in issue #1824 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1824).

Glacier and Glacier Deep Archive

You can upload objects using the glacier storage class or transition them to glacier using a lifecycle policy (http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/user-guide/create-lifecycle.html). The bucket can still be synced or copied into normally, but if rclone tries to access data from the glacier storage class you will see an error like below.

2017/09/11 19:07:43 Failed to sync: failed to open source object: Object in GLACIER, restore first: path/to/file

In this case you need to restore (http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/user-guide/restore-archived-objects.html) the object(s) in question before using rclone.

Note that rclone only speaks the S3 API it does not speak the Glacier Vault API, so rclone cannot directly access Glacier Vaults.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to s3 (Amazon S3 Compliant Storage Provider (AWS, Alibaba, Ceph, Digital Ocean, Dreamhost, IBM COS, Minio, etc)).

-s3-provider

Choose your S3 provider.

Config: provider
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_PROVIDER
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"AWS"
Amazon Web Services (AWS) S3
"Alibaba"
Alibaba Cloud Object Storage System (OSS) formerly Aliyun
"Ceph"
Ceph Object Storage
"DigitalOcean"
Digital Ocean Spaces
"Dreamhost"
Dreamhost DreamObjects
"IBMCOS"
IBM COS S3
"Minio"
Minio Object Storage
"Netease"
Netease Object Storage (NOS)
"Wasabi"
Wasabi Object Storage
"Other"
Any other S3 compatible provider

-s3-env-auth

Get AWS credentials from runtime (environment variables or EC2/ECS meta data if no env vars). Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank.

Config: env_auth
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENV_AUTH
Type: bool
Default: false
Examples:
"false"
Enter AWS credentials in the next step
"true"
Get AWS credentials from the environment (env vars or IAM)

-s3-access-key-id

AWS Access Key ID. Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.

Config: access_key_id
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ACCESS_KEY_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

-s3-secret-access-key

AWS Secret Access Key (password) Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.

Config: secret_access_key
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY
Type: string
Default: ""

-s3-region

Region to connect to.

Config: region
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_REGION
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"us-east-1"
The default endpoint - a good choice if you are unsure.
US Region, Northern Virginia or Pacific Northwest.
Leave location constraint empty.
"us-east-2"
US East (Ohio) Region
Needs location constraint us-east-2.
"us-west-2"
US West (Oregon) Region
Needs location constraint us-west-2.
"us-west-1"
US West (Northern California) Region
Needs location constraint us-west-1.
"ca-central-1"
Canada (Central) Region
Needs location constraint ca-central-1.
"eu-west-1"
EU (Ireland) Region
Needs location constraint EU or eu-west-1.
"eu-west-2"
EU (London) Region
Needs location constraint eu-west-2.
"eu-north-1"
EU (Stockholm) Region
Needs location constraint eu-north-1.
"eu-central-1"
EU (Frankfurt) Region
Needs location constraint eu-central-1.
"ap-southeast-1"
Asia Pacific (Singapore) Region
Needs location constraint ap-southeast-1.
"ap-southeast-2"
Asia Pacific (Sydney) Region
Needs location constraint ap-southeast-2.
"ap-northeast-1"
Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Region
Needs location constraint ap-northeast-1.
"ap-northeast-2"
Asia Pacific (Seoul)
Needs location constraint ap-northeast-2.
"ap-south-1"
Asia Pacific (Mumbai)
Needs location constraint ap-south-1.
"sa-east-1"
South America (Sao Paulo) Region
Needs location constraint sa-east-1.

-s3-region

Region to connect to. Leave blank if you are using an S3 clone and you don't have a region.

Config: region
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_REGION
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
Use this if unsure. Will use v4 signatures and an empty region.
"other-v2-signature"
Use this only if v4 signatures don't work, eg pre Jewel/v10 CEPH.

-s3-endpoint

Endpoint for S3 API. Leave blank if using AWS to use the default endpoint for the region.

Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""

-s3-endpoint

Endpoint for IBM COS S3 API. Specify if using an IBM COS On Premise.

Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
US Cross Region Endpoint
"s3-api.dal.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
US Cross Region Dallas Endpoint
"s3-api.wdc-us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
US Cross Region Washington DC Endpoint
"s3-api.sjc-us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
US Cross Region San Jose Endpoint
"s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
US Cross Region Private Endpoint
"s3-api.dal-us-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
US Cross Region Dallas Private Endpoint
"s3-api.wdc-us-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
US Cross Region Washington DC Private Endpoint
"s3-api.sjc-us-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
US Cross Region San Jose Private Endpoint
"s3.us-east.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
US Region East Endpoint
"s3.us-east.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
US Region East Private Endpoint
"s3.us-south.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
US Region South Endpoint
"s3.us-south.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
US Region South Private Endpoint
"s3.eu-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
EU Cross Region Endpoint
"s3.fra-eu-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
EU Cross Region Frankfurt Endpoint
"s3.mil-eu-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
EU Cross Region Milan Endpoint
"s3.ams-eu-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
EU Cross Region Amsterdam Endpoint
"s3.eu-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
EU Cross Region Private Endpoint
"s3.fra-eu-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
EU Cross Region Frankfurt Private Endpoint
"s3.mil-eu-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
EU Cross Region Milan Private Endpoint
"s3.ams-eu-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
EU Cross Region Amsterdam Private Endpoint
"s3.eu-gb.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
Great Britain Endpoint
"s3.eu-gb.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
Great Britain Private Endpoint
"s3.ap-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
APAC Cross Regional Endpoint
"s3.tok-ap-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
APAC Cross Regional Tokyo Endpoint
"s3.hkg-ap-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
APAC Cross Regional HongKong Endpoint
"s3.seo-ap-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
APAC Cross Regional Seoul Endpoint
"s3.ap-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
APAC Cross Regional Private Endpoint
"s3.tok-ap-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
APAC Cross Regional Tokyo Private Endpoint
"s3.hkg-ap-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
APAC Cross Regional HongKong Private Endpoint
"s3.seo-ap-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
APAC Cross Regional Seoul Private Endpoint
"s3.mel01.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
Melbourne Single Site Endpoint
"s3.mel01.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
Melbourne Single Site Private Endpoint
"s3.tor01.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
Toronto Single Site Endpoint
"s3.tor01.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
Toronto Single Site Private Endpoint

-s3-endpoint

Endpoint for OSS API.

Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com"
East China 1 (Hangzhou)
"oss-cn-shanghai.aliyuncs.com"
East China 2 (Shanghai)
"oss-cn-qingdao.aliyuncs.com"
North China 1 (Qingdao)
"oss-cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com"
North China 2 (Beijing)
"oss-cn-zhangjiakou.aliyuncs.com"
North China 3 (Zhangjiakou)
"oss-cn-huhehaote.aliyuncs.com"
North China 5 (Huhehaote)
"oss-cn-shenzhen.aliyuncs.com"
South China 1 (Shenzhen)
"oss-cn-hongkong.aliyuncs.com"
Hong Kong (Hong Kong)
"oss-us-west-1.aliyuncs.com"
US West 1 (Silicon Valley)
"oss-us-east-1.aliyuncs.com"
US East 1 (Virginia)
"oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com"
Southeast Asia Southeast 1 (Singapore)
"oss-ap-southeast-2.aliyuncs.com"
Asia Pacific Southeast 2 (Sydney)
"oss-ap-southeast-3.aliyuncs.com"
Southeast Asia Southeast 3 (Kuala Lumpur)
"oss-ap-southeast-5.aliyuncs.com"
Asia Pacific Southeast 5 (Jakarta)
"oss-ap-northeast-1.aliyuncs.com"
Asia Pacific Northeast 1 (Japan)
"oss-ap-south-1.aliyuncs.com"
Asia Pacific South 1 (Mumbai)
"oss-eu-central-1.aliyuncs.com"
Central Europe 1 (Frankfurt)
"oss-eu-west-1.aliyuncs.com"
West Europe (London)
"oss-me-east-1.aliyuncs.com"
Middle East 1 (Dubai)

-s3-endpoint

Endpoint for S3 API. Required when using an S3 clone.

Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"objects-us-east-1.dream.io"
Dream Objects endpoint
"nyc3.digitaloceanspaces.com"
Digital Ocean Spaces New York 3
"ams3.digitaloceanspaces.com"
Digital Ocean Spaces Amsterdam 3
"sgp1.digitaloceanspaces.com"
Digital Ocean Spaces Singapore 1
"s3.wasabisys.com"
Wasabi US East endpoint
"s3.us-west-1.wasabisys.com"
Wasabi US West endpoint
"s3.eu-central-1.wasabisys.com"
Wasabi EU Central endpoint

-s3-location-constraint

Location constraint - must be set to match the Region. Used when creating buckets only.

Config: location_constraint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_LOCATION_CONSTRAINT
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
Empty for US Region, Northern Virginia or Pacific Northwest.
"us-east-2"
US East (Ohio) Region.
"us-west-2"
US West (Oregon) Region.
"us-west-1"
US West (Northern California) Region.
"ca-central-1"
Canada (Central) Region.
"eu-west-1"
EU (Ireland) Region.
"eu-west-2"
EU (London) Region.
"eu-north-1"
EU (Stockholm) Region.
"EU"
EU Region.
"ap-southeast-1"
Asia Pacific (Singapore) Region.
"ap-southeast-2"
Asia Pacific (Sydney) Region.
"ap-northeast-1"
Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Region.
"ap-northeast-2"
Asia Pacific (Seoul)
"ap-south-1"
Asia Pacific (Mumbai)
"sa-east-1"
South America (Sao Paulo) Region.

-s3-location-constraint

Location constraint - must match endpoint when using IBM Cloud Public. For on-prem COS, do not make a selection from this list, hit enter

Config: location_constraint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_LOCATION_CONSTRAINT
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"us-standard"
US Cross Region Standard
"us-vault"
US Cross Region Vault
"us-cold"
US Cross Region Cold
"us-flex"
US Cross Region Flex
"us-east-standard"
US East Region Standard
"us-east-vault"
US East Region Vault
"us-east-cold"
US East Region Cold
"us-east-flex"
US East Region Flex
"us-south-standard"
US South Region Standard
"us-south-vault"
US South Region Vault
"us-south-cold"
US South Region Cold
"us-south-flex"
US South Region Flex
"eu-standard"
EU Cross Region Standard
"eu-vault"
EU Cross Region Vault
"eu-cold"
EU Cross Region Cold
"eu-flex"
EU Cross Region Flex
"eu-gb-standard"
Great Britain Standard
"eu-gb-vault"
Great Britain Vault
"eu-gb-cold"
Great Britain Cold
"eu-gb-flex"
Great Britain Flex
"ap-standard"
APAC Standard
"ap-vault"
APAC Vault
"ap-cold"
APAC Cold
"ap-flex"
APAC Flex
"mel01-standard"
Melbourne Standard
"mel01-vault"
Melbourne Vault
"mel01-cold"
Melbourne Cold
"mel01-flex"
Melbourne Flex
"tor01-standard"
Toronto Standard
"tor01-vault"
Toronto Vault
"tor01-cold"
Toronto Cold
"tor01-flex"
Toronto Flex

-s3-location-constraint

Location constraint - must be set to match the Region. Leave blank if not sure. Used when creating buckets only.

Config: location_constraint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_LOCATION_CONSTRAINT
Type: string
Default: ""

-s3-acl

Canned ACL used when creating buckets and storing or copying objects.

This ACL is used for creating objects and if bucket_acl isn't set, for creating buckets too.

For more info visit https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/acl-overview.html#canned-acl

Note that this ACL is applied when server side copying objects as S3 doesn't copy the ACL from the source but rather writes a fresh one.

Config: acl
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_ACL
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"private"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default).
"public-read"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access.
"public-read-write"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access.
Granting this on a bucket is generally not recommended.
"authenticated-read"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AuthenticatedUsers group gets READ access.
"bucket-owner-read"
Object owner gets FULL_CONTROL. Bucket owner gets READ access.
If you specify this canned ACL when creating a bucket, Amazon S3 ignores it.
"bucket-owner-full-control"
Both the object owner and the bucket owner get FULL_CONTROL over the object.
If you specify this canned ACL when creating a bucket, Amazon S3 ignores it.
"private"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default). This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), IBM Cloud (Storage), On-Premise COS
"public-read"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), IBM Cloud (Storage), On-Premise IBM COS
"public-read-write"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), On-Premise IBM COS
"authenticated-read"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AuthenticatedUsers group gets READ access. Not supported on Buckets. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra) and On-Premise IBM COS

-s3-server-side-encryption

The server-side encryption algorithm used when storing this object in S3.

Config: server_side_encryption
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SERVER_SIDE_ENCRYPTION
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
None
"AES256"
AES256
"aws:kms"
aws:kms

-s3-sse-kms-key-id

If using KMS ID you must provide the ARN of Key.

Config: sse_kms_key_id
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SSE_KMS_KEY_ID
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
None
"arn:aws:kms:us-east-1:*"
arn:aws:kms:*

-s3-storage-class

The storage class to use when storing new objects in S3.

Config: storage_class
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_STORAGE_CLASS
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
Default
"STANDARD"
Standard storage class
"REDUCED_REDUNDANCY"
Reduced redundancy storage class
"STANDARD_IA"
Standard Infrequent Access storage class
"ONEZONE_IA"
One Zone Infrequent Access storage class
"GLACIER"
Glacier storage class
"DEEP_ARCHIVE"
Glacier Deep Archive storage class
"INTELLIGENT_TIERING"
Intelligent-Tiering storage class

-s3-storage-class

The storage class to use when storing new objects in OSS.

Config: storage_class
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_STORAGE_CLASS
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
Default
"STANDARD"
Standard storage class
"GLACIER"
Archive storage mode.
"STANDARD_IA"
Infrequent access storage mode.

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to s3 (Amazon S3 Compliant Storage Provider (AWS, Alibaba, Ceph, Digital Ocean, Dreamhost, IBM COS, Minio, etc)).

-s3-bucket-acl

Canned ACL used when creating buckets.

For more info visit https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/acl-overview.html#canned-acl

Note that this ACL is applied when only when creating buckets. If it isn't set then "acl" is used instead.

Config: bucket_acl
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_BUCKET_ACL
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"private"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default).
"public-read"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access.
"public-read-write"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access.
Granting this on a bucket is generally not recommended.
"authenticated-read"
Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AuthenticatedUsers group gets READ access.

-s3-upload-cutoff

Cutoff for switching to chunked upload

Any files larger than this will be uploaded in chunks of chunk_size. The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 5GB.

Config: upload_cutoff
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_UPLOAD_CUTOFF
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 200M

-s3-chunk-size

Chunk size to use for uploading.

When uploading files larger than upload_cutoff they will be uploaded as multipart uploads using this chunk size.

Note that "-s3-upload-concurrency" chunks of this size are buffered in memory per transfer.

If you are transferring large files over high speed links and you have enough memory, then increasing this will speed up the transfers.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 5M

-s3-disable-checksum

Don't store MD5 checksum with object metadata

Config: disable_checksum
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_DISABLE_CHECKSUM
Type: bool
Default: false

-s3-session-token

An AWS session token

Config: session_token
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_SESSION_TOKEN
Type: string
Default: ""

-s3-upload-concurrency

Concurrency for multipart uploads.

This is the number of chunks of the same file that are uploaded concurrently.

If you are uploading small numbers of large file over high speed link and these uploads do not fully utilize your bandwidth, then increasing this may help to speed up the transfers.

Config: upload_concurrency
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_UPLOAD_CONCURRENCY
Type: int
Default: 4

-s3-force-path-style

If true use path style access if false use virtual hosted style.

If this is true (the default) then rclone will use path style access, if false then rclone will use virtual path style. See the AWS S3 docs (https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/UsingBucket.html#access-bucket-intro) for more info.

Some providers (eg Aliyun OSS or Netease COS) require this set to false.

Config: force_path_style
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_FORCE_PATH_STYLE
Type: bool
Default: true

-s3-v2-auth

If true use v2 authentication.

If this is false (the default) then rclone will use v4 authentication. If it is set then rclone will use v2 authentication.

Use this only if v4 signatures don't work, eg pre Jewel/v10 CEPH.

Config: v2_auth
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_V2_AUTH
Type: bool
Default: false

-s3-use-accelerate-endpoint

If true use the AWS S3 accelerated endpoint.

See: AWS S3 Transfer acceleration (https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/transfer-acceleration-examples.html)

Config: use_accelerate_endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_USE_ACCELERATE_ENDPOINT
Type: bool
Default: false

-s3-leave-parts-on-error

If true avoid calling abort upload on a failure, leaving all successfully uploaded parts on S3 for manual recovery.

It should be set to true for resuming uploads across different sessions.

WARNING: Storing parts of an incomplete multipart upload counts towards space usage on S3 and will add additional costs if not cleaned up.

Config: leave_parts_on_error
Env Var: RCLONE_S3_LEAVE_PARTS_ON_ERROR
Type: bool
Default: false

Anonymous access to public buckets

If you want to use rclone to access a public bucket, configure with a blank access_key_id and secret_access_key. Your config should end up looking like this:

[anons3]
type = s3
provider = AWS
env_auth = false
access_key_id = 
secret_access_key = 
region = us-east-1
endpoint = 
location_constraint = 
acl = private
server_side_encryption = 
storage_class = 

Then use it as normal with the name of the public bucket, eg

rclone lsd anons3:1000genomes

You will be able to list and copy data but not upload it.

Ceph

Ceph (https://ceph.com/) is an open source unified, distributed storage system designed for excellent performance, reliability and scalability. It has an S3 compatible object storage interface.

To use rclone with Ceph, configure as above but leave the region blank and set the endpoint. You should end up with something like this in your config:

[ceph]
type = s3
provider = Ceph
env_auth = false
access_key_id = XXX
secret_access_key = YYY
region =
endpoint = https://ceph.endpoint.example.com
location_constraint =
acl =
server_side_encryption =
storage_class =

If you are using an older version of CEPH, eg 10.2.x Jewel, then you may need to supply the parameter --s3-upload-cutoff 0 or put this in the config file as upload_cutoff 0 to work around a bug which causes uploading of small files to fail.

Note also that Ceph sometimes puts / in the passwords it gives users. If you read the secret access key using the command line tools you will get a JSON blob with the / escaped as \/. Make sure you only write / in the secret access key.

Eg the dump from Ceph looks something like this (irrelevant keys removed).

{
    "user_id": "xxx",
    "display_name": "xxxx",
    "keys": [
        {
            "user": "xxx",
            "access_key": "xxxxxx",
            "secret_key": "xxxxxx\/xxxx"
        }
    ],
}

Because this is a json dump, it is encoding the / as \/, so if you use the secret key as xxxxxx/xxxx it will work fine.

Dreamhost

Dreamhost DreamObjects (https://www.dreamhost.com/cloud/storage/) is an object storage system based on CEPH.

To use rclone with Dreamhost, configure as above but leave the region blank and set the endpoint. You should end up with something like this in your config:

[dreamobjects]
type = s3
provider = DreamHost
env_auth = false
access_key_id = your_access_key
secret_access_key = your_secret_key
region =
endpoint = objects-us-west-1.dream.io
location_constraint =
acl = private
server_side_encryption =
storage_class =

DigitalOcean Spaces

Spaces (https://www.digitalocean.com/products/object-storage/) is an S3-interoperable (https://developers.digitalocean.com/documentation/spaces/) object storage service from cloud provider DigitalOcean.

To connect to DigitalOcean Spaces you will need an access key and secret key. These can be retrieved on the "Applications & API (https://cloud.digitalocean.com/settings/api/tokens)" page of the DigitalOcean control panel. They will be needed when promted by rclone config for your access_key_id and secret_access_key.

When prompted for a region or location_constraint, press enter to use the default value. The region must be included in the endpoint setting (e.g. nyc3.digitaloceanspaces.com). The default values can be used for other settings.

Going through the whole process of creating a new remote by running rclone config, each prompt should be answered as shown below:

Storage> s3
env_auth> 1
access_key_id> YOUR_ACCESS_KEY
secret_access_key> YOUR_SECRET_KEY
region>
endpoint> nyc3.digitaloceanspaces.com
location_constraint>
acl>
storage_class>

The resulting configuration file should look like:

[spaces]
type = s3
provider = DigitalOcean
env_auth = false
access_key_id = YOUR_ACCESS_KEY
secret_access_key = YOUR_SECRET_KEY
region =
endpoint = nyc3.digitaloceanspaces.com
location_constraint =
acl =
server_side_encryption =
storage_class =

Once configured, you can create a new Space and begin copying files. For example:

rclone mkdir spaces:my-new-space
rclone copy /path/to/files spaces:my-new-space

IBM COS (S3)

Information stored with IBM Cloud Object Storage is encrypted and dispersed across multiple geographic locations, and accessed through an implementation of the S3 API. This service makes use of the distributed storage technologies provided by IBM's Cloud Object Storage System (formerly Cleversafe). For more information visit: (http://www.ibm.com/cloud/object-storage)

To configure access to IBM COS S3, follow the steps below:

1.
Run rclone config and select n for a new remote.
    2018/02/14 14:13:11 NOTICE: Config file "C:\\Users\\a\\.config\\rclone\\rclone.conf" not found - using defaults
    No remotes found - make a new one
    n) New remote
    s) Set configuration password
    q) Quit config
    n/s/q> n
2.
Enter the name for the configuration
    name> <YOUR NAME>
3.
Select "s3" storage.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
    1 / Alias for an existing remote
    \ "alias"
    2 / Amazon Drive
    \ "amazon cloud drive"
    3 / Amazon S3 Complaint Storage Providers (Dreamhost, Ceph, Minio, IBM COS)
    \ "s3"
    4 / Backblaze B2
    \ "b2"
[snip]
    23 / http Connection
    \ "http"
Storage> 3
4.
Select IBM COS as the S3 Storage Provider.
Choose the S3 provider.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
     1 / Choose this option to configure Storage to AWS S3
       \ "AWS"
     2 / Choose this option to configure Storage to Ceph Systems
     \ "Ceph"
     3 /  Choose this option to configure Storage to Dreamhost
     \ "Dreamhost"
   4 / Choose this option to the configure Storage to IBM COS S3
     \ "IBMCOS"
     5 / Choose this option to the configure Storage to Minio
     \ "Minio"
     Provider>4
5.
Enter the Access Key and Secret.
    AWS Access Key ID - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
    access_key_id> <>
    AWS Secret Access Key (password) - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
    secret_access_key> <>
6.
Specify the endpoint for IBM COS. For Public IBM COS, choose from the option below. For On Premise IBM COS, enter an enpoint address.
    Endpoint for IBM COS S3 API.
    Specify if using an IBM COS On Premise.
    Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
     1 / US Cross Region Endpoint
       \ "s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
     2 / US Cross Region Dallas Endpoint
       \ "s3-api.dal.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
     3 / US Cross Region Washington DC Endpoint
       \ "s3-api.wdc-us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
     4 / US Cross Region San Jose Endpoint
       \ "s3-api.sjc-us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
     5 / US Cross Region Private Endpoint
       \ "s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
     6 / US Cross Region Dallas Private Endpoint
       \ "s3-api.dal-us-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
     7 / US Cross Region Washington DC Private Endpoint
       \ "s3-api.wdc-us-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
     8 / US Cross Region San Jose Private Endpoint
       \ "s3-api.sjc-us-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
     9 / US Region East Endpoint
       \ "s3.us-east.objectstorage.softlayer.net"
    10 / US Region East Private Endpoint
       \ "s3.us-east.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
    11 / US Region South Endpoint
[snip]
    34 / Toronto Single Site Private Endpoint
       \ "s3.tor01.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com"
    endpoint>1
7.
Specify a IBM COS Location Constraint. The location constraint must match endpoint when using IBM Cloud Public. For on-prem COS, do not make a selection from this list, hit enter
     1 / US Cross Region Standard
       \ "us-standard"
     2 / US Cross Region Vault
       \ "us-vault"
     3 / US Cross Region Cold
       \ "us-cold"
     4 / US Cross Region Flex
       \ "us-flex"
     5 / US East Region Standard
       \ "us-east-standard"
     6 / US East Region Vault
       \ "us-east-vault"
     7 / US East Region Cold
       \ "us-east-cold"
     8 / US East Region Flex
       \ "us-east-flex"
     9 / US South Region Standard
       \ "us-south-standard"
    10 / US South Region Vault
       \ "us-south-vault"
[snip]
    32 / Toronto Flex
       \ "tor01-flex"
location_constraint>1
9.
Specify a canned ACL. IBM Cloud (Strorage) supports "public-read" and "private". IBM Cloud(Infra) supports all the canned ACLs. On-Premise COS supports all the canned ACLs.
Canned ACL used when creating buckets and/or storing objects in S3.
For more info visit https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/acl-overview.html#canned-acl
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
      1 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default). This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), IBM Cloud (Storage), On-Premise COS
      \ "private"
      2  / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), IBM Cloud (Storage), On-Premise IBM COS
      \ "public-read"
      3 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra), On-Premise IBM COS
      \ "public-read-write"
      4  / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AuthenticatedUsers group gets READ access. Not supported on Buckets. This acl is available on IBM Cloud (Infra) and On-Premise IBM COS
      \ "authenticated-read"
acl> 1
12.
Review the displayed configuration and accept to save the "remote" then quit. The config file should look like this
    [xxx]
    type = s3
    Provider = IBMCOS
    access_key_id = xxx
    secret_access_key = yyy
    endpoint = s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net
    location_constraint = us-standard
    acl = private
13.
Execute rclone commands
    1)  Create a bucket.
        rclone mkdir IBM-COS-XREGION:newbucket
    2)  List available buckets.
        rclone lsd IBM-COS-XREGION:
        -1 2017-11-08 21:16:22        -1 test
        -1 2018-02-14 20:16:39        -1 newbucket
    3)  List contents of a bucket.
        rclone ls IBM-COS-XREGION:newbucket
        18685952 test.exe
    4)  Copy a file from local to remote.
        rclone copy /Users/file.txt IBM-COS-XREGION:newbucket
    5)  Copy a file from remote to local.
        rclone copy IBM-COS-XREGION:newbucket/file.txt .
    6)  Delete a file on remote.
        rclone delete IBM-COS-XREGION:newbucket/file.txt

Minio

Minio (https://minio.io/) is an object storage server built for cloud application developers and devops.

It is very easy to install and provides an S3 compatible server which can be used by rclone.

To use it, install Minio following the instructions here (https://docs.minio.io/docs/minio-quickstart-guide).

When it configures itself Minio will print something like this

Endpoint:  http://192.168.1.106:9000  http://172.23.0.1:9000
AccessKey: USWUXHGYZQYFYFFIT3RE
SecretKey: MOJRH0mkL1IPauahWITSVvyDrQbEEIwljvmxdq03
Region:    us-east-1
SQS ARNs:  arn:minio:sqs:us-east-1:1:redis arn:minio:sqs:us-east-1:2:redis

Browser Access:
   http://192.168.1.106:9000  http://172.23.0.1:9000

Command-line Access: https://docs.minio.io/docs/minio-client-quickstart-guide
   $ mc config host add myminio http://192.168.1.106:9000 USWUXHGYZQYFYFFIT3RE MOJRH0mkL1IPauahWITSVvyDrQbEEIwljvmxdq03

Object API (Amazon S3 compatible):
   Go:         https://docs.minio.io/docs/golang-client-quickstart-guide
   Java:       https://docs.minio.io/docs/java-client-quickstart-guide
   Python:     https://docs.minio.io/docs/python-client-quickstart-guide
   JavaScript: https://docs.minio.io/docs/javascript-client-quickstart-guide
   .NET:       https://docs.minio.io/docs/dotnet-client-quickstart-guide

Drive Capacity: 26 GiB Free, 165 GiB Total

These details need to go into rclone config like this. Note that it is important to put the region in as stated above.

env_auth> 1
access_key_id> USWUXHGYZQYFYFFIT3RE
secret_access_key> MOJRH0mkL1IPauahWITSVvyDrQbEEIwljvmxdq03
region> us-east-1
endpoint> http://192.168.1.106:9000
location_constraint>
server_side_encryption>

Which makes the config file look like this

[minio]
type = s3
provider = Minio
env_auth = false
access_key_id = USWUXHGYZQYFYFFIT3RE
secret_access_key = MOJRH0mkL1IPauahWITSVvyDrQbEEIwljvmxdq03
region = us-east-1
endpoint = http://192.168.1.106:9000
location_constraint =
server_side_encryption =

So once set up, for example to copy files into a bucket

rclone copy /path/to/files minio:bucket

Scaleway

Scaleway (https://www.scaleway.com/object-storage/) The Object Storage platform allows you to store anything from backups, logs and web assets to documents and photos. Files can be dropped from the Scaleway console or transferred through our API and CLI or using any S3-compatible tool.

Scaleway provides an S3 interface which can be configured for use with rclone like this:

[scaleway]
type = s3
env_auth = false
endpoint = s3.nl-ams.scw.cloud
access_key_id = SCWXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
secret_access_key = 1111111-2222-3333-44444-55555555555555
region = nl-ams
location_constraint =
acl = private
force_path_style = false
server_side_encryption =
storage_class =

Wasabi

Wasabi (https://wasabi.com) is a cloud-based object storage service for a broad range of applications and use cases. Wasabi is designed for individuals and organizations that require a high-performance, reliable, and secure data storage infrastructure at minimal cost.

Wasabi provides an S3 interface which can be configured for use with rclone like this.

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
n/s> n
name> wasabi
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Amazon S3 (also Dreamhost, Ceph, Minio)
   \ "s3"
[snip]
Storage> s3
Get AWS credentials from runtime (environment variables or EC2/ECS meta data if no env vars). Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Enter AWS credentials in the next step
   \ "false"
 2 / Get AWS credentials from the environment (env vars or IAM)
   \ "true"
env_auth> 1
AWS Access Key ID - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
access_key_id> YOURACCESSKEY
AWS Secret Access Key (password) - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
secret_access_key> YOURSECRETACCESSKEY
Region to connect to.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
   / The default endpoint - a good choice if you are unsure.
 1 | US Region, Northern Virginia or Pacific Northwest.
   | Leave location constraint empty.
   \ "us-east-1"
[snip]
region> us-east-1
Endpoint for S3 API.
Leave blank if using AWS to use the default endpoint for the region.
Specify if using an S3 clone such as Ceph.
endpoint> s3.wasabisys.com
Location constraint - must be set to match the Region. Used when creating buckets only.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Empty for US Region, Northern Virginia or Pacific Northwest.
   \ ""
[snip]
location_constraint>
Canned ACL used when creating buckets and/or storing objects in S3.
For more info visit https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/acl-overview.html#canned-acl
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default).
   \ "private"
[snip]
acl>
The server-side encryption algorithm used when storing this object in S3.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / None
   \ ""
 2 / AES256
   \ "AES256"
server_side_encryption>
The storage class to use when storing objects in S3.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Default
   \ ""
 2 / Standard storage class
   \ "STANDARD"
 3 / Reduced redundancy storage class
   \ "REDUCED_REDUNDANCY"
 4 / Standard Infrequent Access storage class
   \ "STANDARD_IA"
storage_class>
Remote config
--------------------
[wasabi]
env_auth = false
access_key_id = YOURACCESSKEY
secret_access_key = YOURSECRETACCESSKEY
region = us-east-1
endpoint = s3.wasabisys.com
location_constraint =
acl =
server_side_encryption =
storage_class =
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

This will leave the config file looking like this.

[wasabi]
type = s3
provider = Wasabi
env_auth = false
access_key_id = YOURACCESSKEY
secret_access_key = YOURSECRETACCESSKEY
region =
endpoint = s3.wasabisys.com
location_constraint =
acl =
server_side_encryption =
storage_class =

Alibaba OSS

Here is an example of making an Alibaba Cloud (Aliyun) OSS (https://www.alibabacloud.com/product/oss/) configuration. First run:

rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process.

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> oss
Type of storage to configure.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
 4 / Amazon S3 Compliant Storage Provider (AWS, Alibaba, Ceph, Digital Ocean, Dreamhost, IBM COS, Minio, etc)
   \ "s3"
[snip]
Storage> s3
Choose your S3 provider.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Amazon Web Services (AWS) S3
   \ "AWS"
 2 / Alibaba Cloud Object Storage System (OSS) formerly Aliyun
   \ "Alibaba"
 3 / Ceph Object Storage
   \ "Ceph"
[snip]
provider> Alibaba
Get AWS credentials from runtime (environment variables or EC2/ECS meta data if no env vars).
Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank.
Enter a boolean value (true or false). Press Enter for the default ("false").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Enter AWS credentials in the next step
   \ "false"
 2 / Get AWS credentials from the environment (env vars or IAM)
   \ "true"
env_auth> 1
AWS Access Key ID.
Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
access_key_id> accesskeyid
AWS Secret Access Key (password)
Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
secret_access_key> secretaccesskey
Endpoint for OSS API.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / East China 1 (Hangzhou)
   \ "oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com"
 2 / East China 2 (Shanghai)
   \ "oss-cn-shanghai.aliyuncs.com"
 3 / North China 1 (Qingdao)
   \ "oss-cn-qingdao.aliyuncs.com"
[snip]
endpoint> 1
Canned ACL used when creating buckets and storing or copying objects.

Note that this ACL is applied when server side copying objects as S3
doesn't copy the ACL from the source but rather writes a fresh one.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. No one else has access rights (default).
   \ "private"
 2 / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ access.
   \ "public-read"
   / Owner gets FULL_CONTROL. The AllUsers group gets READ and WRITE access.
[snip]
acl> 1
The storage class to use when storing new objects in OSS.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Default
   \ ""
 2 / Standard storage class
   \ "STANDARD"
 3 / Archive storage mode.
   \ "GLACIER"
 4 / Infrequent access storage mode.
   \ "STANDARD_IA"
storage_class> 1
Edit advanced config? (y/n)
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> n
Remote config
--------------------
[oss]
type = s3
provider = Alibaba
env_auth = false
access_key_id = accesskeyid
secret_access_key = secretaccesskey
endpoint = oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com
acl = private
storage_class = Standard
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

Netease NOS

For Netease NOS configure as per the configurator rclone config setting the provider Netease. This will automatically set force_path_style = false which is necessary for it to run properly.

Backblaze B2

B2 is Backblaze's cloud storage system (https://www.backblaze.com/b2/).

Paths are specified as remote:bucket (or remote: for the lsd command.) You may put subdirectories in too, eg remote:bucket/path/to/dir.

Here is an example of making a b2 configuration. First run

rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process. To authenticate you will either need your Account ID (a short hex number) and Master Application Key (a long hex number) OR an Application Key, which is the recommended method. See below for further details on generating and using an Application Key.

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
q) Quit config
n/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Backblaze B2
   \ "b2"
[snip]
Storage> b2
Account ID or Application Key ID
account> 123456789abc
Application Key
key> 0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789
Endpoint for the service - leave blank normally.
endpoint>
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
account = 123456789abc
key = 0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789
endpoint =
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

This remote is called remote and can now be used like this

See all buckets

rclone lsd remote:

Create a new bucket

rclone mkdir remote:bucket

List the contents of a bucket

rclone ls remote:bucket

Sync /home/local/directory to the remote bucket, deleting any excess files in the bucket.

rclone sync /home/local/directory remote:bucket
 

Application Keys

B2 supports multiple Application Keys for different access permission to B2 Buckets (https://www.backblaze.com/b2/docs/application_keys.html).

You can use these with rclone too; you will need to use rclone version 1.43 or later.

Follow Backblaze's docs to create an Application Key with the required permission and add the applicationKeyId as the account and the Application Key itself as the key.

Note that you must put the applicationKeyId as the account - you can't use the master Account ID. If you try then B2 will return 401 errors.  

-fast-list

This remote supports --fast-list which allows you to use fewer transactions in exchange for more memory. See the rclone docs (/docs/#fast-list) for more details.  

Modified time

The modified time is stored as metadata on the object as X-Bz-Info-src_last_modified_millis as milliseconds since 1970-01-01 in the Backblaze standard. Other tools should be able to use this as a modified time.

Modified times are used in syncing and are fully supported. Note that if a modification time needs to be updated on an object then it will create a new version of the object.  

Restricted filename characters

In addition to the default restricted characters set (/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:

Character Value Replacement

\ 0x5C 3C

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.  

SHA1 checksums

The SHA1 checksums of the files are checked on upload and download and will be used in the syncing process.

Large files (bigger than the limit in --b2-upload-cutoff) which are uploaded in chunks will store their SHA1 on the object as X-Bz-Info-large_file_sha1 as recommended by Backblaze.

For a large file to be uploaded with an SHA1 checksum, the source needs to support SHA1 checksums. The local disk supports SHA1 checksums so large file transfers from local disk will have an SHA1. See the overview (/overview/#features) for exactly which remotes support SHA1.

Sources which don't support SHA1, in particular crypt will upload large files without SHA1 checksums. This may be fixed in the future (see #1767 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1767)).

Files sizes below --b2-upload-cutoff will always have an SHA1 regardless of the source.  

Transfers

Backblaze recommends that you do lots of transfers simultaneously for maximum speed. In tests from my SSD equipped laptop the optimum setting is about --transfers 32 though higher numbers may be used for a slight speed improvement. The optimum number for you may vary depending on your hardware, how big the files are, how much you want to load your computer, etc. The default of --transfers 4 is definitely too low for Backblaze B2 though.

Note that uploading big files (bigger than 200 MB by default) will use a 96 MB RAM buffer by default. There can be at most --transfers of these in use at any moment, so this sets the upper limit on the memory used.  

Versions

When rclone uploads a new version of a file it creates a new version of it (https://www.backblaze.com/b2/docs/file_versions.html). Likewise when you delete a file, the old version will be marked hidden and still be available. Conversely, you may opt in to a "hard delete" of files with the --b2-hard-delete flag which would permanently remove the file instead of hiding it.

Old versions of files, where available, are visible using the --b2-versions flag.

NB Note that --b2-versions does not work with crypt at the moment #1627 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1627). Using -backup-dir (/docs/#backup-dir-dir) with rclone is the recommended way of working around this.

If you wish to remove all the old versions then you can use the rclone cleanup remote:bucket command which will delete all the old versions of files, leaving the current ones intact. You can also supply a path and only old versions under that path will be deleted, eg rclone cleanup remote:bucket/path/to/stuff.

Note that cleanup will remove partially uploaded files from the bucket if they are more than a day old.

When you purge a bucket, the current and the old versions will be deleted then the bucket will be deleted.

However delete will cause the current versions of the files to become hidden old versions.

Here is a session showing the listing and retrieval of an old version followed by a cleanup of the old versions.

Show current version and all the versions with --b2-versions flag.

$ rclone -q ls b2:cleanup-test
        9 one.txt

$ rclone -q --b2-versions ls b2:cleanup-test
        9 one.txt
        8 one-v2016-07-04-141032-000.txt
       16 one-v2016-07-04-141003-000.txt
       15 one-v2016-07-02-155621-000.txt

Retrieve an old version

$ rclone -q --b2-versions copy b2:cleanup-test/one-v2016-07-04-141003-000.txt /tmp

$ ls -l /tmp/one-v2016-07-04-141003-000.txt
-rw-rw-r-- 1 ncw ncw 16 Jul  2 17:46 /tmp/one-v2016-07-04-141003-000.txt

Clean up all the old versions and show that they've gone.

$ rclone -q cleanup b2:cleanup-test

$ rclone -q ls b2:cleanup-test
        9 one.txt

$ rclone -q --b2-versions ls b2:cleanup-test
        9 one.txt
 

Data usage

It is useful to know how many requests are sent to the server in different scenarios.

All copy commands send the following 4 requests:

/b2api/v1/b2_authorize_account
/b2api/v1/b2_create_bucket
/b2api/v1/b2_list_buckets
/b2api/v1/b2_list_file_names

The b2_list_file_names request will be sent once for every 1k files in the remote path, providing the checksum and modification time of the listed files. As of version 1.33 issue #818 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/818) causes extra requests to be sent when using B2 with Crypt. When a copy operation does not require any files to be uploaded, no more requests will be sent.

Uploading files that do not require chunking, will send 2 requests per file upload:

/b2api/v1/b2_get_upload_url
/b2api/v1/b2_upload_file/

Uploading files requiring chunking, will send 2 requests (one each to start and finish the upload) and another 2 requests for each chunk:

/b2api/v1/b2_start_large_file
/b2api/v1/b2_get_upload_part_url
/b2api/v1/b2_upload_part/
/b2api/v1/b2_finish_large_file
 

Versions

Versions can be viewed with the --b2-versions flag. When it is set rclone will show and act on older versions of files. For example

Listing without --b2-versions

$ rclone -q ls b2:cleanup-test
        9 one.txt

And with

$ rclone -q --b2-versions ls b2:cleanup-test
        9 one.txt
        8 one-v2016-07-04-141032-000.txt
       16 one-v2016-07-04-141003-000.txt
       15 one-v2016-07-02-155621-000.txt

Showing that the current version is unchanged but older versions can be seen. These have the UTC date that they were uploaded to the server to the nearest millisecond appended to them.

Note that when using --b2-versions no file write operations are permitted, so you can't upload files or delete them.  

B2 and rclone link

Rclone supports generating file share links for private B2 buckets. They can either be for a file for example:

./rclone link B2:bucket/path/to/file.txt
https://f002.backblazeb2.com/file/bucket/path/to/file.txt?Authorization=xxxxxxxx

or if run on a directory you will get:

./rclone link B2:bucket/path
https://f002.backblazeb2.com/file/bucket/path?Authorization=xxxxxxxx

you can then use the authorization token (the part of the url from the ?Authorization= on) on any file path under that directory. For example:

https://f002.backblazeb2.com/file/bucket/path/to/file1?Authorization=xxxxxxxx
https://f002.backblazeb2.com/file/bucket/path/file2?Authorization=xxxxxxxx
https://f002.backblazeb2.com/file/bucket/path/folder/file3?Authorization=xxxxxxxx
 

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to b2 (Backblaze B2).  

-b2-account

Account ID or Application Key ID

Config: account
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_ACCOUNT
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-b2-key

Application Key

Config: key
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_KEY
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-b2-hard-delete

Permanently delete files on remote removal, otherwise hide files.

Config: hard_delete
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_HARD_DELETE
Type: bool
Default: false
 

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to b2 (Backblaze B2).  

-b2-endpoint

Endpoint for the service. Leave blank normally.

Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-b2-test-mode

A flag string for X-Bz-Test-Mode header for debugging.

This is for debugging purposes only. Setting it to one of the strings below will cause b2 to return specific errors:

"fail_some_uploads"
"expire_some_account_authorization_tokens"
"force_cap_exceeded"

These will be set in the "X-Bz-Test-Mode" header which is documented in the b2 integrations checklist (https://www.backblaze.com/b2/docs/integration_checklist.html).

Config: test_mode
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_TEST_MODE
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-b2-versions

Include old versions in directory listings. Note that when using this no file write operations are permitted, so you can't upload files or delete them.

Config: versions
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_VERSIONS
Type: bool
Default: false
 

-b2-upload-cutoff

Cutoff for switching to chunked upload.

Files above this size will be uploaded in chunks of "-b2-chunk-size".

This value should be set no larger than 4.657GiB (== 5GB).

Config: upload_cutoff
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_UPLOAD_CUTOFF
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 200M
 

-b2-chunk-size

Upload chunk size. Must fit in memory.

When uploading large files, chunk the file into this size. Note that these chunks are buffered in memory and there might a maximum of "-transfers" chunks in progress at once. 5,000,000 Bytes is the minimum size.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 96M
 

-b2-disable-checksum

Disable checksums for large (> upload cutoff) files

Config: disable_checksum
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_DISABLE_CHECKSUM
Type: bool
Default: false
 

-b2-download-url

Custom endpoint for downloads.

This is usually set to a Cloudflare CDN URL as Backblaze offers free egress for data downloaded through the Cloudflare network. This is probably only useful for a public bucket. Leave blank if you want to use the endpoint provided by Backblaze.

Config: download_url
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_DOWNLOAD_URL
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-b2-download-auth-duration

Time before the authorization token will expire in s or suffix ms|s|m|h|d.

The duration before the download authorization token will expire. The minimum value is 1 second. The maximum value is one week.

Config: download_auth_duration
Env Var: RCLONE_B2_DOWNLOAD_AUTH_DURATION
Type: Duration
Default: 1w
 

Box

Paths are specified as remote:path

Paths may be as deep as required, eg remote:directory/subdirectory.

The initial setup for Box involves getting a token from Box which you can do either in your browser, or with a config.json downloaded from Box to use JWT authentication. rclone config walks you through it.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Box
   \ "box"
[snip]
Storage> box
Box App Client Id - leave blank normally.
client_id> 
Box App Client Secret - leave blank normally.
client_secret>
Box App config.json location
Leave blank normally.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
config_json>
'enterprise' or 'user' depending on the type of token being requested.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("user").
box_sub_type>
Remote config
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code
--------------------
[remote]
client_id = 
client_secret = 
token = {"access_token":"XXX","token_type":"bearer","refresh_token":"XXX","expiry":"XXX"}
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

See the remote setup docs (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/) for how to set it up on a machine with no Internet browser available.

Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from Box. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this it may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall.

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your Box

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your Box

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to an Box directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup
 

Using rclone with an Enterprise account with SSO

If you have an "Enterprise" account type with Box with single sign on (SSO), you need to create a password to use Box with rclone. This can be done at your Enterprise Box account by going to Settings, "Account" Tab, and then set the password in the "Authentication" field.

Once you have done this, you can setup your Enterprise Box account using the same procedure detailed above in the, using the password you have just set.  

Invalid refresh token

According to the box docs (https://developer.box.com/v2.0/docs/oauth-20#section-6-using-the-access-and-refresh-tokens):

Each refresh_token is valid for one use in 60 days.

This means that if you

Don't use the box remote for 60 days
Copy the config file with a box refresh token in and use it in two places
Get an error on a token refresh

then rclone will return an error which includes the text Invalid refresh token.

To fix this you will need to use oauth2 again to update the refresh token. You can use the methods in the remote setup docs (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/), bearing in mind that if you use the copy the config file method, you should not use that remote on the computer you did the authentication on.

Here is how to do it.

$ rclone config
Current remotes:

Name                 Type
====                 ====
remote               box

e) Edit existing remote
n) New remote
d) Delete remote
r) Rename remote
c) Copy remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
e/n/d/r/c/s/q> e
Choose a number from below, or type in an existing value
 1 > remote
remote> remote
--------------------
[remote]
type = box
token = {"access_token":"XXX","token_type":"bearer","refresh_token":"XXX","expiry":"2017-07-08T23:40:08.059167677+01:00"}
--------------------
Edit remote
Value "client_id" = ""
Edit? (y/n)>
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> n
Value "client_secret" = ""
Edit? (y/n)>
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> n
Remote config
Already have a token - refresh?
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code
--------------------
[remote]
type = box
token = {"access_token":"YYY","token_type":"bearer","refresh_token":"YYY","expiry":"2017-07-23T12:22:29.259137901+01:00"}
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y
 

Modified time and hashes

Box allows modification times to be set on objects accurate to 1 second. These will be used to detect whether objects need syncing or not.

Box supports SHA1 type hashes, so you can use the --checksum flag.  

Restricted filename characters

In addition to the default restricted characters set (/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:

Character Value Replacement

\ 0x5C 3C

File names can also not end with the following characters. These only get replaced if they are last character in the name:

Character Value Replacement

SP 0x20 20

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.  

Transfers

For files above 50MB rclone will use a chunked transfer. Rclone will upload up to --transfers chunks at the same time (shared among all the multipart uploads). Chunks are buffered in memory and are normally 8MB so increasing --transfers will increase memory use.  

Deleting files

Depending on the enterprise settings for your user, the item will either be actually deleted from Box or moved to the trash.  

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to box (Box).  

-box-client-id

Box App Client Id. Leave blank normally.

Config: client_id
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_CLIENT_ID
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-box-client-secret

Box App Client Secret Leave blank normally.

Config: client_secret
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_CLIENT_SECRET
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-box-box-config-file

Box App config.json location Leave blank normally.

Config: box_config_file
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_BOX_CONFIG_FILE
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-box-box-sub-type

Config: box_sub_type
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_BOX_SUB_TYPE
Type: string
Default: "user"
Examples:
"user"
Rclone should act on behalf of a user
"enterprise"
Rclone should act on behalf of a service account
 

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to box (Box).  

-box-upload-cutoff

Cutoff for switching to multipart upload (>= 50MB).

Config: upload_cutoff
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_UPLOAD_CUTOFF
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 50M
 

-box-commit-retries

Max number of times to try committing a multipart file.

Config: commit_retries
Env Var: RCLONE_BOX_COMMIT_RETRIES
Type: int
Default: 100
 

Limitations

Note that Box is case insensitive so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and one called "hello.doc".

Box file names can't have the \ character in. rclone maps this to and from an identical looking unicode equivalent 3C.

Box only supports filenames up to 255 characters in length.  

Cache (BETA)

The cache remote wraps another existing remote and stores file structure and its data for long running tasks like rclone mount.

To get started you just need to have an existing remote which can be configured with cache.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called test-cache. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
r) Rename remote
c) Copy remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/r/c/s/q> n
name> test-cache
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Cache a remote
   \ "cache"
[snip]
Storage> cache
Remote to cache.
Normally should contain a ':' and a path, eg "myremote:path/to/dir",
"myremote:bucket" or maybe "myremote:" (not recommended).
remote> local:/test
Optional: The URL of the Plex server
plex_url> http://127.0.0.1:32400
Optional: The username of the Plex user
plex_username> dummyusername
Optional: The password of the Plex user
y) Yes type in my own password
g) Generate random password
n) No leave this optional password blank
y/g/n> y
Enter the password:
password:
Confirm the password:
password:
The size of a chunk. Lower value good for slow connections but can affect seamless reading.
Default: 5M
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / 1MB
   \ "1m"
 2 / 5 MB
   \ "5M"
 3 / 10 MB
   \ "10M"
chunk_size> 2
How much time should object info (file size, file hashes etc) be stored in cache. Use a very high value if you don't plan on changing the source FS from outside the cache.
Accepted units are: "s", "m", "h".
Default: 5m
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / 1 hour
   \ "1h"
 2 / 24 hours
   \ "24h"
 3 / 24 hours
   \ "48h"
info_age> 2
The maximum size of stored chunks. When the storage grows beyond this size, the oldest chunks will be deleted.
Default: 10G
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / 500 MB
   \ "500M"
 2 / 1 GB
   \ "1G"
 3 / 10 GB
   \ "10G"
chunk_total_size> 3
Remote config
--------------------
[test-cache]
remote = local:/test
plex_url = http://127.0.0.1:32400
plex_username = dummyusername
plex_password = *** ENCRYPTED ***
chunk_size = 5M
info_age = 48h
chunk_total_size = 10G

You can then use it like this,

List directories in top level of your drive

rclone lsd test-cache:

List all the files in your drive

rclone ls test-cache:

To start a cached mount

rclone mount --allow-other test-cache: /var/tmp/test-cache
 

Write Features

 

Offline uploading

In an effort to make writing through cache more reliable, the backend now supports this feature which can be activated by specifying a cache-tmp-upload-path.

A files goes through these states when using this feature:

1.
An upload is started (usually by copying a file on the cache remote)
2.
When the copy to the temporary location is complete the file is part of the cached remote and looks and behaves like any other file (reading included)
3.
After cache-tmp-wait-time passes and the file is next in line, rclone move is used to move the file to the cloud provider
4.
Reading the file still works during the upload but most modifications on it will be prohibited
5.
Once the move is complete the file is unlocked for modifications as it becomes as any other regular file
6.
If the file is being read through cache when it's actually deleted from the temporary path then cache will simply swap the source to the cloud provider without interrupting the reading (small blip can happen though)

Files are uploaded in sequence and only one file is uploaded at a time. Uploads will be stored in a queue and be processed based on the order they were added. The queue and the temporary storage is persistent across restarts but can be cleared on startup with the --cache-db-purge flag.  

Write Support

Writes are supported through cache. One caveat is that a mounted cache remote does not add any retry or fallback mechanism to the upload operation. This will depend on the implementation of the wrapped remote. Consider using Offline uploading for reliable writes.

One special case is covered with cache-writes which will cache the file data at the same time as the upload when it is enabled making it available from the cache store immediately once the upload is finished.  

Read Features

 

Multiple connections

To counter the high latency between a local PC where rclone is running and cloud providers, the cache remote can split multiple requests to the cloud provider for smaller file chunks and combines them together locally where they can be available almost immediately before the reader usually needs them.

This is similar to buffering when media files are played online. Rclone will stay around the current marker but always try its best to stay ahead and prepare the data before.  

Plex Integration

There is a direct integration with Plex which allows cache to detect during reading if the file is in playback or not. This helps cache to adapt how it queries the cloud provider depending on what is needed for.

Scans will have a minimum amount of workers (1) while in a confirmed playback cache will deploy the configured number of workers.

This integration opens the doorway to additional performance improvements which will be explored in the near future.

Note: If Plex options are not configured, cache will function with its configured options without adapting any of its settings.

How to enable? Run rclone config and add all the Plex options (endpoint, username and password) in your remote and it will be automatically enabled.

Affected settings: - cache-workers: Configured value during confirmed playback or 1 all the other times  

Certificate Validation

When the Plex server is configured to only accept secure connections, it is possible to use .plex.direct URL's to ensure certificate validation succeeds. These URL's are used by Plex internally to connect to the Plex server securely.

The format for this URL's is the following:

https://ip-with-dots-replaced.server-hash.plex.direct:32400/

The ip-with-dots-replaced part can be any IPv4 address, where the dots have been replaced with dashes, e.g. 127.0.0.1 becomes 127-0-0-1.

To get the server-hash part, the easiest way is to visit

https://plex.tv/api/resources?includeHttps=1&X-Plex-Token=your-plex-token

This page will list all the available Plex servers for your account with at least one .plex.direct link for each. Copy one URL and replace the IP address with the desired address. This can be used as the plex_url value.  

Known issues

 

Mount and -dir-cache-time

-dir-cache-time controls the first layer of directory caching which works at the mount layer. Being an independent caching mechanism from the cache backend, it will manage its own entries based on the configured time.

To avoid getting in a scenario where dir cache has obsolete data and cache would have the correct one, try to set --dir-cache-time to a lower time than --cache-info-age. Default values are already configured in this way.  

Windows support - Experimental

There are a couple of issues with Windows mount functionality that still require some investigations. It should be considered as experimental thus far as fixes come in for this OS.

Most of the issues seem to be related to the difference between filesystems on Linux flavors and Windows as cache is heavily dependant on them.

Any reports or feedback on how cache behaves on this OS is greatly appreciated.

https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1935
https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1907
https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1834
 

Risk of throttling

Future iterations of the cache backend will make use of the pooling functionality of the cloud provider to synchronize and at the same time make writing through it more tolerant to failures.

There are a couple of enhancements in track to add these but in the meantime there is a valid concern that the expiring cache listings can lead to cloud provider throttles or bans due to repeated queries on it for very large mounts.

Some recommendations: - don't use a very small interval for entry informations (--cache-info-age) - while writes aren't yet optimised, you can still write through cache which gives you the advantage of adding the file in the cache at the same time if configured to do so.

Future enhancements:

https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1937
https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1936
 

cache and crypt

One common scenario is to keep your data encrypted in the cloud provider using the crypt remote. crypt uses a similar technique to wrap around an existing remote and handles this translation in a seamless way.

There is an issue with wrapping the remotes in this order: cloud remote -> crypt -> cache

During testing, I experienced a lot of bans with the remotes in this order. I suspect it might be related to how crypt opens files on the cloud provider which makes it think we're downloading the full file instead of small chunks. Organizing the remotes in this order yields better results: cloud remote -> cache -> crypt  

absolute remote paths

cache can not differentiate between relative and absolute paths for the wrapped remote. Any path given in the remote config setting and on the command line will be passed to the wrapped remote as is, but for storing the chunks on disk the path will be made relative by removing any leading / character.

This behavior is irrelevant for most backend types, but there are backends where a leading / changes the effective directory, e.g. in the sftp backend paths starting with a / are relative to the root of the SSH server and paths without are relative to the user home directory. As a result sftp:bin and sftp:/bin will share the same cache folder, even if they represent a different directory on the SSH server.  

Cache and Remote Control (-rc)

Cache supports the new --rc mode in rclone and can be remote controlled through the following end points: By default, the listener is disabled if you do not add the flag.  

rc cache/expire

Purge a remote from the cache backend. Supports either a directory or a file. It supports both encrypted and unencrypted file names if cache is wrapped by crypt.

Params: - remote = path to remote (required) - withData = true/false to delete cached data (chunks) as well (optional, false by default)  

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to cache (Cache a remote).  

-cache-remote

Remote to cache. Normally should contain a `:' and a path, eg "myremote:path/to/dir", "myremote:bucket" or maybe "myremote:" (not recommended).

Config: remote
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_REMOTE
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-cache-plex-url

The URL of the Plex server

Config: plex_url
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_PLEX_URL
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-cache-plex-username

The username of the Plex user

Config: plex_username
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_PLEX_USERNAME
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-cache-plex-password

The password of the Plex user

Config: plex_password
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_PLEX_PASSWORD
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-cache-chunk-size

The size of a chunk (partial file data).

Use lower numbers for slower connections. If the chunk size is changed, any downloaded chunks will be invalid and cache-chunk-path will need to be cleared or unexpected EOF errors will occur.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 5M
Examples:
"1m"
1MB
"5M"
5 MB
"10M"
10 MB
 

-cache-info-age

How long to cache file structure information (directory listings, file size, times etc). If all write operations are done through the cache then you can safely make this value very large as the cache store will also be updated in real time.

Config: info_age
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_INFO_AGE
Type: Duration
Default: 6h0m0s
Examples:
"1h"
1 hour
"24h"
24 hours
"48h"
48 hours
 

-cache-chunk-total-size

The total size that the chunks can take up on the local disk.

If the cache exceeds this value then it will start to delete the oldest chunks until it goes under this value.

Config: chunk_total_size
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_CHUNK_TOTAL_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 10G
Examples:
"500M"
500 MB
"1G"
1 GB
"10G"
10 GB
 

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to cache (Cache a remote).  

-cache-plex-token

The plex token for authentication - auto set normally

Config: plex_token
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_PLEX_TOKEN
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-cache-plex-insecure

Skip all certificate verifications when connecting to the Plex server

Config: plex_insecure
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_PLEX_INSECURE
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-cache-db-path

Directory to store file structure metadata DB. The remote name is used as the DB file name.

Config: db_path
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_DB_PATH
Type: string
Default: "$HOME/.cache/rclone/cache-backend"
 

-cache-chunk-path

Directory to cache chunk files.

Path to where partial file data (chunks) are stored locally. The remote name is appended to the final path.

This config follows the "-cache-db-path". If you specify a custom location for "-cache-db-path" and don't specify one for "-cache-chunk-path" then "-cache-chunk-path" will use the same path as "-cache-db-path".

Config: chunk_path
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_CHUNK_PATH
Type: string
Default: "$HOME/.cache/rclone/cache-backend"
 

-cache-db-purge

Clear all the cached data for this remote on start.

Config: db_purge
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_DB_PURGE
Type: bool
Default: false
 

-cache-chunk-clean-interval

How often should the cache perform cleanups of the chunk storage. The default value should be ok for most people. If you find that the cache goes over "cache-chunk-total-size" too often then try to lower this value to force it to perform cleanups more often.

Config: chunk_clean_interval
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_CHUNK_CLEAN_INTERVAL
Type: Duration
Default: 1m0s
 

-cache-read-retries

How many times to retry a read from a cache storage.

Since reading from a cache stream is independent from downloading file data, readers can get to a point where there's no more data in the cache. Most of the times this can indicate a connectivity issue if cache isn't able to provide file data anymore.

For really slow connections, increase this to a point where the stream is able to provide data but your experience will be very stuttering.

Config: read_retries
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_READ_RETRIES
Type: int
Default: 10
 

-cache-workers

How many workers should run in parallel to download chunks.

Higher values will mean more parallel processing (better CPU needed) and more concurrent requests on the cloud provider. This impacts several aspects like the cloud provider API limits, more stress on the hardware that rclone runs on but it also means that streams will be more fluid and data will be available much more faster to readers.

Note: If the optional Plex integration is enabled then this setting will adapt to the type of reading performed and the value specified here will be used as a maximum number of workers to use.

Config: workers
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_WORKERS
Type: int
Default: 4
 

-cache-chunk-no-memory

Disable the in-memory cache for storing chunks during streaming.

By default, cache will keep file data during streaming in RAM as well to provide it to readers as fast as possible.

This transient data is evicted as soon as it is read and the number of chunks stored doesn't exceed the number of workers. However, depending on other settings like "cache-chunk-size" and "cache-workers" this footprint can increase if there are parallel streams too (multiple files being read at the same time).

If the hardware permits it, use this feature to provide an overall better performance during streaming but it can also be disabled if RAM is not available on the local machine.

Config: chunk_no_memory
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_CHUNK_NO_MEMORY
Type: bool
Default: false
 

-cache-rps

Limits the number of requests per second to the source FS (-1 to disable)

This setting places a hard limit on the number of requests per second that cache will be doing to the cloud provider remote and try to respect that value by setting waits between reads.

If you find that you're getting banned or limited on the cloud provider through cache and know that a smaller number of requests per second will allow you to work with it then you can use this setting for that.

A good balance of all the other settings should make this setting useless but it is available to set for more special cases.

NOTE: This will limit the number of requests during streams but other API calls to the cloud provider like directory listings will still pass.

Config: rps
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_RPS
Type: int
Default: -1
 

-cache-writes

Cache file data on writes through the FS

If you need to read files immediately after you upload them through cache you can enable this flag to have their data stored in the cache store at the same time during upload.

Config: writes
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_WRITES
Type: bool
Default: false
 

-cache-tmp-upload-path

Directory to keep temporary files until they are uploaded.

This is the path where cache will use as a temporary storage for new files that need to be uploaded to the cloud provider.

Specifying a value will enable this feature. Without it, it is completely disabled and files will be uploaded directly to the cloud provider

Config: tmp_upload_path
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_TMP_UPLOAD_PATH
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-cache-tmp-wait-time

How long should files be stored in local cache before being uploaded

This is the duration that a file must wait in the temporary location cache-tmp-upload-path before it is selected for upload.

Note that only one file is uploaded at a time and it can take longer to start the upload if a queue formed for this purpose.

Config: tmp_wait_time
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_TMP_WAIT_TIME
Type: Duration
Default: 15s
 

-cache-db-wait-time

How long to wait for the DB to be available - 0 is unlimited

Only one process can have the DB open at any one time, so rclone waits for this duration for the DB to become available before it gives an error.

If you set it to 0 then it will wait forever.

Config: db_wait_time
Env Var: RCLONE_CACHE_DB_WAIT_TIME
Type: Duration
Default: 1s
 

Chunker (BETA)

The chunker overlay transparently splits large files into smaller chunks during upload to wrapped remote and transparently assembles them back when the file is downloaded. This allows to effectively overcome size limits imposed by storage providers.

To use it, first set up the underlying remote following the configuration instructions for that remote. You can also use a local pathname instead of a remote.

First check your chosen remote is working - we'll call it remote:path here. Note that anything inside remote:path will be chunked and anything outside won't. This means that if you are using a bucket based remote (eg S3, B2, swift) then you should probably put the bucket in the remote s3:bucket.

Now configure chunker using rclone config. We will call this one overlay to separate it from the remote itself.

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> overlay
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Transparently chunk/split large files
   \ "chunker"
[snip]
Storage> chunker
Remote to chunk/unchunk.
Normally should contain a ':' and a path, eg "myremote:path/to/dir",
"myremote:bucket" or maybe "myremote:" (not recommended).
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
remote> remote:path
Files larger than chunk size will be split in chunks.
Enter a size with suffix k,M,G,T. Press Enter for the default ("2G").
chunk_size> 100M
Choose how chunker handles hash sums. All modes but "none" require metadata.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("md5").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Pass any hash supported by wrapped remote for non-chunked files, return nothing otherwise
   \ "none"
 2 / MD5 for composite files
   \ "md5"
 3 / SHA1 for composite files
   \ "sha1"
 4 / MD5 for all files
   \ "md5all"
 5 / SHA1 for all files
   \ "sha1all"
 6 / Copying a file to chunker will request MD5 from the source falling back to SHA1 if unsupported
   \ "md5quick"
 7 / Similar to "md5quick" but prefers SHA1 over MD5
   \ "sha1quick"
hash_type> md5
Edit advanced config? (y/n)
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> n
Remote config
--------------------
[overlay]
type = chunker
remote = remote:bucket
chunk_size = 100M
hash_type = md5
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y
 

Specifying the remote

In normal use, make sure the remote has a : in. If you specify the remote without a : then rclone will use a local directory of that name. So if you use a remote of /path/to/secret/files then rclone will chunk stuff in that directory. If you use a remote of name then rclone will put files in a directory called name in the current directory.  

Chunking

When rclone starts a file upload, chunker checks the file size. If it doesn't exceed the configured chunk size, chunker will just pass the file to the wrapped remote. If a file is large, chunker will transparently cut data in pieces with temporary names and stream them one by one, on the fly. Each data chunk will contain the specified number of bytes, except for the last one which may have less data. If file size is unknown in advance (this is called a streaming upload), chunker will internally create a temporary copy, record its size and repeat the above process.

When upload completes, temporary chunk files are finally renamed. This scheme guarantees that operations can be run in parallel and look from outside as atomic. A similar method with hidden temporary chunks is used for other operations (copy/move/rename etc). If an operation fails, hidden chunks are normally destroyed, and the target composite file stays intact.

When a composite file download is requested, chunker transparently assembles it by concatenating data chunks in order. As the split is trivial one could even manually concatenate data chunks together to obtain the original content.

When the list rclone command scans a directory on wrapped remote, the potential chunk files are accounted for, grouped and assembled into composite directory entries. Any temporary chunks are hidden.

List and other commands can sometimes come across composite files with missing or invalid chunks, eg. shadowed by like-named directory or another file. This usually means that wrapped file system has been directly tampered with or damaged. If chunker detects a missing chunk it will by default print warning, skip the whole incomplete group of chunks but proceed with current command. You can set the --chunker-fail-hard flag to have commands abort with error message in such cases.  

Chunk names

The default chunk name format is *.rclone-chunk.###, hence by default chunk names are BIG_FILE_NAME.rclone-chunk.001, BIG_FILE_NAME.rclone-chunk.002 etc. You can configure a different name format using the --chunker-name-format option. The format uses asterisk * as a placeholder for the base file name and one or more consecutive hash characters # as a placeholder for sequential chunk number. There must be one and only one asterisk. The number of consecutive hash characters defines the minimum length of a string representing a chunk number. If decimal chunk number has less digits than the number of hashes, it is left-padded by zeros. If the decimal string is longer, it is left intact. By default numbering starts from 1 but there is another option that allows user to start from 0, eg. for compatibility with legacy software.

For example, if name format is big_*-##.part and original file name is data.txt and numbering starts from 0, then the first chunk will be named big_data.txt-00.part, the 99th chunk will be big_data.txt-98.part and the 302nd chunk will become big_data.txt-301.part.

Note that list assembles composite directory entries only when chunk names match the configured format and treats non-conforming file names as normal non-chunked files.  

Metadata

Besides data chunks chunker will by default create metadata object for a composite file. The object is named after the original file. Chunker allows user to disable metadata completely (the none format). Note that metadata is normally not created for files smaller than the configured chunk size. This may change in future rclone releases.  

Simple JSON metadata format

This is the default format. It supports hash sums and chunk validation for composite files. Meta objects carry the following fields:

ver - version of format, currently 1
size - total size of composite file
nchunks - number of data chunks in file
md5 - MD5 hashsum of composite file (if present)
sha1 - SHA1 hashsum (if present)

There is no field for composite file name as it's simply equal to the name of meta object on the wrapped remote. Please refer to respective sections for details on hashsums and modified time handling.  

No metadata

You can disable meta objects by setting the meta format option to none. In this mode chunker will scan directory for all files that follow configured chunk name format, group them by detecting chunks with the same base name and show group names as virtual composite files. This method is more prone to missing chunk errors (especially missing last chunk) than format with metadata enabled.  

Hashsums

Chunker supports hashsums only when a compatible metadata is present. Hence, if you choose metadata format of none, chunker will report hashsum as UNSUPPORTED.

Please note that by default metadata is stored only for composite files. If a file is smaller than configured chunk size, chunker will transparently redirect hash requests to wrapped remote, so support depends on that. You will see the empty string as a hashsum of requested type for small files if the wrapped remote doesn't support it.

Many storage backends support MD5 and SHA1 hash types, so does chunker. With chunker you can choose one or another but not both. MD5 is set by default as the most supported type. Since chunker keeps hashes for composite files and falls back to the wrapped remote hash for non-chunked ones, we advise you to choose the same hash type as supported by wrapped remote so that your file listings look coherent.

If your storage backend does not support MD5 or SHA1 but you need consistent file hashing, configure chunker with md5all or sha1all. These two modes guarantee given hash for all files. If wrapped remote doesn't support it, chunker will then add metadata to all files, even small. However, this can double the amount of small files in storage and incur additional service charges.

Normally, when a file is copied to chunker controlled remote, chunker will ask the file source for compatible file hash and revert to on-the-fly calculation if none is found. This involves some CPU overhead but provides a guarantee that given hashsum is available. Also, chunker will reject a server-side copy or move operation if source and destination hashsum types are different resulting in the extra network bandwidth, too. In some rare cases this may be undesired, so chunker provides two optional choices: sha1quick and md5quick. If the source does not support primary hash type and the quick mode is enabled, chunker will try to fall back to the secondary type. This will save CPU and bandwidth but can result in empty hashsums at destination. Beware of consequences: the sync command will revert (sometimes silently) to time/size comparison if compatible hashsums between source and target are not found.  

Modified time

Chunker stores modification times using the wrapped remote so support depends on that. For a small non-chunked file the chunker overlay simply manipulates modification time of the wrapped remote file. For a composite file with metadata chunker will get and set modification time of the metadata object on the wrapped remote. If file is chunked but metadata format is none then chunker will use modification time of the first data chunk.  

Migrations

The idiomatic way to migrate to a different chunk size, hash type or chunk naming scheme is to:

Collect all your chunked files under a directory and have your chunker remote point to it.
Create another directory (most probably on the same cloud storage) and configure a new remote with desired metadata format, hash type, chunk naming etc.
Now run rclone sync oldchunks: newchunks: and all your data will be transparently converted in transfer. This may take some time, yet chunker will try server-side copy if possible.
After checking data integrity you may remove configuration section of the old remote.

If rclone gets killed during a long operation on a big composite file, hidden temporary chunks may stay in the directory. They will not be shown by the list command but will eat up your account quota. Please note that the deletefile command deletes only active chunks of a file. As a workaround, you can use remote of the wrapped file system to see them. An easy way to get rid of hidden garbage is to copy littered directory somewhere using the chunker remote and purge the original directory. The copy command will copy only active chunks while the purge will remove everything including garbage.  

Caveats and Limitations

Chunker requires wrapped remote to support server side move (or copy + delete) operations, otherwise it will explicitly refuse to start. This is because it internally renames temporary chunk files to their final names when an operation completes successfully.

Note that a move implemented using the copy-and-delete method may incur double charging with some cloud storage providers.

Chunker will not automatically rename existing chunks when you run rclone config on a live remote and change the chunk name format. Beware that in result of this some files which have been treated as chunks before the change can pop up in directory listings as normal files and vice versa. The same warning holds for the chunk size. If you desperately need to change critical chunking setings, you should run data migration as described above.

If wrapped remote is case insensitive, the chunker overlay will inherit that property (so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and "hello.doc" in the same directory).  

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to chunker (Transparently chunk/split large files).  

-chunker-remote

Remote to chunk/unchunk. Normally should contain a `:' and a path, eg "myremote:path/to/dir", "myremote:bucket" or maybe "myremote:" (not recommended).

Config: remote
Env Var: RCLONE_CHUNKER_REMOTE
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-chunker-chunk-size

Files larger than chunk size will be split in chunks.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_CHUNKER_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 2G
 

-chunker-hash-type

Choose how chunker handles hash sums. All modes but "none" require metadata.

Config: hash_type
Env Var: RCLONE_CHUNKER_HASH_TYPE
Type: string
Default: "md5"
Examples:
"none"
Pass any hash supported by wrapped remote for non-chunked files, return nothing otherwise
"md5"
MD5 for composite files
"sha1"
SHA1 for composite files
"md5all"
MD5 for all files
"sha1all"
SHA1 for all files
"md5quick"
Copying a file to chunker will request MD5 from the source falling back to SHA1 if unsupported
"sha1quick"
Similar to "md5quick" but prefers SHA1 over MD5
 

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to chunker (Transparently chunk/split large files).  

-chunker-name-format

String format of chunk file names. The two placeholders are: base file name (*) and chunk number (#...). There must be one and only one asterisk and one or more consecutive hash characters. If chunk number has less digits than the number of hashes, it is left-padded by zeros. If there are more digits in the number, they are left as is. Possible chunk files are ignored if their name does not match given format.

Config: name_format
Env Var: RCLONE_CHUNKER_NAME_FORMAT
Type: string
Default: "*.rclone_chunk.###"
 

-chunker-start-from

Minimum valid chunk number. Usually 0 or 1. By default chunk numbers start from 1.

Config: start_from
Env Var: RCLONE_CHUNKER_START_FROM
Type: int
Default: 1
 

-chunker-meta-format

Format of the metadata object or "none". By default "simplejson". Metadata is a small JSON file named after the composite file.

Config: meta_format
Env Var: RCLONE_CHUNKER_META_FORMAT
Type: string
Default: "simplejson"
Examples:
"none"
Do not use metadata files at all. Requires hash type "none".
"simplejson"
Simple JSON supports hash sums and chunk validation.
It has the following fields: ver, size, nchunks, md5, sha1.
 

-chunker-fail-hard

Choose how chunker should handle files with missing or invalid chunks.

Config: fail_hard
Env Var: RCLONE_CHUNKER_FAIL_HARD
Type: bool
Default: false
Examples:
"true"
Report errors and abort current command.
"false"
Warn user, skip incomplete file and proceed.
 

Citrix ShareFile

Citrix ShareFile (https://sharefile.com) is a secure file sharing and transfer service aimed as business.

The initial setup for Citrix ShareFile involves getting a token from Citrix ShareFile which you can in your browser. rclone config walks you through it.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
XX / Citrix Sharefile
   \ "sharefile"
Storage> sharefile
** See help for sharefile backend at: https://rclone.org/sharefile/ **

ID of the root folder

Leave blank to access "Personal Folders".  You can use one of the
standard values here or any folder ID (long hex number ID).
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Access the Personal Folders. (Default)
   \ ""
 2 / Access the Favorites folder.
   \ "favorites"
 3 / Access all the shared folders.
   \ "allshared"
 4 / Access all the individual connectors.
   \ "connectors"
 5 / Access the home, favorites, and shared folders as well as the connectors.
   \ "top"
root_folder_id> 
Edit advanced config? (y/n)
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> n
Remote config
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth?state=XXX
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code
--------------------
[remote]
type = sharefile
endpoint = https://XXX.sharefile.com
token = {"access_token":"XXX","token_type":"bearer","refresh_token":"XXX","expiry":"2019-09-30T19:41:45.878561877+01:00"}
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

See the remote setup docs (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/) for how to set it up on a machine with no Internet browser available.

Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from Citrix ShareFile. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this it may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall.

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your ShareFile

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your ShareFile

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to an ShareFile directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup

Paths may be as deep as required, eg remote:directory/subdirectory.  

Modified time and hashes

ShareFile allows modification times to be set on objects accurate to 1 second. These will be used to detect whether objects need syncing or not.

ShareFile supports MD5 type hashes, so you can use the --checksum flag.  

Transfers

For files above 128MB rclone will use a chunked transfer. Rclone will upload up to --transfers chunks at the same time (shared among all the multipart uploads). Chunks are buffered in memory and are normally 64MB so increasing --transfers will increase memory use.  

Limitations

Note that ShareFile is case insensitive so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and one called "hello.doc".

ShareFile only supports filenames up to 256 characters in length.  

Restricted filename characters

In addition to the default restricted characters set (/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:

Character Value Replacement

\ 0x5C 3C
* 0x2A 0A
< 0x3C 1C
> 0x3E 1E
? 0x3F 1F
: 0x3A 1A
| 0x7C 5C
" 0x22 02

File names can also not start or end with the following characters. These only get replaced if they are first or last character in the name:

Character Value Replacement

SP 0x20 20
. 0x2E 0E

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.  

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to sharefile (Citrix Sharefile).  

-sharefile-root-folder-id

ID of the root folder

Leave blank to access "Personal Folders". You can use one of the standard values here or any folder ID (long hex number ID).

Config: root_folder_id
Env Var: RCLONE_SHAREFILE_ROOT_FOLDER_ID
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
Access the Personal Folders. (Default)
"favorites"
Access the Favorites folder.
"allshared"
Access all the shared folders.
"connectors"
Access all the individual connectors.
"top"
Access the home, favorites, and shared folders as well as the connectors.
 

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to sharefile (Citrix Sharefile).  

-sharefile-upload-cutoff

Cutoff for switching to multipart upload.

Config: upload_cutoff
Env Var: RCLONE_SHAREFILE_UPLOAD_CUTOFF
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 128M
 

-sharefile-chunk-size

Upload chunk size. Must a power of 2 >= 256k.

Making this larger will improve performance, but note that each chunk is buffered in memory one per transfer.

Reducing this will reduce memory usage but decrease performance.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_SHAREFILE_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 64M
 

-sharefile-endpoint

Endpoint for API calls.

This is usually auto discovered as part of the oauth process, but can be set manually to something like: https://XXX.sharefile.com

Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_SHAREFILE_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""
 

Crypt

The crypt remote encrypts and decrypts another remote.

To use it first set up the underlying remote following the config instructions for that remote. You can also use a local pathname instead of a remote which will encrypt and decrypt from that directory which might be useful for encrypting onto a USB stick for example.

First check your chosen remote is working - we'll call it remote:path in these docs. Note that anything inside remote:path will be encrypted and anything outside won't. This means that if you are using a bucket based remote (eg S3, B2, swift) then you should probably put the bucket in the remote s3:bucket. If you just use s3: then rclone will make encrypted bucket names too (if using file name encryption) which may or may not be what you want.

Now configure crypt using rclone config. We will call this one secret to differentiate it from the remote.

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n   
name> secret
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Encrypt/Decrypt a remote
   \ "crypt"
[snip]
Storage> crypt
Remote to encrypt/decrypt.
Normally should contain a ':' and a path, eg "myremote:path/to/dir",
"myremote:bucket" or maybe "myremote:" (not recommended).
remote> remote:path
How to encrypt the filenames.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Don't encrypt the file names.  Adds a ".bin" extension only.
   \ "off"
 2 / Encrypt the filenames see the docs for the details.
   \ "standard"
 3 / Very simple filename obfuscation.
   \ "obfuscate"
filename_encryption> 2
Option to either encrypt directory names or leave them intact.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Encrypt directory names.
   \ "true"
 2 / Don't encrypt directory names, leave them intact.
   \ "false"
filename_encryption> 1
Password or pass phrase for encryption.
y) Yes type in my own password
g) Generate random password
y/g> y
Enter the password:
password:
Confirm the password:
password:
Password or pass phrase for salt. Optional but recommended.
Should be different to the previous password.
y) Yes type in my own password
g) Generate random password
n) No leave this optional password blank
y/g/n> g
Password strength in bits.
64 is just about memorable
128 is secure
1024 is the maximum
Bits> 128
Your password is: JAsJvRcgR-_veXNfy_sGmQ
Use this password?
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
Remote config
--------------------
[secret]
remote = remote:path
filename_encryption = standard
password = *** ENCRYPTED ***
password2 = *** ENCRYPTED ***
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

Important The password is stored in the config file is lightly obscured so it isn't immediately obvious what it is. It is in no way secure unless you use config file encryption.

A long passphrase is recommended, or you can use a random one. Note that if you reconfigure rclone with the same passwords/passphrases elsewhere it will be compatible - all the secrets used are derived from those two passwords/passphrases.

Note that rclone does not encrypt

file length - this can be calcuated within 16 bytes
modification time - used for syncing
 

Specifying the remote

In normal use, make sure the remote has a : in. If you specify the remote without a : then rclone will use a local directory of that name. So if you use a remote of /path/to/secret/files then rclone will encrypt stuff to that directory. If you use a remote of name then rclone will put files in a directory called name in the current directory.

If you specify the remote as remote:path/to/dir then rclone will store encrypted files in path/to/dir on the remote. If you are using file name encryption, then when you save files to secret:subdir/subfile this will store them in the unencrypted path path/to/dir but the subdir/subpath bit will be encrypted.

Note that unless you want encrypted bucket names (which are difficult to manage because you won't know what directory they represent in web interfaces etc), you should probably specify a bucket, eg remote:secretbucket when using bucket based remotes such as S3, Swift, Hubic, B2, GCS.  

Example

To test I made a little directory of files using "standard" file name encryption.

plaintext/
1C0000 file0.txt
1C0000 file1.txt
140000 subdir
    1C0000 file2.txt
    1C0000 file3.txt
    140000 subsubdir
        140000 file4.txt

Copy these to the remote and list them back

$ rclone -q copy plaintext secret:
$ rclone -q ls secret:
        7 file1.txt
        6 file0.txt
        8 subdir/file2.txt
       10 subdir/subsubdir/file4.txt
        9 subdir/file3.txt

Now see what that looked like when encrypted

$ rclone -q ls remote:path
       55 hagjclgavj2mbiqm6u6cnjjqcg
       54 v05749mltvv1tf4onltun46gls
       57 86vhrsv86mpbtd3a0akjuqslj8/dlj7fkq4kdq72emafg7a7s41uo
       58 86vhrsv86mpbtd3a0akjuqslj8/7uu829995du6o42n32otfhjqp4/b9pausrfansjth5ob3jkdqd4lc
       56 86vhrsv86mpbtd3a0akjuqslj8/8njh1sk437gttmep3p70g81aps

Note that this retains the directory structure which means you can do this

$ rclone -q ls secret:subdir
        8 file2.txt
        9 file3.txt
       10 subsubdir/file4.txt

If don't use file name encryption then the remote will look like this - note the .bin extensions added to prevent the cloud provider attempting to interpret the data.

$ rclone -q ls remote:path
       54 file0.txt.bin
       57 subdir/file3.txt.bin
       56 subdir/file2.txt.bin
       58 subdir/subsubdir/file4.txt.bin
       55 file1.txt.bin
 

File name encryption modes

Here are some of the features of the file name encryption modes

Off

doesn't hide file names or directory structure
allows for longer file names (~246 characters)
can use sub paths and copy single files

Standard

file names encrypted
file names can't be as long (~143 characters)
can use sub paths and copy single files
directory structure visible
identical files names will have identical uploaded names
can use shortcuts to shorten the directory recursion

Obfuscation

This is a simple "rotate" of the filename, with each file having a rot distance based on the filename. We store the distance at the beginning of the filename. So a file called "hello" may become "53.jgnnq"

This is not a strong encryption of filenames, but it may stop automated scanning tools from picking up on filename patterns. As such it's an intermediate between "off" and "standard". The advantage is that it allows for longer path segment names.

There is a possibility with some unicode based filenames that the obfuscation is weak and may map lower case characters to upper case equivalents. You can not rely on this for strong protection.

file names very lightly obfuscated
file names can be longer than standard encryption
can use sub paths and copy single files
directory structure visible
identical files names will have identical uploaded names

Cloud storage systems have various limits on file name length and total path length which you are more likely to hit using "Standard" file name encryption. If you keep your file names to below 156 characters in length then you should be OK on all providers.

There may be an even more secure file name encryption mode in the future which will address the long file name problem.  

Directory name encryption

Crypt offers the option of encrypting dir names or leaving them intact. There are two options:

True

Encrypts the whole file path including directory names Example: 1/12/123.txt is encrypted to p0e52nreeaj0a5ea7s64m4j72s/l42g6771hnv3an9cgc8cr2n1ng/qgm4avr35m5loi1th53ato71v0

False

Only encrypts file names, skips directory names Example: 1/12/123.txt is encrypted to 1/12/qgm4avr35m5loi1th53ato71v0  

Modified time and hashes

Crypt stores modification times using the underlying remote so support depends on that.

Hashes are not stored for crypt. However the data integrity is protected by an extremely strong crypto authenticator.

Note that you should use the rclone cryptcheck command to check the integrity of a crypted remote instead of rclone check which can't check the checksums properly.  

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to crypt (Encrypt/Decrypt a remote).  

-crypt-remote

Remote to encrypt/decrypt. Normally should contain a `:' and a path, eg "myremote:path/to/dir", "myremote:bucket" or maybe "myremote:" (not recommended).

Config: remote
Env Var: RCLONE_CRYPT_REMOTE
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-crypt-filename-encryption

How to encrypt the filenames.

Config: filename_encryption
Env Var: RCLONE_CRYPT_FILENAME_ENCRYPTION
Type: string
Default: "standard"
Examples:
"off"
Don't encrypt the file names. Adds a ".bin" extension only.
"standard"
Encrypt the filenames see the docs for the details.
"obfuscate"
Very simple filename obfuscation.
 

-crypt-directory-name-encryption

Option to either encrypt directory names or leave them intact.

Config: directory_name_encryption
Env Var: RCLONE_CRYPT_DIRECTORY_NAME_ENCRYPTION
Type: bool
Default: true
Examples:
"true"
Encrypt directory names.
"false"
Don't encrypt directory names, leave them intact.
 

-crypt-password

Password or pass phrase for encryption.

Config: password
Env Var: RCLONE_CRYPT_PASSWORD
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-crypt-password2

Password or pass phrase for salt. Optional but recommended. Should be different to the previous password.

Config: password2
Env Var: RCLONE_CRYPT_PASSWORD2
Type: string
Default: ""
 

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to crypt (Encrypt/Decrypt a remote).  

-crypt-show-mapping

For all files listed show how the names encrypt.

If this flag is set then for each file that the remote is asked to list, it will log (at level INFO) a line stating the decrypted file name and the encrypted file name.

This is so you can work out which encrypted names are which decrypted names just in case you need to do something with the encrypted file names, or for debugging purposes.

Config: show_mapping
Env Var: RCLONE_CRYPT_SHOW_MAPPING
Type: bool
Default: false
 

Backing up a crypted remote

If you wish to backup a crypted remote, it it recommended that you use rclone sync on the encrypted files, and make sure the passwords are the same in the new encrypted remote.

This will have the following advantages

rclone sync will check the checksums while copying
you can use rclone check between the encrypted remotes
you don't decrypt and encrypt unnecessarily

For example, let's say you have your original remote at remote: with the encrypted version at eremote: with path remote:crypt. You would then set up the new remote remote2: and then the encrypted version eremote2: with path remote2:crypt using the same passwords as eremote:.

To sync the two remotes you would do

rclone sync remote:crypt remote2:crypt

And to check the integrity you would do

rclone check remote:crypt remote2:crypt
 

File formats

 

File encryption

Files are encrypted 1:1 source file to destination object. The file has a header and is divided into chunks.  

Header

8 bytes magic string RCLONE\x00\x00
24 bytes Nonce (IV)

The initial nonce is generated from the operating systems crypto strong random number generator. The nonce is incremented for each chunk read making sure each nonce is unique for each block written. The chance of a nonce being re-used is minuscule. If you wrote an exabyte of data (10¹78 bytes) you would have a probability of approximately 2mu107B³² of re-using a nonce.  

Chunk

Each chunk will contain 64kB of data, except for the last one which may have less data. The data chunk is in standard NACL secretbox format. Secretbox uses XSalsa20 and Poly1305 to encrypt and authenticate messages.

Each chunk contains:

16 Bytes of Poly1305 authenticator
1 - 65536 bytes XSalsa20 encrypted data

64k chunk size was chosen as the best performing chunk size (the authenticator takes too much time below this and the performance drops off due to cache effects above this). Note that these chunks are buffered in memory so they can't be too big.

This uses a 32 byte (256 bit key) key derived from the user password.  

Examples

1 byte file will encrypt to

32 bytes header
17 bytes data chunk

49 bytes total

1MB (1048576 bytes) file will encrypt to

32 bytes header
16 chunks of 65568 bytes

1049120 bytes total (a 0.05% overhead). This is the overhead for big files.  

Name encryption

File names are encrypted segment by segment - the path is broken up into / separated strings and these are encrypted individually.

File segments are padded using using PKCS#7 to a multiple of 16 bytes before encryption.

They are then encrypted with EME using AES with 256 bit key. EME (ECB-Mix-ECB) is a wide-block encryption mode presented in the 2003 paper "A Parallelizable Enciphering Mode" by Halevi and Rogaway.

This makes for deterministic encryption which is what we want - the same filename must encrypt to the same thing otherwise we can't find it on the cloud storage system.

This means that

filenames with the same name will encrypt the same
filenames which start the same won't have a common prefix

This uses a 32 byte key (256 bits) and a 16 byte (128 bits) IV both of which are derived from the user password.

After encryption they are written out using a modified version of standard base32 encoding as described in RFC4648. The standard encoding is modified in two ways:

it becomes lower case (no-one likes upper case filenames!)
we strip the padding character =

base32 is used rather than the more efficient base64 so rclone can be used on case insensitive remotes (eg Windows, Amazon Drive).  

Key derivation

Rclone uses scrypt with parameters N=16384, r=8, p=1 with an optional user supplied salt (password2) to derive the 32+32+16 = 80 bytes of key material required. If the user doesn't supply a salt then rclone uses an internal one.

scrypt makes it impractical to mount a dictionary attack on rclone encrypted data. For full protection against this you should always use a salt.  

Dropbox

Paths are specified as remote:path

Dropbox paths may be as deep as required, eg remote:directory/subdirectory.

The initial setup for dropbox involves getting a token from Dropbox which you need to do in your browser. rclone config walks you through it.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

n) New remote
d) Delete remote
q) Quit config
e/n/d/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Dropbox
   \ "dropbox"
[snip]
Storage> dropbox
Dropbox App Key - leave blank normally.
app_key>
Dropbox App Secret - leave blank normally.
app_secret>
Remote config
Please visit:
https://www.dropbox.com/1/oauth2/authorize?client_id=XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX&response_type=code
Enter the code: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX_XXXXXXXXXX
--------------------
[remote]
app_key =
app_secret =
token = XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX_XXXX_XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

You can then use it like this,

List directories in top level of your dropbox

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your dropbox

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to a dropbox directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup
 

Dropbox for business

Rclone supports Dropbox for business and Team Folders.

When using Dropbox for business remote: and remote:path/to/file will refer to your personal folder.

If you wish to see Team Folders you must use a leading / in the path, so rclone lsd remote:/ will refer to the root and show you all Team Folders and your User Folder.

You can then use team folders like this remote:/TeamFolder and remote:/TeamFolder/path/to/file.

A leading / for a Dropbox personal account will do nothing, but it will take an extra HTTP transaction so it should be avoided.  

Modified time and Hashes

Dropbox supports modified times, but the only way to set a modification time is to re-upload the file.

This means that if you uploaded your data with an older version of rclone which didn't support the v2 API and modified times, rclone will decide to upload all your old data to fix the modification times. If you don't want this to happen use --size-only or --checksum flag to stop it.

Dropbox supports its own hash type (https://www.dropbox.com/developers/reference/content-hash) which is checked for all transfers.  

Restricted filename characters

Character Value Replacement

NUL 0x00 00
/ 0x2F 0F
DEL 0x7F 21
\ 0x5C 3C

File names can also not end with the following characters. These only get replaced if they are last character in the name:

Character Value Replacement

SP 0x20 20

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.  

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to dropbox (Dropbox).  

-dropbox-client-id

Dropbox App Client Id Leave blank normally.

Config: client_id
Env Var: RCLONE_DROPBOX_CLIENT_ID
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-dropbox-client-secret

Dropbox App Client Secret Leave blank normally.

Config: client_secret
Env Var: RCLONE_DROPBOX_CLIENT_SECRET
Type: string
Default: ""
 

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to dropbox (Dropbox).  

-dropbox-chunk-size

Upload chunk size. (< 150M).

Any files larger than this will be uploaded in chunks of this size.

Note that chunks are buffered in memory (one at a time) so rclone can deal with retries. Setting this larger will increase the speed slightly (at most 10% for 128MB in tests) at the cost of using more memory. It can be set smaller if you are tight on memory.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_DROPBOX_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 48M
 

-dropbox-impersonate

Impersonate this user when using a business account.

Config: impersonate
Env Var: RCLONE_DROPBOX_IMPERSONATE
Type: string
Default: ""
 

Limitations

Note that Dropbox is case insensitive so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and one called "hello.doc".

There are some file names such as thumbs.db which Dropbox can't store. There is a full list of them in the "Ignored Files" section of this document (https://www.dropbox.com/en/help/145). Rclone will issue an error message File name disallowed - not uploading if it attempts to upload one of those file names, but the sync won't fail.

If you have more than 10,000 files in a directory then rclone purge dropbox:dir will return the error Failed to purge: There are too many files involved in this operation. As a work-around do an rclone delete dropbox:dir followed by an rclone rmdir dropbox:dir.  

FTP

FTP is the File Transfer Protocol. FTP support is provided using the github.com/jlaffaye/ftp (https://godoc.org/github.com/jlaffaye/ftp) package.

Here is an example of making an FTP configuration. First run

rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process. An FTP remote only needs a host together with and a username and a password. With anonymous FTP server, you will need to use anonymous as username and your email address as the password.

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
r) Rename remote
c) Copy remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/r/c/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / FTP Connection
   \ "ftp"
[snip]
Storage> ftp
** See help for ftp backend at: https://rclone.org/ftp/ **

FTP host to connect to
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Connect to ftp.example.com
   \ "ftp.example.com"
host> ftp.example.com
FTP username, leave blank for current username, ncw
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
user> 
FTP port, leave blank to use default (21)
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
port> 
FTP password
y) Yes type in my own password
g) Generate random password
y/g> y
Enter the password:
password:
Confirm the password:
password:
Use FTP over TLS (Implicit)
Enter a boolean value (true or false). Press Enter for the default ("false").
tls> 
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
type = ftp
host = ftp.example.com
pass = *** ENCRYPTED ***
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

This remote is called remote and can now be used like this

See all directories in the home directory

rclone lsd remote:

Make a new directory

rclone mkdir remote:path/to/directory

List the contents of a directory

rclone ls remote:path/to/directory

Sync /home/local/directory to the remote directory, deleting any excess files in the directory.

rclone sync /home/local/directory remote:directory
 

Modified time

FTP does not support modified times. Any times you see on the server will be time of upload.  

Checksums

FTP does not support any checksums.  

Restricted filename characters

In addition to the default restricted characters set (/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:

File names can also not end with the following characters. These only get replaced if they are last character in the name:

Character Value Replacement

SP 0x20 20

Note that not all FTP servers can have all characters in file names, for example:

FTP Server Forbidden characters

proftpd *
pureftpd \ [ ]
 

Implicit TLS

FTP supports implicit FTP over TLS servers (FTPS). This has to be enabled in the config for the remote. The default FTPS port is 990 so the port will likely have to be explictly set in the config for the remote.  

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to ftp (FTP Connection).  

-ftp-host

FTP host to connect to

Config: host
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_HOST
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"ftp.example.com"
Connect to ftp.example.com
 

-ftp-user

FTP username, leave blank for current username, $USER

Config: user
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_USER
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-ftp-port

FTP port, leave blank to use default (21)

Config: port
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_PORT
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-ftp-pass

FTP password

Config: pass
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_PASS
Type: string
Default: ""
 

-ftp-tls

Use FTP over TLS (Implicit)

Config: tls
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_TLS
Type: bool
Default: false
 

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to ftp (FTP Connection).  

-ftp-concurrency

Maximum number of FTP simultaneous connections, 0 for unlimited

Config: concurrency
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_CONCURRENCY
Type: int
Default: 0
 

-ftp-no-check-certificate

Do not verify the TLS certificate of the server

Config: no_check_certificate
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_NO_CHECK_CERTIFICATE
Type: bool
Default: false

-ftp-disable-epsv

Disable using EPSV even if server advertises support

Config: disable_epsv
Env Var: RCLONE_FTP_DISABLE_EPSV
Type: bool
Default: false

Limitations

Note that since FTP isn't HTTP based the following flags don't work with it: --dump-headers, --dump-bodies, --dump-auth

Note that --timeout isn't supported (but --contimeout is).

Note that --bind isn't supported.

FTP could support server side move but doesn't yet.

Note that the ftp backend does not support the ftp_proxy environment variable yet.

Note that while implicit FTP over TLS is supported, explicit FTP over TLS is not.

Google Cloud Storage

Paths are specified as remote:bucket (or remote: for the lsd command.) You may put subdirectories in too, eg remote:bucket/path/to/dir.

The initial setup for google cloud storage involves getting a token from Google Cloud Storage which you need to do in your browser. rclone config walks you through it.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

n) New remote
d) Delete remote
q) Quit config
e/n/d/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Google Cloud Storage (this is not Google Drive)
   \ "google cloud storage"
[snip]
Storage> google cloud storage
Google Application Client Id - leave blank normally.
client_id>
Google Application Client Secret - leave blank normally.
client_secret>
Project number optional - needed only for list/create/delete buckets - see your developer console.
project_number> 12345678
Service Account Credentials JSON file path - needed only if you want use SA instead of interactive login.
service_account_file>
Access Control List for new objects.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Object owner gets OWNER access, and all Authenticated Users get READER access.
   \ "authenticatedRead"
 2 / Object owner gets OWNER access, and project team owners get OWNER access.
   \ "bucketOwnerFullControl"
 3 / Object owner gets OWNER access, and project team owners get READER access.
   \ "bucketOwnerRead"
 4 / Object owner gets OWNER access [default if left blank].
   \ "private"
 5 / Object owner gets OWNER access, and project team members get access according to their roles.
   \ "projectPrivate"
 6 / Object owner gets OWNER access, and all Users get READER access.
   \ "publicRead"
object_acl> 4
Access Control List for new buckets.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Project team owners get OWNER access, and all Authenticated Users get READER access.
   \ "authenticatedRead"
 2 / Project team owners get OWNER access [default if left blank].
   \ "private"
 3 / Project team members get access according to their roles.
   \ "projectPrivate"
 4 / Project team owners get OWNER access, and all Users get READER access.
   \ "publicRead"
 5 / Project team owners get OWNER access, and all Users get WRITER access.
   \ "publicReadWrite"
bucket_acl> 2
Location for the newly created buckets.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Empty for default location (US).
   \ ""
 2 / Multi-regional location for Asia.
   \ "asia"
 3 / Multi-regional location for Europe.
   \ "eu"
 4 / Multi-regional location for United States.
   \ "us"
 5 / Taiwan.
   \ "asia-east1"
 6 / Tokyo.
   \ "asia-northeast1"
 7 / Singapore.
   \ "asia-southeast1"
 8 / Sydney.
   \ "australia-southeast1"
 9 / Belgium.
   \ "europe-west1"
10 / London.
   \ "europe-west2"
11 / Iowa.
   \ "us-central1"
12 / South Carolina.
   \ "us-east1"
13 / Northern Virginia.
   \ "us-east4"
14 / Oregon.
   \ "us-west1"
location> 12
The storage class to use when storing objects in Google Cloud Storage.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Default
   \ ""
 2 / Multi-regional storage class
   \ "MULTI_REGIONAL"
 3 / Regional storage class
   \ "REGIONAL"
 4 / Nearline storage class
   \ "NEARLINE"
 5 / Coldline storage class
   \ "COLDLINE"
 6 / Durable reduced availability storage class
   \ "DURABLE_REDUCED_AVAILABILITY"
storage_class> 5
Remote config
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine or Y didn't work
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code
--------------------
[remote]
type = google cloud storage
client_id =
client_secret =
token = {"AccessToken":"xxxx.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx","RefreshToken":"x/xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx_xxxxxxxxx","Expiry":"2014-07-17T20:49:14.929208288+01:00","Extra":null}
project_number = 12345678
object_acl = private
bucket_acl = private
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from Google if you use auto config mode. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this it may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall, or use manual mode.

This remote is called remote and can now be used like this

See all the buckets in your project

rclone lsd remote:

Make a new bucket

rclone mkdir remote:bucket

List the contents of a bucket

rclone ls remote:bucket

Sync /home/local/directory to the remote bucket, deleting any excess files in the bucket.

rclone sync /home/local/directory remote:bucket

Service Account support

You can set up rclone with Google Cloud Storage in an unattended mode, i.e. not tied to a specific end-user Google account. This is useful when you want to synchronise files onto machines that don't have actively logged-in users, for example build machines.

To get credentials for Google Cloud Platform IAM Service Accounts (https://cloud.google.com/iam/docs/service-accounts), please head to the Service Account (https://console.cloud.google.com/permissions/serviceaccounts) section of the Google Developer Console. Service Accounts behave just like normal User permissions in Google Cloud Storage ACLs (https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/access-control), so you can limit their access (e.g. make them read only). After creating an account, a JSON file containing the Service Account's credentials will be downloaded onto your machines. These credentials are what rclone will use for authentication.

To use a Service Account instead of OAuth2 token flow, enter the path to your Service Account credentials at the service_account_file prompt and rclone won't use the browser based authentication flow. If you'd rather stuff the contents of the credentials file into the rclone config file, you can set service_account_credentials with the actual contents of the file instead, or set the equivalent environment variable.

Application Default Credentials

If no other source of credentials is provided, rclone will fall back to Application Default Credentials (https://cloud.google.com/video-intelligence/docs/common/auth#authenticating_with_application_default_credentials) this is useful both when you already have configured authentication for your developer account, or in production when running on a google compute host. Note that if running in docker, you may need to run additional commands on your google compute machine - see this page (https://cloud.google.com/container-registry/docs/advanced-authentication#gcloud_as_a_docker_credential_helper).

Note that in the case application default credentials are used, there is no need to explicitly configure a project number.

-fast-list

This remote supports --fast-list which allows you to use fewer transactions in exchange for more memory. See the rclone docs (/docs/#fast-list) for more details.

Modified time

Google google cloud storage stores md5sums natively and rclone stores modification times as metadata on the object, under the "mtime" key in RFC3339 format accurate to 1ns.

Restricted filename characters

Character Value Replacement

NUL 0x00 00
LF 0x0A 0A
CR 0x0D 0D
/ 0x2F 0F

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to google cloud storage (Google Cloud Storage (this is not Google Drive)).

-gcs-client-id

Google Application Client Id Leave blank normally.

Config: client_id
Env Var: RCLONE_GCS_CLIENT_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

-gcs-client-secret

Google Application Client Secret Leave blank normally.

Config: client_secret
Env Var: RCLONE_GCS_CLIENT_SECRET
Type: string
Default: ""

-gcs-project-number

Project number. Optional - needed only for list/create/delete buckets - see your developer console.

Config: project_number
Env Var: RCLONE_GCS_PROJECT_NUMBER
Type: string
Default: ""

-gcs-service-account-file

Service Account Credentials JSON file path Leave blank normally. Needed only if you want use SA instead of interactive login.

Config: service_account_file
Env Var: RCLONE_GCS_SERVICE_ACCOUNT_FILE
Type: string
Default: ""

-gcs-service-account-credentials

Service Account Credentials JSON blob Leave blank normally. Needed only if you want use SA instead of interactive login.

Config: service_account_credentials
Env Var: RCLONE_GCS_SERVICE_ACCOUNT_CREDENTIALS
Type: string
Default: ""

-gcs-object-acl

Access Control List for new objects.

Config: object_acl
Env Var: RCLONE_GCS_OBJECT_ACL
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"authenticatedRead"
Object owner gets OWNER access, and all Authenticated Users get READER access.
"bucketOwnerFullControl"
Object owner gets OWNER access, and project team owners get OWNER access.
"bucketOwnerRead"
Object owner gets OWNER access, and project team owners get READER access.
"private"
Object owner gets OWNER access [default if left blank].
"projectPrivate"
Object owner gets OWNER access, and project team members get access according to their roles.
"publicRead"
Object owner gets OWNER access, and all Users get READER access.

-gcs-bucket-acl

Access Control List for new buckets.

Config: bucket_acl
Env Var: RCLONE_GCS_BUCKET_ACL
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"authenticatedRead"
Project team owners get OWNER access, and all Authenticated Users get READER access.
"private"
Project team owners get OWNER access [default if left blank].
"projectPrivate"
Project team members get access according to their roles.
"publicRead"
Project team owners get OWNER access, and all Users get READER access.
"publicReadWrite"
Project team owners get OWNER access, and all Users get WRITER access.

-gcs-bucket-policy-only

Access checks should use bucket-level IAM policies.

If you want to upload objects to a bucket with Bucket Policy Only set then you will need to set this.

When it is set, rclone:

ignores ACLs set on buckets
ignores ACLs set on objects
creates buckets with Bucket Policy Only set

Docs: https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/bucket-policy-only

Config: bucket_policy_only
Env Var: RCLONE_GCS_BUCKET_POLICY_ONLY
Type: bool
Default: false

-gcs-location

Location for the newly created buckets.

Config: location
Env Var: RCLONE_GCS_LOCATION
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
Empty for default location (US).
"asia"
Multi-regional location for Asia.
"eu"
Multi-regional location for Europe.
"us"
Multi-regional location for United States.
"asia-east1"
Taiwan.
"asia-east2"
Hong Kong.
"asia-northeast1"
Tokyo.
"asia-south1"
Mumbai.
"asia-southeast1"
Singapore.
"australia-southeast1"
Sydney.
"europe-north1"
Finland.
"europe-west1"
Belgium.
"europe-west2"
London.
"europe-west3"
Frankfurt.
"europe-west4"
Netherlands.
"us-central1"
Iowa.
"us-east1"
South Carolina.
"us-east4"
Northern Virginia.
"us-west1"
Oregon.
"us-west2"
California.

-gcs-storage-class

The storage class to use when storing objects in Google Cloud Storage.

Config: storage_class
Env Var: RCLONE_GCS_STORAGE_CLASS
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
Default
"MULTI_REGIONAL"
Multi-regional storage class
"REGIONAL"
Regional storage class
"NEARLINE"
Nearline storage class
"COLDLINE"
Coldline storage class
"DURABLE_REDUCED_AVAILABILITY"
Durable reduced availability storage class

Google Drive

Paths are specified as drive:path

Drive paths may be as deep as required, eg drive:directory/subdirectory.

The initial setup for drive involves getting a token from Google drive which you need to do in your browser. rclone config walks you through it.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
r) Rename remote
c) Copy remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/r/c/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Google Drive
   \ "drive"
[snip]
Storage> drive
Google Application Client Id - leave blank normally.
client_id>
Google Application Client Secret - leave blank normally.
client_secret>
Scope that rclone should use when requesting access from drive.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Full access all files, excluding Application Data Folder.
   \ "drive"
 2 / Read-only access to file metadata and file contents.
   \ "drive.readonly"
   / Access to files created by rclone only.
 3 | These are visible in the drive website.
   | File authorization is revoked when the user deauthorizes the app.
   \ "drive.file"
   / Allows read and write access to the Application Data folder.
 4 | This is not visible in the drive website.
   \ "drive.appfolder"
   / Allows read-only access to file metadata but
 5 | does not allow any access to read or download file content.
   \ "drive.metadata.readonly"
scope> 1
ID of the root folder - leave blank normally.  Fill in to access "Computers" folders. (see docs).
root_folder_id> 
Service Account Credentials JSON file path - needed only if you want use SA instead of interactive login.
service_account_file>
Remote config
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine or Y didn't work
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code
Configure this as a team drive?
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> n
--------------------
[remote]
client_id = 
client_secret = 
scope = drive
root_folder_id = 
service_account_file =
token = {"access_token":"XXX","token_type":"Bearer","refresh_token":"XXX","expiry":"2014-03-16T13:57:58.955387075Z"}
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from Google if you use auto config mode. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this it may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall, or use manual mode.

You can then use it like this,

List directories in top level of your drive

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your drive

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to a drive directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup

Scopes

Rclone allows you to select which scope you would like for rclone to use. This changes what type of token is granted to rclone. The scopes are defined here. (https://developers.google.com/drive/v3/web/about-auth).

The scope are

drive

This is the default scope and allows full access to all files, except for the Application Data Folder (see below).

Choose this one if you aren't sure.

drive.readonly

This allows read only access to all files. Files may be listed and downloaded but not uploaded, renamed or deleted.

drive.file

With this scope rclone can read/view/modify only those files and folders it creates.

So if you uploaded files to drive via the web interface (or any other means) they will not be visible to rclone.

This can be useful if you are using rclone to backup data and you want to be sure confidential data on your drive is not visible to rclone.

Files created with this scope are visible in the web interface.

drive.appfolder

This gives rclone its own private area to store files. Rclone will not be able to see any other files on your drive and you won't be able to see rclone's files from the web interface either.

drive.metadata.readonly

This allows read only access to file names only. It does not allow rclone to download or upload data, or rename or delete files or directories.

Root folder ID

You can set the root_folder_id for rclone. This is the directory (identified by its Folder ID) that rclone considers to be the root of your drive.

Normally you will leave this blank and rclone will determine the correct root to use itself.

However you can set this to restrict rclone to a specific folder hierarchy or to access data within the "Computers" tab on the drive web interface (where files from Google's Backup and Sync desktop program go).

In order to do this you will have to find the Folder ID of the directory you wish rclone to display. This will be the last segment of the URL when you open the relevant folder in the drive web interface.

So if the folder you want rclone to use has a URL which looks like https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1XyfxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxKHCh in the browser, then you use 1XyfxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxKHCh as the root_folder_id in the config.

NB folders under the "Computers" tab seem to be read only (drive gives a 500 error) when using rclone.

There doesn't appear to be an API to discover the folder IDs of the "Computers" tab - please contact us if you know otherwise!

Note also that rclone can't access any data under the "Backups" tab on the google drive web interface yet.

Service Account support

You can set up rclone with Google Drive in an unattended mode, i.e. not tied to a specific end-user Google account. This is useful when you want to synchronise files onto machines that don't have actively logged-in users, for example build machines.

To use a Service Account instead of OAuth2 token flow, enter the path to your Service Account credentials at the service_account_file prompt during rclone config and rclone won't use the browser based authentication flow. If you'd rather stuff the contents of the credentials file into the rclone config file, you can set service_account_credentials with the actual contents of the file instead, or set the equivalent environment variable.

Use case - Google Apps/G-suite account and individual Drive

Let's say that you are the administrator of a Google Apps (old) or G-suite account. The goal is to store data on an individual's Drive account, who IS a member of the domain. We'll call the domain example.com, and the user foo [at] example.com.

There's a few steps we need to go through to accomplish this:

1. Create a service account for example.com

To create a service account and obtain its credentials, go to the Google Developer Console (https://console.developers.google.com).
You must have a project - create one if you don't.
Then go to "IAM & admin" -> "Service Accounts".
Use the "Create Credentials" button. Fill in "Service account name" with something that identifies your client. "Role" can be empty.
Tick "Furnish a new private key" - select "Key type JSON".
Tick "Enable G Suite Domain-wide Delegation". This option makes "impersonation" possible, as documented here: Delegating domain-wide authority to the service account (https://developers.google.com/identity/protocols/OAuth2ServiceAccount#delegatingauthority)
These credentials are what rclone will use for authentication. If you ever need to remove access, press the "Delete service account key" button.

2. Allowing API access to example.com Google Drive

Go to example.com's admin console
Go into "Security" (or use the search bar)
Select "Show more" and then "Advanced settings"
Select "Manage API client access" in the "Authentication" section
In the "Client Name" field enter the service account's "Client ID" - this can be found in the Developer Console under "IAM & Admin" -> "Service Accounts", then "View Client ID" for the newly created service account. It is a ~21 character numerical string.
In the next field, "One or More API Scopes", enter https://www.googleapis.com/auth/drive to grant access to Google Drive specifically.

3. Configure rclone, assuming a new install

rclone config

n/s/q> n         # New
name>gdrive      # Gdrive is an example name
Storage>         # Select the number shown for Google Drive
client_id>       # Can be left blank
client_secret>   # Can be left blank
scope>           # Select your scope, 1 for example
root_folder_id>  # Can be left blank
service_account_file> /home/foo/myJSONfile.json # This is where the JSON file goes!
y/n>             # Auto config, y

4. Verify that it's working

rclone -v --drive-impersonate foo [at] example.com lsf gdrive:backup
The arguments do:
-v - verbose logging
--drive-impersonate foo [at] example.com - this is what does the magic, pretending to be user foo.
lsf - list files in a parsing friendly way
gdrive:backup - use the remote called gdrive, work in the folder named backup.

Team drives

If you want to configure the remote to point to a Google Team Drive then answer y to the question Configure this as a team drive?.

This will fetch the list of Team Drives from google and allow you to configure which one you want to use. You can also type in a team drive ID if you prefer.

For example:

Configure this as a team drive?
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
Fetching team drive list...
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Rclone Test
   \ "xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx"
 2 / Rclone Test 2
   \ "yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy"
 3 / Rclone Test 3
   \ "zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz"
Enter a Team Drive ID> 1
--------------------
[remote]
client_id =
client_secret =
token = {"AccessToken":"xxxx.x.xxxxx_xxxxxxxxxxx_xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx","RefreshToken":"1/xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx_xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx","Expiry":"2014-03-16T13:57:58.955387075Z","Extra":null}
team_drive = xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

-fast-list

This remote supports --fast-list which allows you to use fewer transactions in exchange for more memory. See the rclone docs (/docs/#fast-list) for more details.

It does this by combining multiple list calls into a single API request.

This works by combining many '%s' in parents filters into one expression. To list the contents of directories a, b and c, the following requests will be send by the regular List function:

trashed=false and 'a' in parents
trashed=false and 'b' in parents
trashed=false and 'c' in parents

These can now be combined into a single request:

trashed=false and ('a' in parents or 'b' in parents or 'c' in parents)

The implementation of ListR will put up to 50 parents filters into one request. It will use the --checkers value to specify the number of requests to run in parallel.

In tests, these batch requests were up to 20x faster than the regular method. Running the following command against different sized folders gives:

rclone lsjson -vv -R --checkers=6 gdrive:folder

small folder (220 directories, 700 files):

without --fast-list: 38s
with --fast-list: 10s

large folder (10600 directories, 39000 files):

without --fast-list: 22:05 min
with --fast-list: 58s

Modified time

Google drive stores modification times accurate to 1 ms.

Restricted filename characters

Only Invalid UTF-8 bytes will be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

In contrast to other backends, / can also be used in names and . or .. are valid names.

Revisions

Google drive stores revisions of files. When you upload a change to an existing file to google drive using rclone it will create a new revision of that file.

Revisions follow the standard google policy which at time of writing was

They are deleted after 30 days or 100 revisions (whatever comes first).
They do not count towards a user storage quota.

Deleting files

By default rclone will send all files to the trash when deleting files. If deleting them permanently is required then use the --drive-use-trash=false flag, or set the equivalent environment variable.

Emptying trash

If you wish to empty your trash you can use the rclone cleanup remote: command which will permanently delete all your trashed files. This command does not take any path arguments.

Note that Google Drive takes some time (minutes to days) to empty the trash even though the command returns within a few seconds. No output is echoed, so there will be no confirmation even using -v or -vv.

Quota information

To view your current quota you can use the rclone about remote: command which will display your usage limit (quota), the usage in Google Drive, the size of all files in the Trash and the space used by other Google services such as Gmail. This command does not take any path arguments.

Import/Export of google documents

Google documents can be exported from and uploaded to Google Drive.

When rclone downloads a Google doc it chooses a format to download depending upon the --drive-export-formats setting. By default the export formats are docx,xlsx,pptx,svg which are a sensible default for an editable document.

When choosing a format, rclone runs down the list provided in order and chooses the first file format the doc can be exported as from the list. If the file can't be exported to a format on the formats list, then rclone will choose a format from the default list.

If you prefer an archive copy then you might use --drive-export-formats pdf, or if you prefer openoffice/libreoffice formats you might use --drive-export-formats ods,odt,odp.

Note that rclone adds the extension to the google doc, so if it is called My Spreadsheet on google docs, it will be exported as My Spreadsheet.xlsx or My Spreadsheet.pdf etc.

When importing files into Google Drive, rclone will convert all files with an extension in --drive-import-formats to their associated document type. rclone will not convert any files by default, since the conversion is lossy process.

The conversion must result in a file with the same extension when the --drive-export-formats rules are applied to the uploaded document.

Here are some examples for allowed and prohibited conversions.

export-formats import-formats Upload Ext Document Ext Allowed

odt odt odt odt Yes
odt docx,odt odt odt Yes
docx docx docx Yes
odt odt docx No
odt,docx docx,odt docx odt No
docx,odt docx,odt docx docx Yes
docx,odt docx,odt odt docx No

This limitation can be disabled by specifying --drive-allow-import-name-change. When using this flag, rclone can convert multiple files types resulting in the same document type at once, eg with --drive-import-formats docx,odt,txt, all files having these extension would result in a document represented as a docx file. This brings the additional risk of overwriting a document, if multiple files have the same stem. Many rclone operations will not handle this name change in any way. They assume an equal name when copying files and might copy the file again or delete them when the name changes.

Here are the possible export extensions with their corresponding mime types. Most of these can also be used for importing, but there more that are not listed here. Some of these additional ones might only be available when the operating system provides the correct MIME type entries.

This list can be changed by Google Drive at any time and might not represent the currently available conversions.

Extension Mime Type Description

csv text/csv Standard CSV format for Spreadsheets
docx application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document Microsoft Office Document
epub application/epub+zip E-book format
html text/html An HTML Document
jpg image/jpeg A JPEG Image File
json application/vnd.google-apps.script+json JSON Text Format
odp application/vnd.oasis.opendocument.presentation Openoffice Presentation
ods application/vnd.oasis.opendocument.spreadsheet Openoffice Spreadsheet
ods application/x-vnd.oasis.opendocument.spreadsheet Openoffice Spreadsheet
odt application/vnd.oasis.opendocument.text Openoffice Document
pdf application/pdf Adobe PDF Format
png image/png PNG Image Format
pptx application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation Microsoft Office Powerpoint
rtf application/rtf Rich Text Format
svg image/svg+xml Scalable Vector Graphics Format
tsv text/tab-separated-values Standard TSV format for spreadsheets
txt text/plain Plain Text
xlsx application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet Microsoft Office Spreadsheet
zip application/zip A ZIP file of HTML, Images CSS

Google documents can also be exported as link files. These files will open a browser window for the Google Docs website of that document when opened. The link file extension has to be specified as a --drive-export-formats parameter. They will match all available Google Documents.

Extension Description OS Support

desktop freedesktop.org specified desktop entry Linux
link.html An HTML Document with a redirect All
url INI style link file macOS, Windows
webloc macOS specific XML format macOS

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to drive (Google Drive).

-drive-client-id

Google Application Client Id Setting your own is recommended. See https://rclone.org/drive/#making-your-own-client-id for how to create your own. If you leave this blank, it will use an internal key which is low performance.

Config: client_id
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_CLIENT_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

-drive-client-secret

Google Application Client Secret Setting your own is recommended.

Config: client_secret
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_CLIENT_SECRET
Type: string
Default: ""

-drive-scope

Scope that rclone should use when requesting access from drive.

Config: scope
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_SCOPE
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"drive"
Full access all files, excluding Application Data Folder.
"drive.readonly"
Read-only access to file metadata and file contents.
"drive.file"
Access to files created by rclone only.
These are visible in the drive website.
File authorization is revoked when the user deauthorizes the app.
"drive.appfolder"
Allows read and write access to the Application Data folder.
This is not visible in the drive website.
"drive.metadata.readonly"
Allows read-only access to file metadata but
does not allow any access to read or download file content.

-drive-root-folder-id

ID of the root folder Leave blank normally.

Fill in to access "Computers" folders (see docs), or for rclone to use a non root folder as its starting point.

Note that if this is blank, the first time rclone runs it will fill it in with the ID of the root folder.

Config: root_folder_id
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_ROOT_FOLDER_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

-drive-service-account-file

Service Account Credentials JSON file path Leave blank normally. Needed only if you want use SA instead of interactive login.

Config: service_account_file
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_SERVICE_ACCOUNT_FILE
Type: string
Default: ""

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to drive (Google Drive).

-drive-service-account-credentials

Service Account Credentials JSON blob Leave blank normally. Needed only if you want use SA instead of interactive login.

Config: service_account_credentials
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_SERVICE_ACCOUNT_CREDENTIALS
Type: string
Default: ""

-drive-team-drive

ID of the Team Drive

Config: team_drive
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_TEAM_DRIVE
Type: string
Default: ""

-drive-auth-owner-only

Only consider files owned by the authenticated user.

Config: auth_owner_only
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_AUTH_OWNER_ONLY
Type: bool
Default: false

-drive-use-trash

Send files to the trash instead of deleting permanently. Defaults to true, namely sending files to the trash. Use --drive-use-trash=false to delete files permanently instead.

Config: use_trash
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_USE_TRASH
Type: bool
Default: true

-drive-skip-gdocs

Skip google documents in all listings. If given, gdocs practically become invisible to rclone.

Config: skip_gdocs
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_SKIP_GDOCS
Type: bool
Default: false

-drive-skip-checksum-gphotos

Skip MD5 checksum on Google photos and videos only.

Use this if you get checksum errors when transferring Google photos or videos.

Setting this flag will cause Google photos and videos to return a blank MD5 checksum.

Google photos are identifed by being in the "photos" space.

Corrupted checksums are caused by Google modifying the image/video but not updating the checksum.

Config: skip_checksum_gphotos
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_SKIP_CHECKSUM_GPHOTOS
Type: bool
Default: false

-drive-shared-with-me

Only show files that are shared with me.

Instructs rclone to operate on your "Shared with me" folder (where Google Drive lets you access the files and folders others have shared with you).

This works both with the "list" (lsd, lsl, etc) and the "copy" commands (copy, sync, etc), and with all other commands too.

Config: shared_with_me
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_SHARED_WITH_ME
Type: bool
Default: false

-drive-trashed-only

Only show files that are in the trash. This will show trashed files in their original directory structure.

Config: trashed_only
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_TRASHED_ONLY
Type: bool
Default: false

-drive-formats

Deprecated: see export_formats

Config: formats
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_FORMATS
Type: string
Default: ""

-drive-export-formats

Comma separated list of preferred formats for downloading Google docs.

Config: export_formats
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_EXPORT_FORMATS
Type: string
Default: "docx,xlsx,pptx,svg"

-drive-import-formats

Comma separated list of preferred formats for uploading Google docs.

Config: import_formats
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_IMPORT_FORMATS
Type: string
Default: ""

-drive-allow-import-name-change

Allow the filetype to change when uploading Google docs (e.g. file.doc to file.docx). This will confuse sync and reupload every time.

Config: allow_import_name_change
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_ALLOW_IMPORT_NAME_CHANGE
Type: bool
Default: false

-drive-use-created-date

Use file created date instead of modified date.,

Useful when downloading data and you want the creation date used in place of the last modified date.

WARNING: This flag may have some unexpected consequences.

When uploading to your drive all files will be overwritten unless they haven't been modified since their creation. And the inverse will occur while downloading. This side effect can be avoided by using the "-checksum" flag.

This feature was implemented to retain photos capture date as recorded by google photos. You will first need to check the "Create a Google Photos folder" option in your google drive settings. You can then copy or move the photos locally and use the date the image was taken (created) set as the modification date.

Config: use_created_date
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_USE_CREATED_DATE
Type: bool
Default: false

-drive-list-chunk

Size of listing chunk 100-1000. 0 to disable.

Config: list_chunk
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_LIST_CHUNK
Type: int
Default: 1000

-drive-impersonate

Impersonate this user when using a service account.

Config: impersonate
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_IMPERSONATE
Type: string
Default: ""

-drive-alternate-export

Use alternate export URLs for google documents export.,

If this option is set this instructs rclone to use an alternate set of export URLs for drive documents. Users have reported that the official export URLs can't export large documents, whereas these unofficial ones can.

See rclone issue #2243 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2243) for background, this google drive issue (https://issuetracker.google.com/issues/36761333) and this helpful post (https://www.labnol.org/internet/direct-links-for-google-drive/28356/).

Config: alternate_export
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_ALTERNATE_EXPORT
Type: bool
Default: false

-drive-upload-cutoff

Cutoff for switching to chunked upload

Config: upload_cutoff
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_UPLOAD_CUTOFF
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 8M

-drive-chunk-size

Upload chunk size. Must a power of 2 >= 256k.

Making this larger will improve performance, but note that each chunk is buffered in memory one per transfer.

Reducing this will reduce memory usage but decrease performance.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 8M

-drive-acknowledge-abuse

Set to allow files which return cannotDownloadAbusiveFile to be downloaded.

If downloading a file returns the error "This file has been identified as malware or spam and cannot be downloaded" with the error code "cannotDownloadAbusiveFile" then supply this flag to rclone to indicate you acknowledge the risks of downloading the file and rclone will download it anyway.

Config: acknowledge_abuse
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_ACKNOWLEDGE_ABUSE
Type: bool
Default: false

-drive-keep-revision-forever

Keep new head revision of each file forever.

Config: keep_revision_forever
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_KEEP_REVISION_FOREVER
Type: bool
Default: false

-drive-size-as-quota

Show storage quota usage for file size.

The storage used by a file is the size of the current version plus any older versions that have been set to keep forever.

Config: size_as_quota
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_SIZE_AS_QUOTA
Type: bool
Default: false

-drive-v2-download-min-size

If Object's are greater, use drive v2 API to download.

Config: v2_download_min_size
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_V2_DOWNLOAD_MIN_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: off

-drive-pacer-min-sleep

Minimum time to sleep between API calls.

Config: pacer_min_sleep
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_PACER_MIN_SLEEP
Type: Duration
Default: 100ms

-drive-pacer-burst

Number of API calls to allow without sleeping.

Config: pacer_burst
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_PACER_BURST
Type: int
Default: 100

-drive-server-side-across-configs

Allow server side operations (eg copy) to work across different drive configs.

This can be useful if you wish to do a server side copy between two different Google drives. Note that this isn't enabled by default because it isn't easy to tell if it will work between any two configurations.

Config: server_side_across_configs
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_SERVER_SIDE_ACROSS_CONFIGS
Type: bool
Default: false

-drive-disable-http2

Disable drive using http2

There is currently an unsolved issue with the google drive backend and HTTP/2. HTTP/2 is therefore disabled by default for the drive backend but can be re-enabled here. When the issue is solved this flag will be removed.

See: https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/3631

Config: disable_http2
Env Var: RCLONE_DRIVE_DISABLE_HTTP2
Type: bool
Default: true

Limitations

Drive has quite a lot of rate limiting. This causes rclone to be limited to transferring about 2 files per second only. Individual files may be transferred much faster at 100s of MBytes/s but lots of small files can take a long time.

Server side copies are also subject to a separate rate limit. If you see User rate limit exceeded errors, wait at least 24 hours and retry. You can disable server side copies with --disable copy to download and upload the files if you prefer.

Limitations of Google Docs

Google docs will appear as size -1 in rclone ls and as size 0 in anything which uses the VFS layer, eg rclone mount, rclone serve.

This is because rclone can't find out the size of the Google docs without downloading them.

Google docs will transfer correctly with rclone sync, rclone copy etc as rclone knows to ignore the size when doing the transfer.

However an unfortunate consequence of this is that you may not be able to download Google docs using rclone mount. If it doesn't work you will get a 0 sized file. If you try again the doc may gain its correct size and be downloadable. Whther it will work on not depends on the application accessing the mount and the OS you are running - experiment to find out if it does work for you!

Duplicated files

Sometimes, for no reason I've been able to track down, drive will duplicate a file that rclone uploads. Drive unlike all the other remotes can have duplicated files.

Duplicated files cause problems with the syncing and you will see messages in the log about duplicates.

Use rclone dedupe to fix duplicated files.

Note that this isn't just a problem with rclone, even Google Photos on Android duplicates files on drive sometimes.

Rclone appears to be re-copying files it shouldn't

The most likely cause of this is the duplicated file issue above - run rclone dedupe and check your logs for duplicate object or directory messages.

This can also be caused by a delay/caching on google drive's end when comparing directory listings. Specifically with team drives used in combination with -fast-list. Files that were uploaded recently may not appear on the directory list sent to rclone when using -fast-list.

Waiting a moderate period of time between attempts (estimated to be approximately 1 hour) and/or not using -fast-list both seem to be effective in preventing the problem.

Making your own client_id

When you use rclone with Google drive in its default configuration you are using rclone's client_id. This is shared between all the rclone users. There is a global rate limit on the number of queries per second that each client_id can do set by Google. rclone already has a high quota and I will continue to make sure it is high enough by contacting Google.

It is strongly recommended to use your own client ID as the default rclone ID is heavily used. If you have multiple services running, it is recommended to use an API key for each service. The default Google quota is 10 transactions per second so it is recommended to stay under that number as if you use more than that, it will cause rclone to rate limit and make things slower.

Here is how to create your own Google Drive client ID for rclone:

1.
Log into the Google API Console (https://console.developers.google.com/) with your Google account. It doesn't matter what Google account you use. (It need not be the same account as the Google Drive you want to access)
2.
Select a project or create a new project.
3.
Under "ENABLE APIS AND SERVICES" search for "Drive", and enable the "Google Drive API".
4.
Click "Credentials" in the left-side panel (not "Create credentials", which opens the wizard), then "Create credentials", then "OAuth client ID". It will prompt you to set the OAuth consent screen product name, if you haven't set one already.
5.
Choose an application type of "other", and click "Create". (the default name is fine)
6.
It will show you a client ID and client secret. Use these values in rclone config to add a new remote or edit an existing remote.

(Thanks to @balazer on github for these instructions.)

Google Photos

The rclone backend for Google Photos (https://www.google.com/photos/about/) is a specialized backend for transferring photos and videos to and from Google Photos.

NB The Google Photos API which rclone uses has quite a few limitations, so please read the limitations section carefully to make sure it is suitable for your use.

Configuring Google Photos

The initial setup for google cloud storage involves getting a token from Google Photos which you need to do in your browser. rclone config walks you through it.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Google Photos
   \ "google photos"
[snip]
Storage> google photos
** See help for google photos backend at: https://rclone.org/googlephotos/ **

Google Application Client Id
Leave blank normally.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
client_id> 
Google Application Client Secret
Leave blank normally.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
client_secret> 
Set to make the Google Photos backend read only.

If you choose read only then rclone will only request read only access
to your photos, otherwise rclone will request full access.
Enter a boolean value (true or false). Press Enter for the default ("false").
read_only> 
Edit advanced config? (y/n)
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> n
Remote config
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code

*** IMPORTANT: All media items uploaded to Google Photos with rclone
*** are stored in full resolution at original quality.  These uploads
*** will count towards storage in your Google Account.

--------------------
[remote]
type = google photos
token = {"access_token":"XXX","token_type":"Bearer","refresh_token":"XXX","expiry":"2019-06-28T17:38:04.644930156+01:00"}
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from Google if you use auto config mode. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall, or use manual mode.

This remote is called remote and can now be used like this

See all the albums in your photos

rclone lsd remote:album

Make a new album

rclone mkdir remote:album/newAlbum

List the contents of an album

rclone ls remote:album/newAlbum

Sync /home/local/images to the Google Photos, removing any excess files in the album.

rclone sync /home/local/image remote:album/newAlbum

Layout

As Google Photos is not a general purpose cloud storage system the backend is laid out to help you navigate it.

The directories under media show different ways of categorizing the media. Each file will appear multiple times. So if you want to make a backup of your google photos you might choose to backup remote:media/by-month. (NB remote:media/by-day is rather slow at the moment so avoid for syncing.)

Note that all your photos and videos will appear somewhere under media, but they may not appear under album unless you've put them into albums.

/
- upload
    - file1.jpg
    - file2.jpg
    - ...
- media
    - all
        - file1.jpg
        - file2.jpg
        - ...
    - by-year
        - 2000
            - file1.jpg
            - ...
        - 2001
            - file2.jpg
            - ...
        - ...
    - by-month
        - 2000
            - 2000-01
                - file1.jpg
                - ...
            - 2000-02
                - file2.jpg
                - ...
        - ...
    - by-day
        - 2000
            - 2000-01-01
                - file1.jpg
                - ...
            - 2000-01-02
                - file2.jpg
                - ...
        - ...
- album
    - album name
    - album name/sub
- shared-album
    - album name
    - album name/sub

There are two writable parts of the tree, the upload directory and sub directories of the the album directory.

The upload directory is for uploading files you don't want to put into albums. This will be empty to start with and will contain the files you've uploaded for one rclone session only, becoming empty again when you restart rclone. The use case for this would be if you have a load of files you just want to once off dump into Google Photos. For repeated syncing, uploading to album will work better.

Directories within the album directory are also writeable and you may create new directories (albums) under album. If you copy files with a directory hierarchy in there then rclone will create albums with the / character in them. For example if you do

rclone copy /path/to/images remote:album/images

and the images directory contains

images
    - file1.jpg
    dir
        file2.jpg
    dir2
        dir3
            file3.jpg

Then rclone will create the following albums with the following files in

images
file1.jpg
images/dir
file2.jpg
images/dir2/dir3
file3.jpg

This means that you can use the album path pretty much like a normal filesystem and it is a good target for repeated syncing.

The shared-album directory shows albums shared with you or by you. This is similar to the Sharing tab in the Google Photos web interface.

Limitations

Only images and videos can be uploaded. If you attempt to upload non videos or images or formats that Google Photos doesn't understand, rclone will upload the file, then Google Photos will give an error when it is put turned into a media item.

Note that all media items uploaded to Google Photos through the API are stored in full resolution at "original quality" and will count towards your storage quota in your Google Account. The API does not offer a way to upload in "high quality" mode..

Downloading Images

When Images are downloaded this strips EXIF location (according to the docs and my tests). This is a limitation of the Google Photos API and is covered by bug #112096115 (https://issuetracker.google.com/issues/112096115).

The current google API does not allow photos to be downloaded at original resolution. This is very important if you are, for example, relying on "Google Photos" as a backup of your photos. You will not be able to use rclone to redownload original images. You could use `google takeout' to recover the original photos as a last resort

Downloading Videos

When videos are downloaded they are downloaded in a really compressed version of the video compared to downloading it via the Google Photos web interface. This is covered by bug #113672044 (https://issuetracker.google.com/issues/113672044).

Duplicates

If a file name is duplicated in a directory then rclone will add the file ID into its name. So two files called file.jpg would then appear as file {123456}.jpg and file {ABCDEF}.jpg (the actual IDs are a lot longer alas!).

If you upload the same image (with the same binary data) twice then Google Photos will deduplicate it. However it will retain the filename from the first upload which may confuse rclone. For example if you uploaded an image to upload then uploaded the same image to album/my_album the filename of the image in album/my_album will be what it was uploaded with initially, not what you uploaded it with to album. In practise this shouldn't cause too many problems.

Modified time

The date shown of media in Google Photos is the creation date as determined by the EXIF information, or the upload date if that is not known.

This is not changeable by rclone and is not the modification date of the media on local disk. This means that rclone cannot use the dates from Google Photos for syncing purposes.

Size

The Google Photos API does not return the size of media. This means that when syncing to Google Photos, rclone can only do a file existence check.

It is possible to read the size of the media, but this needs an extra HTTP HEAD request per media item so is very slow and uses up a lot of transactions. This can be enabled with the --gphotos-read-size option or the read_size = true config parameter.

If you want to use the backend with rclone mount you may need to enable this flag (depending on your OS and application using the photos) otherwise you may not be able to read media off the mount. You'll need to experiment to see if it works for you without the flag.

Albums

Rclone can only upload files to albums it created. This is a limitation of the Google Photos API (https://developers.google.com/photos/library/guides/manage-albums).

Rclone can remove files it uploaded from albums it created only.

Deleting files

Rclone can remove files from albums it created, but note that the Google Photos API does not allow media to be deleted permanently so this media will still remain. See bug #109759781 (https://issuetracker.google.com/issues/109759781).

Rclone cannot delete files anywhere except under album.

Deleting albums

The Google Photos API does not support deleting albums - see bug #135714733 (https://issuetracker.google.com/issues/135714733).

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to google photos (Google Photos).

-gphotos-client-id

Google Application Client Id Leave blank normally.

Config: client_id
Env Var: RCLONE_GPHOTOS_CLIENT_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

-gphotos-client-secret

Google Application Client Secret Leave blank normally.

Config: client_secret
Env Var: RCLONE_GPHOTOS_CLIENT_SECRET
Type: string
Default: ""

-gphotos-read-only

Set to make the Google Photos backend read only.

If you choose read only then rclone will only request read only access to your photos, otherwise rclone will request full access.

Config: read_only
Env Var: RCLONE_GPHOTOS_READ_ONLY
Type: bool
Default: false

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to google photos (Google Photos).

-gphotos-read-size

Set to read the size of media items.

Normally rclone does not read the size of media items since this takes another transaction. This isn't necessary for syncing. However rclone mount needs to know the size of files in advance of reading them, so setting this flag when using rclone mount is recommended if you want to read the media.

Config: read_size
Env Var: RCLONE_GPHOTOS_READ_SIZE
Type: bool
Default: false

HTTP

The HTTP remote is a read only remote for reading files of a webserver. The webserver should provide file listings which rclone will read and turn into a remote. This has been tested with common webservers such as Apache/Nginx/Caddy and will likely work with file listings from most web servers. (If it doesn't then please file an issue, or send a pull request!)

Paths are specified as remote: or remote:path/to/dir.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / http Connection
   \ "http"
[snip]
Storage> http
URL of http host to connect to
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Connect to example.com
   \ "https://example.com"
url> https://beta.rclone.org
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
url = https://beta.rclone.org
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y
Current remotes:

Name                 Type
====                 ====
remote               http

e) Edit existing remote
n) New remote
d) Delete remote
r) Rename remote
c) Copy remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
e/n/d/r/c/s/q> q

This remote is called remote and can now be used like this

See all the top level directories

rclone lsd remote:

List the contents of a directory

rclone ls remote:directory

Sync the remote directory to /home/local/directory, deleting any excess files.

rclone sync remote:directory /home/local/directory

Read only

This remote is read only - you can't upload files to an HTTP server.

Modified time

Most HTTP servers store time accurate to 1 second.

Checksum

No checksums are stored.

Usage without a config file

Since the http remote only has one config parameter it is easy to use without a config file:

rclone lsd --http-url https://beta.rclone.org :http:

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to http (http Connection).

-http-url

URL of http host to connect to

Config: url
Env Var: RCLONE_HTTP_URL
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"https://example.com"
Connect to example.com
"https://user:pass@example.com"
Connect to example.com using a username and password

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to http (http Connection).

-http-headers

Set HTTP headers for all transactions

Use this to set additional HTTP headers for all transactions

The input format is comma separated list of key,value pairs. Standard CSV encoding (https://godoc.org/encoding/csv) may be used.

For example to set a Cookie use `Cookie,name=value', or `"Cookie","name=value"'.

You can set multiple headers, eg `"Cookie","name=value","Authorization","xxx"'.

Config: headers
Env Var: RCLONE_HTTP_HEADERS
Type: CommaSepList
Default:

-http-no-slash

Set this if the site doesn't end directories with /

Use this if your target website does not use / on the end of directories.

A / on the end of a path is how rclone normally tells the difference between files and directories. If this flag is set, then rclone will treat all files with Content-Type: text/html as directories and read URLs from them rather than downloading them.

Note that this may cause rclone to confuse genuine HTML files with directories.

Config: no_slash
Env Var: RCLONE_HTTP_NO_SLASH
Type: bool
Default: false

-http-no-head

Don't use HEAD requests to find file sizes in dir listing

If your site is being very slow to load then you can try this option. Normally rclone does a HEAD request for each potential file in a directory listing to:

find its size
check it really exists
check to see if it is a directory

If you set this option, rclone will not do the HEAD request. This will mean

directory listings are much quicker
rclone won't have the times or sizes of any files
some files that don't exist may be in the listing
Config: no_head
Env Var: RCLONE_HTTP_NO_HEAD
Type: bool
Default: false

Hubic

Paths are specified as remote:path

Paths are specified as remote:container (or remote: for the lsd command.) You may put subdirectories in too, eg remote:container/path/to/dir.

The initial setup for Hubic involves getting a token from Hubic which you need to do in your browser. rclone config walks you through it.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
n/s> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Hubic
   \ "hubic"
[snip]
Storage> hubic
Hubic Client Id - leave blank normally.
client_id>
Hubic Client Secret - leave blank normally.
client_secret>
Remote config
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code
--------------------
[remote]
client_id =
client_secret =
token = {"access_token":"XXXXXX"}
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

See the remote setup docs (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/) for how to set it up on a machine with no Internet browser available.

Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from Hubic. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this it may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall.

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List containers in the top level of your Hubic

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your Hubic

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to an Hubic directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup

If you want the directory to be visible in the official Hubic browser, you need to copy your files to the default directory

rclone copy /home/source remote:default/backup

-fast-list

This remote supports --fast-list which allows you to use fewer transactions in exchange for more memory. See the rclone docs (/docs/#fast-list) for more details.

Modified time

The modified time is stored as metadata on the object as X-Object-Meta-Mtime as floating point since the epoch accurate to 1 ns.

This is a de facto standard (used in the official python-swiftclient amongst others) for storing the modification time for an object.

Note that Hubic wraps the Swift backend, so most of the properties of are the same.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to hubic (Hubic).

-hubic-client-id

Hubic Client Id Leave blank normally.

Config: client_id
Env Var: RCLONE_HUBIC_CLIENT_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

-hubic-client-secret

Hubic Client Secret Leave blank normally.

Config: client_secret
Env Var: RCLONE_HUBIC_CLIENT_SECRET
Type: string
Default: ""

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to hubic (Hubic).

-hubic-chunk-size

Above this size files will be chunked into a _segments container.

Above this size files will be chunked into a _segments container. The default for this is 5GB which is its maximum value.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_HUBIC_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 5G

-hubic-no-chunk

Don't chunk files during streaming upload.

When doing streaming uploads (eg using rcat or mount) setting this flag will cause the swift backend to not upload chunked files.

This will limit the maximum upload size to 5GB. However non chunked files are easier to deal with and have an MD5SUM.

Rclone will still chunk files bigger than chunk_size when doing normal copy operations.

Config: no_chunk
Env Var: RCLONE_HUBIC_NO_CHUNK
Type: bool
Default: false

Limitations

This uses the normal OpenStack Swift mechanism to refresh the Swift API credentials and ignores the expires field returned by the Hubic API.

The Swift API doesn't return a correct MD5SUM for segmented files (Dynamic or Static Large Objects) so rclone won't check or use the MD5SUM for these.

Jottacloud

Paths are specified as remote:path

Paths may be as deep as required, eg remote:directory/subdirectory.

To configure Jottacloud you will need to enter your username and password and select a mountpoint.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> jotta
Type of storage to configure.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / JottaCloud
   \ "jottacloud"
[snip]
Storage> jottacloud
** See help for jottacloud backend at: https://rclone.org/jottacloud/ **

Edit advanced config? (y/n)
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> n
Remote config

Do you want to create a machine specific API key?

Rclone has it's own Jottacloud API KEY which works fine as long as one only uses rclone on a single machine. When you want to use rclone with this account on more than one machine it's recommended to create a machine specific API key. These keys can NOT be shared between machines.

y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
Username> 0xC4KE [at] gmail.com
Your Jottacloud password is only required during setup and will not be stored.
password:

Do you want to use a non standard device/mountpoint e.g. for accessing files uploaded using the official Jottacloud client?

y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
Please select the device to use. Normally this will be Jotta
Choose a number from below, or type in an existing value
 1 > DESKTOP-3H31129
 2 > fla1
 3 > Jotta
Devices> 3
Please select the mountpoint to user. Normally this will be Archive
Choose a number from below, or type in an existing value
 1 > Archive
 2 > Shared
 3 > Sync
Mountpoints> 1
--------------------
[jotta]
type = jottacloud
user = 0xC4KE [at] gmail.com
client_id = .....
client_secret = ........
token = {........}
device = Jotta
mountpoint = Archive
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your Jottacloud

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your Jottacloud

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to an Jottacloud directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup

Devices and Mountpoints

The official Jottacloud client registers a device for each computer you install it on and then creates a mountpoint for each folder you select for Backup. The web interface uses a special device called Jotta for the Archive, Sync and Shared mountpoints. In most cases you'll want to use the Jotta/Archive device/mounpoint however if you want to access files uploaded by the official rclone provides the option to select other devices and mountpoints during config.

-fast-list

This remote supports --fast-list which allows you to use fewer transactions in exchange for more memory. See the rclone docs (/docs/#fast-list) for more details.

Note that the implementation in Jottacloud always uses only a single API request to get the entire list, so for large folders this could lead to long wait time before the first results are shown.

Modified time and hashes

Jottacloud allows modification times to be set on objects accurate to 1 second. These will be used to detect whether objects need syncing or not.

Jottacloud supports MD5 type hashes, so you can use the --checksum flag.

Note that Jottacloud requires the MD5 hash before upload so if the source does not have an MD5 checksum then the file will be cached temporarily on disk (wherever the TMPDIR environment variable points to) before it is uploaded. Small files will be cached in memory - see the --jottacloud-md5-memory-limit flag.

Restricted filename characters

In addition to the default restricted characters set (/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:

Character Value Replacement

" 0x22 02
* 0x2A 0A
: 0x3A 1A
< 0x3C 1C
> 0x3E 1E
? 0x3F 1F
| 0x7C 5C

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in XML strings.

Deleting files

By default rclone will send all files to the trash when deleting files. Due to a lack of API documentation emptying the trash is currently only possible via the Jottacloud website. If deleting permanently is required then use the --jottacloud-hard-delete flag, or set the equivalent environment variable.

Versions

Jottacloud supports file versioning. When rclone uploads a new version of a file it creates a new version of it. Currently rclone only supports retrieving the current version but older versions can be accessed via the Jottacloud Website.

Quota information

To view your current quota you can use the rclone about remote: command which will display your usage limit (unless it is unlimited) and the current usage.

Device IDs

Jottacloud requires each `device' to be registered. Rclone brings such a registration to easily access your account but if you want to use Jottacloud together with rclone on multiple machines you NEED to create a seperate deviceID/deviceSecrect on each machine. You will asked during setting up the remote. Please be aware that this also means that copying the rclone config from one machine to another does NOT work with Jottacloud accounts. You have to create it on each machine.

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to jottacloud (JottaCloud).

-jottacloud-md5-memory-limit

Files bigger than this will be cached on disk to calculate the MD5 if required.

Config: md5_memory_limit
Env Var: RCLONE_JOTTACLOUD_MD5_MEMORY_LIMIT
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 10M

-jottacloud-hard-delete

Delete files permanently rather than putting them into the trash.

Config: hard_delete
Env Var: RCLONE_JOTTACLOUD_HARD_DELETE
Type: bool
Default: false

-jottacloud-unlink

Remove existing public link to file/folder with link command rather than creating. Default is false, meaning link command will create or retrieve public link.

Config: unlink
Env Var: RCLONE_JOTTACLOUD_UNLINK
Type: bool
Default: false

-jottacloud-upload-resume-limit

Files bigger than this can be resumed if the upload fail's.

Config: upload_resume_limit
Env Var: RCLONE_JOTTACLOUD_UPLOAD_RESUME_LIMIT
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 10M

Limitations

Note that Jottacloud is case insensitive so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and one called "hello.doc".

There are quite a few characters that can't be in Jottacloud file names. Rclone will map these names to and from an identical looking unicode equivalent. For example if a file has a ? in it will be mapped to 1F instead.

Jottacloud only supports filenames up to 255 characters in length.

Troubleshooting

Jottacloud exhibits some inconsistent behaviours regarding deleted files and folders which may cause Copy, Move and DirMove operations to previously deleted paths to fail. Emptying the trash should help in such cases.

Koofr

Paths are specified as remote:path

Paths may be as deep as required, eg remote:directory/subdirectory.

The initial setup for Koofr involves creating an application password for rclone. You can do that by opening the Koofr web application (https://app.koofr.net/app/admin/preferences/password), giving the password a nice name like rclone and clicking on generate.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called koofr. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> koofr 
Type of storage to configure.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Koofr
   \ "koofr"
[snip]
Storage> koofr
** See help for koofr backend at: https://rclone.org/koofr/ **

Your Koofr user name
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
user> USER [at] NAME
Your Koofr password for rclone (generate one at https://app.koofr.net/app/admin/preferences/password)
y) Yes type in my own password
g) Generate random password
y/g> y
Enter the password:
password:
Confirm the password:
password:
Edit advanced config? (y/n)
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> n
Remote config
--------------------
[koofr]
type = koofr
baseurl = https://app.koofr.net
user = USER [at] NAME
password = *** ENCRYPTED ***
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

You can choose to edit advanced config in order to enter your own service URL if you use an on-premise or white label Koofr instance, or choose an alternative mount instead of your primary storage.

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your Koofr

rclone lsd koofr:

List all the files in your Koofr

rclone ls koofr:

To copy a local directory to an Koofr directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup

Restricted filename characters

In addition to the default restricted characters set (/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:

Character Value Replacement

\ 0x5C 3C

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in XML strings.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to koofr (Koofr).

-koofr-user

Your Koofr user name

Config: user
Env Var: RCLONE_KOOFR_USER
Type: string
Default: ""

-koofr-password

Your Koofr password for rclone (generate one at https://app.koofr.net/app/admin/preferences/password)

Config: password
Env Var: RCLONE_KOOFR_PASSWORD
Type: string
Default: ""

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to koofr (Koofr).

-koofr-endpoint

The Koofr API endpoint to use

Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_KOOFR_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: "https://app.koofr.net"

-koofr-mountid

Mount ID of the mount to use. If omitted, the primary mount is used.

Config: mountid
Env Var: RCLONE_KOOFR_MOUNTID
Type: string
Default: ""

-koofr-setmtime

Does the backend support setting modification time. Set this to false if you use a mount ID that points to a Dropbox or Amazon Drive backend.

Config: setmtime
Env Var: RCLONE_KOOFR_SETMTIME
Type: bool
Default: true

Limitations

Note that Koofr is case insensitive so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and one called "hello.doc".

Mail.ru Cloud

Mail.ru Cloud (https://cloud.mail.ru/) is a cloud storage provided by a Russian internet company Mail.Ru Group (https://mail.ru). The official desktop client is Disk-O: (https://disk-o.cloud/), available only on Windows. (Please note that official sites are in Russian)

Features highlights

Paths may be as deep as required, eg remote:directory/subdirectory
Files have a last modified time property, directories don't
Deleted files are by default moved to the trash
Files and directories can be shared via public links
Partial uploads or streaming are not supported, file size must be known before upload
Maximum file size is limited to 2G for a free acount, unlimited for paid accounts
Storage keeps hash for all files and performs transparent deduplication, the hash algorithm is a modified SHA1
If a particular file is already present in storage, one can quickly submit file hash instead of long file upload (this optimization is supported by rclone)

Configuration

Here is an example of making a mailru configuration. First create a Mail.ru Cloud account and choose a tariff, then run

rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Type of storage to configure.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Mail.ru Cloud
   \ "mailru"
[snip]
Storage> mailru
User name (usually email)
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
user> username [at] mail.ru
Password
y) Yes type in my own password
g) Generate random password
y/g> y
Enter the password:
password:
Confirm the password:
password:
Skip full upload if there is another file with same data hash.
This feature is called "speedup" or "put by hash". It is especially efficient
in case of generally available files like popular books, video or audio clips
[snip]
Enter a boolean value (true or false). Press Enter for the default ("true").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Enable
   \ "true"
 2 / Disable
   \ "false"
speedup_enable> 1
Edit advanced config? (y/n)
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> n
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
type = mailru
user = username [at] mail.ru
pass = *** ENCRYPTED ***
speedup_enable = true
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

Configuration of this backend does not require a local web browser. You can use the configured backend as shown below:

See top level directories

rclone lsd remote:

Make a new directory

rclone mkdir remote:directory

List the contents of a directory

rclone ls remote:directory

Sync /home/local/directory to the remote path, deleting any excess files in the path.

rclone sync /home/local/directory remote:directory

Modified time

Files support a modification time attribute with up to 1 second precision. Directories do not have a modification time, which is shown as "Jan 1 1970".

Hash checksums

Hash sums use a custom Mail.ru algorithm based on SHA1. If file size is less than or equal to the SHA1 block size (20 bytes), its hash is simply its data right-padded with zero bytes. Hash sum of a larger file is computed as a SHA1 sum of the file data bytes concatenated with a decimal representation of the data length.

Emptying Trash

Removing a file or directory actually moves it to the trash, which is not visible to rclone but can be seen in a web browser. The trashed file still occupies part of total quota. If you wish to empty your trash and free some quota, you can use the rclone cleanup remote: command, which will permanently delete all your trashed files. This command does not take any path arguments.

Quota information

To view your current quota you can use the rclone about remote: command which will display your usage limit (quota) and the current usage.

Restricted filename characters

In addition to the default restricted characters set (/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:

Character Value Replacement

" 0x22 02
* 0x2A 0A
: 0x3A 1A
< 0x3C 1C
> 0x3E 1E
? 0x3F 1F
\ 0x5C 3C
| 0x7C 5C

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

Limitations

File size limits depend on your account. A single file size is limited by 2G for a free account and unlimited for paid tariffs. Please refer to the Mail.ru site for the total uploaded size limits.

Note that Mailru is case insensitive so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and one called "hello.doc".

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to mailru (Mail.ru Cloud).

-mailru-user

User name (usually email)

Config: user
Env Var: RCLONE_MAILRU_USER
Type: string
Default: ""

-mailru-pass

Password

Config: pass
Env Var: RCLONE_MAILRU_PASS
Type: string
Default: ""

-mailru-speedup-enable

Skip full upload if there is another file with same data hash. This feature is called "speedup" or "put by hash". It is especially efficient in case of generally available files like popular books, video or audio clips, because files are searched by hash in all accounts of all mailru users. Please note that rclone may need local memory and disk space to calculate content hash in advance and decide whether full upload is required. Also, if rclone does not know file size in advance (e.g. in case of streaming or partial uploads), it will not even try this optimization.

Config: speedup_enable
Env Var: RCLONE_MAILRU_SPEEDUP_ENABLE
Type: bool
Default: true
Examples:
"true"
Enable
"false"
Disable

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to mailru (Mail.ru Cloud).

-mailru-speedup-file-patterns

Comma separated list of file name patterns eligible for speedup (put by hash). Patterns are case insensitive and can contain '*' or `?' meta characters.

Config: speedup_file_patterns
Env Var: RCLONE_MAILRU_SPEEDUP_FILE_PATTERNS
Type: string
Default: ".mkv,.avi,.mp4,.mp3,.zip,.gz,.rar,.pdf"
Examples:
""
Empty list completely disables speedup (put by hash).
"*"
All files will be attempted for speedup.
".mkv,.avi,.mp4,.mp3"
Only common audio/video files will be tried for put by hash.
".zip,.gz,.rar,.pdf"
Only common archives or PDF books will be tried for speedup.

-mailru-speedup-max-disk

This option allows you to disable speedup (put by hash) for large files (because preliminary hashing can exhaust you RAM or disk space)

Config: speedup_max_disk
Env Var: RCLONE_MAILRU_SPEEDUP_MAX_DISK
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 3G
Examples:
"0"
Completely disable speedup (put by hash).
"1G"
Files larger than 1Gb will be uploaded directly.
"3G"
Choose this option if you have less than 3Gb free on local disk.

-mailru-speedup-max-memory

Files larger than the size given below will always be hashed on disk.

Config: speedup_max_memory
Env Var: RCLONE_MAILRU_SPEEDUP_MAX_MEMORY
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 32M
Examples:
"0"
Preliminary hashing will always be done in a temporary disk location.
"32M"
Do not dedicate more than 32Mb RAM for preliminary hashing.
"256M"
You have at most 256Mb RAM free for hash calculations.

-mailru-check-hash

What should copy do if file checksum is mismatched or invalid

Config: check_hash
Env Var: RCLONE_MAILRU_CHECK_HASH
Type: bool
Default: true
Examples:
"true"
Fail with error.
"false"
Ignore and continue.

-mailru-user-agent

HTTP user agent used internally by client. Defaults to "rclone/VERSION" or "-user-agent" provided on command line.

Config: user_agent
Env Var: RCLONE_MAILRU_USER_AGENT
Type: string
Default: ""

-mailru-quirks

Comma separated list of internal maintenance flags. This option must not be used by an ordinary user. It is intended only to facilitate remote troubleshooting of backend issues. Strict meaning of flags is not documented and not guaranteed to persist between releases. Quirks will be removed when the backend grows stable. Supported quirks: atomicmkdir binlist gzip insecure retry400

Config: quirks
Env Var: RCLONE_MAILRU_QUIRKS
Type: string
Default: ""

Mega

Mega (https://mega.nz/) is a cloud storage and file hosting service known for its security feature where all files are encrypted locally before they are uploaded. This prevents anyone (including employees of Mega) from accessing the files without knowledge of the key used for encryption.

This is an rclone backend for Mega which supports the file transfer features of Mega using the same client side encryption.

Paths are specified as remote:path

Paths may be as deep as required, eg remote:directory/subdirectory.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Mega
   \ "mega"
[snip]
Storage> mega
User name
user> you [at] example.com
Password.
y) Yes type in my own password
g) Generate random password
n) No leave this optional password blank
y/g/n> y
Enter the password:
password:
Confirm the password:
password:
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
type = mega
user = you [at] example.com
pass = *** ENCRYPTED ***
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

NOTE: The encryption keys need to have been already generated after a regular login via the browser, otherwise attempting to use the credentials in rclone will fail.

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your Mega

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your Mega

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to an Mega directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup

Modified time and hashes

Mega does not support modification times or hashes yet.

Restricted filename characters

Character Value Replacement

NUL 0x00 00
/ 0x2F 0F

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

Duplicated files

Mega can have two files with exactly the same name and path (unlike a normal file system).

Duplicated files cause problems with the syncing and you will see messages in the log about duplicates.

Use rclone dedupe to fix duplicated files.

Failure to log-in

Mega remotes seem to get blocked (reject logins) under "heavy use". We haven't worked out the exact blocking rules but it seems to be related to fast paced, sucessive rclone commands.

For example, executing this command 90 times in a row rclone link remote:file will cause the remote to become "blocked". This is not an abnormal situation, for example if you wish to get the public links of a directory with hundred of files... After more or less a week, the remote will remote accept rclone logins normally again.

You can mitigate this issue by mounting the remote it with rclone mount. This will log-in when mounting and a log-out when unmounting only. You can also run rclone rcd and then use rclone rc to run the commands over the API to avoid logging in each time.

Rclone does not currently close mega sessions (you can see them in the web interface), however closing the sessions does not solve the issue.

If you space rclone commands by 3 seconds it will avoid blocking the remote. We haven't identified the exact blocking rules, so perhaps one could execute the command 80 times without waiting and avoid blocking by waiting 3 seconds, then continuing...

Note that this has been observed by trial and error and might not be set in stone.

Other tools seem not to produce this blocking effect, as they use a different working approach (state-based, using sessionIDs instead of log-in) which isn't compatible with the current stateless rclone approach.

Note that once blocked, the use of other tools (such as megacmd) is not a sure workaround: following megacmd login times have been observed in sucession for blocked remote: 7 minutes, 20 min, 30min, 30 min, 30min. Web access looks unaffected though.

Investigation is continuing in relation to workarounds based on timeouts, pacers, retrials and tpslimits - if you discover something relevant, please post on the forum.

So, if rclone was working nicely and suddenly you are unable to log-in and you are sure the user and the password are correct, likely you have got the remote blocked for a while.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to mega (Mega).

-mega-user

User name

Config: user
Env Var: RCLONE_MEGA_USER
Type: string
Default: ""

-mega-pass

Password.

Config: pass
Env Var: RCLONE_MEGA_PASS
Type: string
Default: ""

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to mega (Mega).

-mega-debug

Output more debug from Mega.

If this flag is set (along with -vv) it will print further debugging information from the mega backend.

Config: debug
Env Var: RCLONE_MEGA_DEBUG
Type: bool
Default: false

-mega-hard-delete

Delete files permanently rather than putting them into the trash.

Normally the mega backend will put all deletions into the trash rather than permanently deleting them. If you specify this then rclone will permanently delete objects instead.

Config: hard_delete
Env Var: RCLONE_MEGA_HARD_DELETE
Type: bool
Default: false

Limitations

This backend uses the go-mega go library (https://github.com/t3rm1n4l/go-mega) which is an opensource go library implementing the Mega API. There doesn't appear to be any documentation for the mega protocol beyond the mega C++ SDK (https://github.com/meganz/sdk) source code so there are likely quite a few errors still remaining in this library.

Mega allows duplicate files which may confuse rclone.

Microsoft Azure Blob Storage

Paths are specified as remote:container (or remote: for the lsd command.) You may put subdirectories in too, eg remote:container/path/to/dir.

Here is an example of making a Microsoft Azure Blob Storage configuration. For a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Microsoft Azure Blob Storage
   \ "azureblob"
[snip]
Storage> azureblob
Storage Account Name
account> account_name
Storage Account Key
key> base64encodedkey==
Endpoint for the service - leave blank normally.
endpoint> 
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
account = account_name
key = base64encodedkey==
endpoint = 
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

See all containers

rclone lsd remote:

Make a new container

rclone mkdir remote:container

List the contents of a container

rclone ls remote:container

Sync /home/local/directory to the remote container, deleting any excess files in the container.

rclone sync /home/local/directory remote:container

-fast-list

This remote supports --fast-list which allows you to use fewer transactions in exchange for more memory. See the rclone docs (/docs/#fast-list) for more details.

Modified time

The modified time is stored as metadata on the object with the mtime key. It is stored using RFC3339 Format time with nanosecond precision. The metadata is supplied during directory listings so there is no overhead to using it.

Restricted filename characters

In addition to the default restricted characters set (/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:

Character Value Replacement

/ 0x2F 0F
\ 0x5C 3C

File names can also not end with the following characters. These only get replaced if they are last character in the name:

Character Value Replacement

. 0x2E 0E

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

Hashes

MD5 hashes are stored with blobs. However blobs that were uploaded in chunks only have an MD5 if the source remote was capable of MD5 hashes, eg the local disk.

Authenticating with Azure Blob Storage

Rclone has 3 ways of authenticating with Azure Blob Storage:

Account and Key

This is the most straight forward and least flexible way. Just fill in the account and key lines and leave the rest blank.

SAS URL

This can be an account level SAS URL or container level SAS URL

To use it leave account, key blank and fill in sas_url.

Account level SAS URL or container level SAS URL can be obtained from Azure portal or Azure Storage Explorer. To get a container level SAS URL right click on a container in the Azure Blob explorer in the Azure portal.

If You use container level SAS URL, rclone operations are permitted only on particular container, eg

rclone ls azureblob:container or rclone ls azureblob:

Since container name already exists in SAS URL, you can leave it empty as well.

However these will not work

rclone lsd azureblob:
rclone ls azureblob:othercontainer

This would be useful for temporarily allowing third parties access to a single container or putting credentials into an untrusted environment.

Multipart uploads

Rclone supports multipart uploads with Azure Blob storage. Files bigger than 256MB will be uploaded using chunked upload by default.

The files will be uploaded in parallel in 4MB chunks (by default). Note that these chunks are buffered in memory and there may be up to --transfers of them being uploaded at once.

Files can't be split into more than 50,000 chunks so by default, so the largest file that can be uploaded with 4MB chunk size is 195GB. Above this rclone will double the chunk size until it creates less than 50,000 chunks. By default this will mean a maximum file size of 3.2TB can be uploaded. This can be raised to 5TB using --azureblob-chunk-size 100M.

Note that rclone doesn't commit the block list until the end of the upload which means that there is a limit of 9.5TB of multipart uploads in progress as Azure won't allow more than that amount of uncommitted blocks.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to azureblob (Microsoft Azure Blob Storage).

-azureblob-account

Storage Account Name (leave blank to use SAS URL or Emulator)

Config: account
Env Var: RCLONE_AZUREBLOB_ACCOUNT
Type: string
Default: ""

-azureblob-key

Storage Account Key (leave blank to use SAS URL or Emulator)

Config: key
Env Var: RCLONE_AZUREBLOB_KEY
Type: string
Default: ""

-azureblob-sas-url

SAS URL for container level access only (leave blank if using account/key or Emulator)

Config: sas_url
Env Var: RCLONE_AZUREBLOB_SAS_URL
Type: string
Default: ""

-azureblob-use-emulator

Uses local storage emulator if provided as `true' (leave blank if using real azure storage endpoint)

Config: use_emulator
Env Var: RCLONE_AZUREBLOB_USE_EMULATOR
Type: bool
Default: false

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to azureblob (Microsoft Azure Blob Storage).

-azureblob-endpoint

Endpoint for the service Leave blank normally.

Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_AZUREBLOB_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""

-azureblob-upload-cutoff

Cutoff for switching to chunked upload (<= 256MB).

Config: upload_cutoff
Env Var: RCLONE_AZUREBLOB_UPLOAD_CUTOFF
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 256M

-azureblob-chunk-size

Upload chunk size (<= 100MB).

Note that this is stored in memory and there may be up to "-transfers" chunks stored at once in memory.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_AZUREBLOB_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 4M

-azureblob-list-chunk

Size of blob list.

This sets the number of blobs requested in each listing chunk. Default is the maximum, 5000. "List blobs" requests are permitted 2 minutes per megabyte to complete. If an operation is taking longer than 2 minutes per megabyte on average, it will time out ( source (https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/rest/api/storageservices/setting-timeouts-for-blob-service-operations#exceptions-to-default-timeout-interval) ). This can be used to limit the number of blobs items to return, to avoid the time out.

Config: list_chunk
Env Var: RCLONE_AZUREBLOB_LIST_CHUNK
Type: int
Default: 5000

-azureblob-access-tier

Access tier of blob: hot, cool or archive.

Archived blobs can be restored by setting access tier to hot or cool. Leave blank if you intend to use default access tier, which is set at account level

If there is no "access tier" specified, rclone doesn't apply any tier. rclone performs "Set Tier" operation on blobs while uploading, if objects are not modified, specifying "access tier" to new one will have no effect. If blobs are in "archive tier" at remote, trying to perform data transfer operations from remote will not be allowed. User should first restore by tiering blob to "Hot" or "Cool".

Config: access_tier
Env Var: RCLONE_AZUREBLOB_ACCESS_TIER
Type: string
Default: ""

Limitations

MD5 sums are only uploaded with chunked files if the source has an MD5 sum. This will always be the case for a local to azure copy.

Azure Storage Emulator Support

You can test rlcone with storage emulator locally, to do this make sure azure storage emulator installed locally and set up a new remote with rclone config follow instructions described in introduction, set use_emulator config as true, you do not need to provide default account name or key if using emulator.

Microsoft OneDrive

Paths are specified as remote:path

Paths may be as deep as required, eg remote:directory/subdirectory.

The initial setup for OneDrive involves getting a token from Microsoft which you need to do in your browser. rclone config walks you through it.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

e) Edit existing remote
n) New remote
d) Delete remote
r) Rename remote
c) Copy remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
e/n/d/r/c/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Microsoft OneDrive
   \ "onedrive"
[snip]
Storage> onedrive
Microsoft App Client Id
Leave blank normally.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
client_id>
Microsoft App Client Secret
Leave blank normally.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
client_secret>
Edit advanced config? (y/n)
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> n
Remote config
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code
Choose a number from below, or type in an existing value
 1 / OneDrive Personal or Business
   \ "onedrive"
 2 / Sharepoint site
   \ "sharepoint"
 3 / Type in driveID
   \ "driveid"
 4 / Type in SiteID
   \ "siteid"
 5 / Search a Sharepoint site
   \ "search"
Your choice> 1
Found 1 drives, please select the one you want to use:
0: OneDrive (business) id=b!Eqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm-7mnbvcxzlkjhgfdsapoiuytrewqk
Chose drive to use:> 0
Found drive 'root' of type 'business', URL: https://org-my.sharepoint.com/personal/you/Documents
Is that okay?
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
--------------------
[remote]
type = onedrive
token = {"access_token":"youraccesstoken","token_type":"Bearer","refresh_token":"yourrefreshtoken","expiry":"2018-08-26T22:39:52.486512262+08:00"}
drive_id = b!Eqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm-7mnbvcxzlkjhgfdsapoiuytrewqk
drive_type = business
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

See the remote setup docs (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/) for how to set it up on a machine with no Internet browser available.

Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from Microsoft. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this it may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall.

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your OneDrive

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your OneDrive

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to an OneDrive directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup

Getting your own Client ID and Key

rclone uses a pair of Client ID and Key shared by all rclone users when performing requests by default. If you are having problems with them (E.g., seeing a lot of throttling), you can get your own Client ID and Key by following the steps below:

1.
Open https://portal.azure.com/#blade/Microsoft_AAD_RegisteredApps/ApplicationsListBlade, then click New registration.
2.
Enter a name for your app, choose your account type, select Web in Redirect URI Enter http://localhost:53682/ and click Register. Copy and keep the Application (client) ID under the app name for later use.
3.
Under manage select Certificates & secrets, click New client secret. Copy and keep that secret for later use.
4.
Under manage select API permissions, click Add a permission and select Microsoft Graph then select delegated permissions.
5.
Search and select the follwing permssions: Files.Read, Files.ReadWrite, Files.Read.All, Files.ReadWrite.All, offline_access, User.Read. Once selected click Add permissions at the bottom.

Now the application is complete. Run rclone config to create or edit a OneDrive remote. Supply the app ID and password as Client ID and Secret, respectively. rclone will walk you through the remaining steps.

Modification time and hashes

OneDrive allows modification times to be set on objects accurate to 1 second. These will be used to detect whether objects need syncing or not.

OneDrive personal supports SHA1 type hashes. OneDrive for business and Sharepoint Server support QuickXorHash (https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/onedrive/developer/code-snippets/quickxorhash).

For all types of OneDrive you can use the --checksum flag.

Restricted filename characters

In addition to the default restricted characters set (/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:

Character Value Replacement

" 0x22 02
* 0x2A 0A
: 0x3A 1A
< 0x3C 1C
> 0x3E 1E
? 0x3F 1F
\ 0x5C 3C
| 0x7C 5C
# 0x23 03
% 0x25 05

File names can also not end with the following characters. These only get replaced if they are last character in the name:

Character Value Replacement

SP 0x20 20
. 0x2E 0E

File names can also not begin with the following characters. These only get replaced if they are first character in the name:

Character Value Replacement

SP 0x20 20
~ 0x7E 5E

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

Deleting files

Any files you delete with rclone will end up in the trash. Microsoft doesn't provide an API to permanently delete files, nor to empty the trash, so you will have to do that with one of Microsoft's apps or via the OneDrive website.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to onedrive (Microsoft OneDrive).

-onedrive-client-id

Microsoft App Client Id Leave blank normally.

Config: client_id
Env Var: RCLONE_ONEDRIVE_CLIENT_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

-onedrive-client-secret

Microsoft App Client Secret Leave blank normally.

Config: client_secret
Env Var: RCLONE_ONEDRIVE_CLIENT_SECRET
Type: string
Default: ""

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to onedrive (Microsoft OneDrive).

-onedrive-chunk-size

Chunk size to upload files with - must be multiple of 320k (327,680 bytes).

Above this size files will be chunked - must be multiple of 320k (327,680 bytes). Note that the chunks will be buffered into memory.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_ONEDRIVE_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 10M

-onedrive-drive-id

The ID of the drive to use

Config: drive_id
Env Var: RCLONE_ONEDRIVE_DRIVE_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

-onedrive-drive-type

The type of the drive ( personal | business | documentLibrary )

Config: drive_type
Env Var: RCLONE_ONEDRIVE_DRIVE_TYPE
Type: string
Default: ""

-onedrive-expose-onenote-files

Set to make OneNote files show up in directory listings.

By default rclone will hide OneNote files in directory listings because operations like "Open" and "Update" won't work on them. But this behaviour may also prevent you from deleting them. If you want to delete OneNote files or otherwise want them to show up in directory listing, set this option.

Config: expose_onenote_files
Env Var: RCLONE_ONEDRIVE_EXPOSE_ONENOTE_FILES
Type: bool
Default: false

Limitations

Naming

Note that OneDrive is case insensitive so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and one called "hello.doc".

There are quite a few characters that can't be in OneDrive file names. These can't occur on Windows platforms, but on non-Windows platforms they are common. Rclone will map these names to and from an identical looking unicode equivalent. For example if a file has a ? in it will be mapped to 1F instead.

File sizes

The largest allowed file sizes are 15GB for OneDrive for Business and 35GB for OneDrive Personal (Updated 4 Jan 2019).

Path length

The entire path, including the file name, must contain fewer than 400 characters for OneDrive, OneDrive for Business and SharePoint Online. If you are encrypting file and folder names with rclone, you may want to pay attention to this limitation because the encrypted names are typically longer than the original ones.

Number of files

OneDrive seems to be OK with at least 50,000 files in a folder, but at 100,000 rclone will get errors listing the directory like couldn't list files: UnknownError:. See #2707 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2707) for more info.

An official document about the limitations for different types of OneDrive can be found here (https://support.office.com/en-us/article/invalid-file-names-and-file-types-in-onedrive-onedrive-for-business-and-sharepoint-64883a5d-228e-48f5-b3d2-eb39e07630fa).

Versioning issue

Every change in OneDrive causes the service to create a new version. This counts against a users quota. For example changing the modification time of a file creates a second version, so the file is using twice the space.

The copy is the only rclone command affected by this as we copy the file and then afterwards set the modification time to match the source file.

Note: Starting October 2018, users will no longer be able to disable versioning by default. This is because Microsoft has brought an update (https://techcommunity.microsoft.com/t5/Microsoft-OneDrive-Blog/New-Updates-to-OneDrive-and-SharePoint-Team-Site-Versioning/ba-p/204390) to the mechanism. To change this new default setting, a PowerShell command is required to be run by a SharePoint admin. If you are an admin, you can run these commands in PowerShell to change that setting:

1.
Install-Module -Name Microsoft.Online.SharePoint.PowerShell (in case you haven't installed this already)
2.
Import-Module Microsoft.Online.SharePoint.PowerShell -DisableNameChecking
3.
Connect-SPOService -Url https://YOURSITE-admin.sharepoint.com -Credential YOU [at] YOURSITE.COM (replacing YOURSITE, YOU, YOURSITE.COM with the actual values; this will prompt for your credentials)
4.
Set-SPOTenant -EnableMinimumVersionRequirement $False
5.
Disconnect-SPOService (to disconnect from the server)

Below are the steps for normal users to disable versioning. If you don't see the "No Versioning" option, make sure the above requirements are met.

User Weropol (https://github.com/Weropol) has found a method to disable versioning on OneDrive

1.
Open the settings menu by clicking on the gear symbol at the top of the OneDrive Business page.
2.
Click Site settings.
3.
Once on the Site settings page, navigate to Site Administration > Site libraries and lists.
4.
Click Customize "Documents".
5.
Click General Settings > Versioning Settings.
6.
Under Document Version History select the option No versioning. Note: This will disable the creation of new file versions, but will not remove any previous versions. Your documents are safe.
7.
Apply the changes by clicking OK.
8.
Use rclone to upload or modify files. (I also use the -no-update-modtime flag)
9.
Restore the versioning settings after using rclone. (Optional)

Troubleshooting

Unexpected file size/hash differences on Sharepoint

It is a known (https://github.com/OneDrive/onedrive-api-docs/issues/935#issuecomment-441741631) issue that Sharepoint (not OneDrive or OneDrive for Business) silently modifies uploaded files, mainly Office files (.docx, .xlsx, etc.), causing file size and hash checks to fail. To use rclone with such affected files on Sharepoint, you may disable these checks with the following command line arguments:

--ignore-checksum --ignore-size

Replacing/deleting existing files on Sharepoint gets "item not found"

It is a known (https://github.com/OneDrive/onedrive-api-docs/issues/1068) issue that Sharepoint (not OneDrive or OneDrive for Business) may return "item not found" errors when users try to replace or delete uploaded files; this seems to mainly affect Office files (.docx, .xlsx, etc.). As a workaround, you may use the --backup-dir <BACKUP_DIR> command line argument so rclone moves the files to be replaced/deleted into a given backup directory (instead of directly replacing/deleting them). For example, to instruct rclone to move the files into the directory rclone-backup-dir on backend mysharepoint, you may use:

--backup-dir mysharepoint:rclone-backup-dir

access_denied (AADSTS65005)

Error: access_denied
Code: AADSTS65005
Description: Using application 'rclone' is currently not supported for your organization [YOUR_ORGANIZATION] because it is in an unmanaged state. An administrator needs to claim ownership of the company by DNS validation of [YOUR_ORGANIZATION] before the application rclone can be provisioned.

This means that rclone can't use the OneDrive for Business API with your account. You can't do much about it, maybe write an email to your admins.

However, there are other ways to interact with your OneDrive account. Have a look at the webdav backend: https://rclone.org/webdav/#sharepoint

invalid_grant (AADSTS50076)

Error: invalid_grant
Code: AADSTS50076
Description: Due to a configuration change made by your administrator, or because you moved to a new location, you must use multi-factor authentication to access '...'.

If you see the error above after enabling multi-factor authentication for your account, you can fix it by refreshing your OAuth refresh token. To do that, run rclone config, and choose to edit your OneDrive backend. Then, you don't need to actually make any changes until you reach this question: Already have a token - refresh?. For this question, answer y and go through the process to refresh your token, just like the first time the backend is configured. After this, rclone should work again for this backend.

OpenDrive

Paths are specified as remote:path

Paths may be as deep as required, eg remote:directory/subdirectory.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

n) New remote
d) Delete remote
q) Quit config
e/n/d/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / OpenDrive
   \ "opendrive"
[snip]
Storage> opendrive
Username
username>
Password
y) Yes type in my own password
g) Generate random password
y/g> y
Enter the password:
password:
Confirm the password:
password:
--------------------
[remote]
username =
password = *** ENCRYPTED ***
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

List directories in top level of your OpenDrive

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your OpenDrive

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to an OpenDrive directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup

Modified time and MD5SUMs

OpenDrive allows modification times to be set on objects accurate to 1 second. These will be used to detect whether objects need syncing or not.

Restricted filename characters

Character Value Replacement

NUL 0x00 00
/ 0x2F 0F
" 0x22 02
* 0x2A 0A
: 0x3A 1A
< 0x3C 1C
> 0x3E 1E
? 0x3F 1F
\ 0x5C 3C
| 0x7C 5C

File names can also not begin or end with the following characters. These only get replaced if they are the first or last character in the name:

Character Value Replacement

SP 0x20 20
HT 0x09 09
LF 0x0A 0A
VT 0x0B 0B
CR 0x0D 0D

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to opendrive (OpenDrive).

-opendrive-username

Username

Config: username
Env Var: RCLONE_OPENDRIVE_USERNAME
Type: string
Default: ""

-opendrive-password

Password.

Config: password
Env Var: RCLONE_OPENDRIVE_PASSWORD
Type: string
Default: ""

Limitations

Note that OpenDrive is case insensitive so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and one called "hello.doc".

There are quite a few characters that can't be in OpenDrive file names. These can't occur on Windows platforms, but on non-Windows platforms they are common. Rclone will map these names to and from an identical looking unicode equivalent. For example if a file has a ? in it will be mapped to 1F instead.

QingStor

Paths are specified as remote:bucket (or remote: for the lsd command.) You may put subdirectories in too, eg remote:bucket/path/to/dir.

Here is an example of making an QingStor configuration. First run

rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process.

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
r) Rename remote
c) Copy remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/r/c/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / QingStor Object Storage
   \ "qingstor"
[snip]
Storage> qingstor
Get QingStor credentials from runtime. Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Enter QingStor credentials in the next step
   \ "false"
 2 / Get QingStor credentials from the environment (env vars or IAM)
   \ "true"
env_auth> 1
QingStor Access Key ID - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
access_key_id> access_key
QingStor Secret Access Key (password) - leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.
secret_access_key> secret_key
Enter a endpoint URL to connection QingStor API.
Leave blank will use the default value "https://qingstor.com:443"
endpoint>
Zone connect to. Default is "pek3a".
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
   / The Beijing (China) Three Zone
 1 | Needs location constraint pek3a.
   \ "pek3a"
   / The Shanghai (China) First Zone
 2 | Needs location constraint sh1a.
   \ "sh1a"
zone> 1
Number of connnection retry.
Leave blank will use the default value "3".
connection_retries>
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
env_auth = false
access_key_id = access_key
secret_access_key = secret_key
endpoint =
zone = pek3a
connection_retries =
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

This remote is called remote and can now be used like this

See all buckets

rclone lsd remote:

Make a new bucket

rclone mkdir remote:bucket

List the contents of a bucket

rclone ls remote:bucket

Sync /home/local/directory to the remote bucket, deleting any excess files in the bucket.

rclone sync /home/local/directory remote:bucket

-fast-list

This remote supports --fast-list which allows you to use fewer transactions in exchange for more memory. See the rclone docs (/docs/#fast-list) for more details.

Multipart uploads

rclone supports multipart uploads with QingStor which means that it can upload files bigger than 5GB. Note that files uploaded with multipart upload don't have an MD5SUM.

Buckets and Zone

With QingStor you can list buckets (rclone lsd) using any zone, but you can only access the content of a bucket from the zone it was created in. If you attempt to access a bucket from the wrong zone, you will get an error, incorrect zone, the bucket is not in 'XXX' zone.

Authentication

There are two ways to supply rclone with a set of QingStor credentials. In order of precedence:

Directly in the rclone configuration file (as configured by rclone config)
set access_key_id and secret_access_key
Runtime configuration:
set env_auth to true in the config file
Exporting the following environment variables before running rclone
Access Key ID: QS_ACCESS_KEY_ID or QS_ACCESS_KEY
Secret Access Key: QS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY or QS_SECRET_KEY

Restricted filename characters

The control characters 0x00-0x1F and / are replaced as in the default restricted characters set (/overview/#restricted-characters). Note that 0x7F is not replaced.

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to qingstor (QingCloud Object Storage).

-qingstor-env-auth

Get QingStor credentials from runtime. Only applies if access_key_id and secret_access_key is blank.

Config: env_auth
Env Var: RCLONE_QINGSTOR_ENV_AUTH
Type: bool
Default: false
Examples:
"false"
Enter QingStor credentials in the next step
"true"
Get QingStor credentials from the environment (env vars or IAM)

-qingstor-access-key-id

QingStor Access Key ID Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.

Config: access_key_id
Env Var: RCLONE_QINGSTOR_ACCESS_KEY_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

-qingstor-secret-access-key

QingStor Secret Access Key (password) Leave blank for anonymous access or runtime credentials.

Config: secret_access_key
Env Var: RCLONE_QINGSTOR_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY
Type: string
Default: ""

-qingstor-endpoint

Enter a endpoint URL to connection QingStor API. Leave blank will use the default value "https://qingstor.com:443"

Config: endpoint
Env Var: RCLONE_QINGSTOR_ENDPOINT
Type: string
Default: ""

-qingstor-zone

Zone to connect to. Default is "pek3a".

Config: zone
Env Var: RCLONE_QINGSTOR_ZONE
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"pek3a"
The Beijing (China) Three Zone
Needs location constraint pek3a.
"sh1a"
The Shanghai (China) First Zone
Needs location constraint sh1a.
"gd2a"
The Guangdong (China) Second Zone
Needs location constraint gd2a.

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to qingstor (QingCloud Object Storage).

-qingstor-connection-retries

Number of connection retries.

Config: connection_retries
Env Var: RCLONE_QINGSTOR_CONNECTION_RETRIES
Type: int
Default: 3

-qingstor-upload-cutoff

Cutoff for switching to chunked upload

Any files larger than this will be uploaded in chunks of chunk_size. The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 5GB.

Config: upload_cutoff
Env Var: RCLONE_QINGSTOR_UPLOAD_CUTOFF
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 200M

-qingstor-chunk-size

Chunk size to use for uploading.

When uploading files larger than upload_cutoff they will be uploaded as multipart uploads using this chunk size.

Note that "-qingstor-upload-concurrency" chunks of this size are buffered in memory per transfer.

If you are transferring large files over high speed links and you have enough memory, then increasing this will speed up the transfers.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_QINGSTOR_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 4M

-qingstor-upload-concurrency

Concurrency for multipart uploads.

This is the number of chunks of the same file that are uploaded concurrently.

NB if you set this to > 1 then the checksums of multpart uploads become corrupted (the uploads themselves are not corrupted though).

If you are uploading small numbers of large file over high speed link and these uploads do not fully utilize your bandwidth, then increasing this may help to speed up the transfers.

Config: upload_concurrency
Env Var: RCLONE_QINGSTOR_UPLOAD_CONCURRENCY
Type: int
Default: 1

Swift

Swift refers to Openstack Object Storage (https://docs.openstack.org/swift/latest/). Commercial implementations of that being:

Rackspace Cloud Files (https://www.rackspace.com/cloud/files/)
Memset Memstore (https://www.memset.com/cloud/storage/)
OVH Object Storage (https://www.ovh.co.uk/public-cloud/storage/object-storage/)
Oracle Cloud Storage (https://cloud.oracle.com/storage-opc)
IBM Bluemix Cloud ObjectStorage Swift (https://console.bluemix.net/docs/infrastructure/objectstorage-swift/index.html)

Paths are specified as remote:container (or remote: for the lsd command.) You may put subdirectories in too, eg remote:container/path/to/dir.

Here is an example of making a swift configuration. First run

rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process.

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Openstack Swift (Rackspace Cloud Files, Memset Memstore, OVH)
   \ "swift"
[snip]
Storage> swift
Get swift credentials from environment variables in standard OpenStack form.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Enter swift credentials in the next step
   \ "false"
 2 / Get swift credentials from environment vars. Leave other fields blank if using this.
   \ "true"
env_auth> true
User name to log in (OS_USERNAME).
user> 
API key or password (OS_PASSWORD).
key> 
Authentication URL for server (OS_AUTH_URL).
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Rackspace US
   \ "https://auth.api.rackspacecloud.com/v1.0"
 2 / Rackspace UK
   \ "https://lon.auth.api.rackspacecloud.com/v1.0"
 3 / Rackspace v2
   \ "https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0"
 4 / Memset Memstore UK
   \ "https://auth.storage.memset.com/v1.0"
 5 / Memset Memstore UK v2
   \ "https://auth.storage.memset.com/v2.0"
 6 / OVH
   \ "https://auth.cloud.ovh.net/v2.0"
auth> 
User ID to log in - optional - most swift systems use user and leave this blank (v3 auth) (OS_USER_ID).
user_id> 
User domain - optional (v3 auth) (OS_USER_DOMAIN_NAME)
domain> 
Tenant name - optional for v1 auth, this or tenant_id required otherwise (OS_TENANT_NAME or OS_PROJECT_NAME)
tenant> 
Tenant ID - optional for v1 auth, this or tenant required otherwise (OS_TENANT_ID)
tenant_id> 
Tenant domain - optional (v3 auth) (OS_PROJECT_DOMAIN_NAME)
tenant_domain> 
Region name - optional (OS_REGION_NAME)
region> 
Storage URL - optional (OS_STORAGE_URL)
storage_url> 
Auth Token from alternate authentication - optional (OS_AUTH_TOKEN)
auth_token> 
AuthVersion - optional - set to (1,2,3) if your auth URL has no version (ST_AUTH_VERSION)
auth_version> 
Endpoint type to choose from the service catalogue (OS_ENDPOINT_TYPE)
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Public (default, choose this if not sure)
   \ "public"
 2 / Internal (use internal service net)
   \ "internal"
 3 / Admin
   \ "admin"
endpoint_type> 
Remote config
--------------------
[test]
env_auth = true
user = 
key = 
auth = 
user_id = 
domain = 
tenant = 
tenant_id = 
tenant_domain = 
region = 
storage_url = 
auth_token = 
auth_version = 
endpoint_type = 
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

This remote is called remote and can now be used like this

See all containers

rclone lsd remote:

Make a new container

rclone mkdir remote:container

List the contents of a container

rclone ls remote:container

Sync /home/local/directory to the remote container, deleting any excess files in the container.

rclone sync /home/local/directory remote:container

Configuration from an OpenStack credentials file

An OpenStack credentials file typically looks something something like this (without the comments)

export OS_AUTH_URL=https://a.provider.net/v2.0
export OS_TENANT_ID=ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
export OS_TENANT_NAME="1234567890123456"
export OS_USERNAME="123abc567xy"
echo "Please enter your OpenStack Password: "
read -sr OS_PASSWORD_INPUT
export OS_PASSWORD=$OS_PASSWORD_INPUT
export OS_REGION_NAME="SBG1"
if [ -z "$OS_REGION_NAME" ]; then unset OS_REGION_NAME; fi

The config file needs to look something like this where $OS_USERNAME represents the value of the OS_USERNAME variable - 123abc567xy in the example above.

[remote]
type = swift
user = $OS_USERNAME
key = $OS_PASSWORD
auth = $OS_AUTH_URL
tenant = $OS_TENANT_NAME

Note that you may (or may not) need to set region too - try without first.

Configuration from the environment

If you prefer you can configure rclone to use swift using a standard set of OpenStack environment variables.

When you run through the config, make sure you choose true for env_auth and leave everything else blank.

rclone will then set any empty config parameters from the environment using standard OpenStack environment variables. There is a list of the variables (https://godoc.org/github.com/ncw/swift#Connection.ApplyEnvironment) in the docs for the swift library.

Using an alternate authentication method

If your OpenStack installation uses a non-standard authentication method that might not be yet supported by rclone or the underlying swift library, you can authenticate externally (e.g. calling manually the openstack commands to get a token). Then, you just need to pass the two configuration variables auth_token and storage_url. If they are both provided, the other variables are ignored. rclone will not try to authenticate but instead assume it is already authenticated and use these two variables to access the OpenStack installation.

Using rclone without a config file

You can use rclone with swift without a config file, if desired, like this:

source openstack-credentials-file
export RCLONE_CONFIG_MYREMOTE_TYPE=swift
export RCLONE_CONFIG_MYREMOTE_ENV_AUTH=true
rclone lsd myremote:

-fast-list

This remote supports --fast-list which allows you to use fewer transactions in exchange for more memory. See the rclone docs (/docs/#fast-list) for more details.

-update and -use-server-modtime

As noted below, the modified time is stored on metadata on the object. It is used by default for all operations that require checking the time a file was last updated. It allows rclone to treat the remote more like a true filesystem, but it is inefficient because it requires an extra API call to retrieve the metadata.

For many operations, the time the object was last uploaded to the remote is sufficient to determine if it is "dirty". By using --update along with --use-server-modtime, you can avoid the extra API call and simply upload files whose local modtime is newer than the time it was last uploaded.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to swift (Openstack Swift (Rackspace Cloud Files, Memset Memstore, OVH)).

-swift-env-auth

Get swift credentials from environment variables in standard OpenStack form.

Config: env_auth
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_ENV_AUTH
Type: bool
Default: false
Examples:
"false"
Enter swift credentials in the next step
"true"
Get swift credentials from environment vars. Leave other fields blank if using this.

-swift-user

User name to log in (OS_USERNAME).

Config: user
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_USER
Type: string
Default: ""

-swift-key

API key or password (OS_PASSWORD).

Config: key
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_KEY
Type: string
Default: ""

-swift-auth

Authentication URL for server (OS_AUTH_URL).

Config: auth
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_AUTH
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"https://auth.api.rackspacecloud.com/v1.0"
Rackspace US
"https://lon.auth.api.rackspacecloud.com/v1.0"
Rackspace UK
"https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0"
Rackspace v2
"https://auth.storage.memset.com/v1.0"
Memset Memstore UK
"https://auth.storage.memset.com/v2.0"
Memset Memstore UK v2
"https://auth.cloud.ovh.net/v2.0"
OVH

-swift-user-id

User ID to log in - optional - most swift systems use user and leave this blank (v3 auth) (OS_USER_ID).

Config: user_id
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_USER_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

-swift-domain

User domain - optional (v3 auth) (OS_USER_DOMAIN_NAME)

Config: domain
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_DOMAIN
Type: string
Default: ""

-swift-tenant

Tenant name - optional for v1 auth, this or tenant_id required otherwise (OS_TENANT_NAME or OS_PROJECT_NAME)

Config: tenant
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_TENANT
Type: string
Default: ""

-swift-tenant-id

Tenant ID - optional for v1 auth, this or tenant required otherwise (OS_TENANT_ID)

Config: tenant_id
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_TENANT_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

-swift-tenant-domain

Tenant domain - optional (v3 auth) (OS_PROJECT_DOMAIN_NAME)

Config: tenant_domain
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_TENANT_DOMAIN
Type: string
Default: ""

-swift-region

Region name - optional (OS_REGION_NAME)

Config: region
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_REGION
Type: string
Default: ""

-swift-storage-url

Storage URL - optional (OS_STORAGE_URL)

Config: storage_url
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_STORAGE_URL
Type: string
Default: ""

-swift-auth-token

Auth Token from alternate authentication - optional (OS_AUTH_TOKEN)

Config: auth_token
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_AUTH_TOKEN
Type: string
Default: ""

-swift-application-credential-id

Application Credential ID (OS_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_ID)

Config: application_credential_id
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

-swift-application-credential-name

Application Credential Name (OS_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_NAME)

Config: application_credential_name
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_NAME
Type: string
Default: ""

-swift-application-credential-secret

Application Credential Secret (OS_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_SECRET)

Config: application_credential_secret
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL_SECRET
Type: string
Default: ""

-swift-auth-version

AuthVersion - optional - set to (1,2,3) if your auth URL has no version (ST_AUTH_VERSION)

Config: auth_version
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_AUTH_VERSION
Type: int
Default: 0

-swift-endpoint-type

Endpoint type to choose from the service catalogue (OS_ENDPOINT_TYPE)

Config: endpoint_type
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_ENDPOINT_TYPE
Type: string
Default: "public"
Examples:
"public"
Public (default, choose this if not sure)
"internal"
Internal (use internal service net)
"admin"
Admin

-swift-storage-policy

The storage policy to use when creating a new container

This applies the specified storage policy when creating a new container. The policy cannot be changed afterwards. The allowed configuration values and their meaning depend on your Swift storage provider.

Config: storage_policy
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_STORAGE_POLICY
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
""
Default
"pcs"
OVH Public Cloud Storage
"pca"
OVH Public Cloud Archive

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to swift (Openstack Swift (Rackspace Cloud Files, Memset Memstore, OVH)).

-swift-chunk-size

Above this size files will be chunked into a _segments container.

Above this size files will be chunked into a _segments container. The default for this is 5GB which is its maximum value.

Config: chunk_size
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_CHUNK_SIZE
Type: SizeSuffix
Default: 5G

-swift-no-chunk

Don't chunk files during streaming upload.

When doing streaming uploads (eg using rcat or mount) setting this flag will cause the swift backend to not upload chunked files.

This will limit the maximum upload size to 5GB. However non chunked files are easier to deal with and have an MD5SUM.

Rclone will still chunk files bigger than chunk_size when doing normal copy operations.

Config: no_chunk
Env Var: RCLONE_SWIFT_NO_CHUNK
Type: bool
Default: false

Modified time

The modified time is stored as metadata on the object as X-Object-Meta-Mtime as floating point since the epoch accurate to 1 ns.

This is a defacto standard (used in the official python-swiftclient amongst others) for storing the modification time for an object.

Restricted filename characters

Character Value Replacement

NUL 0x00 00
/ 0x2F 0F

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

Limitations

The Swift API doesn't return a correct MD5SUM for segmented files (Dynamic or Static Large Objects) so rclone won't check or use the MD5SUM for these.

Troubleshooting

Rclone gives Failed to create file system for "remote:": Bad Request

Due to an oddity of the underlying swift library, it gives a "Bad Request" error rather than a more sensible error when the authentication fails for Swift.

So this most likely means your username / password is wrong. You can investigate further with the --dump-bodies flag.

This may also be caused by specifying the region when you shouldn't have (eg OVH).

Rclone gives Failed to create file system: Response didn't have storage storage url and auth token

This is most likely caused by forgetting to specify your tenant when setting up a swift remote.

pCloud

Paths are specified as remote:path

Paths may be as deep as required, eg remote:directory/subdirectory.

The initial setup for pCloud involves getting a token from pCloud which you need to do in your browser. rclone config walks you through it.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Pcloud
   \ "pcloud"
[snip]
Storage> pcloud
Pcloud App Client Id - leave blank normally.
client_id> 
Pcloud App Client Secret - leave blank normally.
client_secret> 
Remote config
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code
--------------------
[remote]
client_id = 
client_secret = 
token = {"access_token":"XXX","token_type":"bearer","expiry":"0001-01-01T00:00:00Z"}
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

See the remote setup docs (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/) for how to set it up on a machine with no Internet browser available.

Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from pCloud. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this it may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall.

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your pCloud

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your pCloud

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to an pCloud directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup

Modified time and hashes

pCloud allows modification times to be set on objects accurate to 1 second. These will be used to detect whether objects need syncing or not. In order to set a Modification time pCloud requires the object be re-uploaded.

pCloud supports MD5 and SHA1 type hashes, so you can use the --checksum flag.

Restricted filename characters

In addition to the default restricted characters set (/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:

Character Value Replacement

\ 0x5C 3C

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

Deleting files

Deleted files will be moved to the trash. Your subscription level will determine how long items stay in the trash. rclone cleanup can be used to empty the trash.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to pcloud (Pcloud).

-pcloud-client-id

Pcloud App Client Id Leave blank normally.

Config: client_id
Env Var: RCLONE_PCLOUD_CLIENT_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

-pcloud-client-secret

Pcloud App Client Secret Leave blank normally.

Config: client_secret
Env Var: RCLONE_PCLOUD_CLIENT_SECRET
Type: string
Default: ""

premiumize.me

Paths are specified as remote:path

Paths may be as deep as required, eg remote:directory/subdirectory.

The initial setup for premiumize.me (https://premiumize.me/) involves getting a token from premiumize.me which you need to do in your browser. rclone config walks you through it.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / premiumize.me
   \ "premiumizeme"
[snip]
Storage> premiumizeme
** See help for premiumizeme backend at: https://rclone.org/premiumizeme/ **

Remote config
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code
--------------------
[remote]
type = premiumizeme
token = {"access_token":"XXX","token_type":"Bearer","refresh_token":"XXX","expiry":"2029-08-07T18:44:15.548915378+01:00"}
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> 

See the remote setup docs (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/) for how to set it up on a machine with no Internet browser available.

Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from premiumize.me. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this it may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall.

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your premiumize.me

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your premiumize.me

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to an premiumize.me directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup

Modified time and hashes

premiumize.me does not support modification times or hashes, therefore syncing will default to --size-only checking. Note that using --update will work.

Restricted filename characters

In addition to the default restricted characters set (/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:

Character Value Replacement

\ 0x5C 3C
" 0x22 02

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to premiumizeme (premiumize.me).

-premiumizeme-api-key

API Key.

This is not normally used - use oauth instead.

Config: api_key
Env Var: RCLONE_PREMIUMIZEME_API_KEY
Type: string
Default: ""

Limitations

Note that premiumize.me is case insensitive so you can't have a file called "Hello.doc" and one called "hello.doc".

premiumize.me file names can't have the \ or " characters in. rclone maps these to and from an identical looking unicode equivalents 3C and 02

premiumize.me only supports filenames up to 255 characters in length.

put.io

Paths are specified as remote:path

put.io paths may be as deep as required, eg remote:directory/subdirectory.

The initial setup for put.io involves getting a token from put.io which you need to do in your browser. rclone config walks you through it.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> putio
Type of storage to configure.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Put.io
   \ "putio"
[snip]
Storage> putio
** See help for putio backend at: https://rclone.org/putio/ **

Remote config
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code
--------------------
[putio]
type = putio
token = {"access_token":"XXXXXXXX","expiry":"0001-01-01T00:00:00Z"}
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y
Current remotes:

Name                 Type
====                 ====
putio                putio

e) Edit existing remote
n) New remote
d) Delete remote
r) Rename remote
c) Copy remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
e/n/d/r/c/s/q> q

Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from Google if you use auto config mode. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this it may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall, or use manual mode.

You can then use it like this,

List directories in top level of your put.io

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your put.io

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to a put.io directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup

Restricted filename characters

In addition to the default restricted characters set (/overview/#restricted-characters) the following characters are also replaced:

Character Value Replacement

\ 0x5C 3C

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

SFTP

SFTP is the Secure (or SSH) File Transfer Protocol (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SSH_File_Transfer_Protocol).

The SFTP backend can be used with a number of different providers:

C14
rsync.net

SFTP runs over SSH v2 and is installed as standard with most modern SSH installations.

Paths are specified as remote:path. If the path does not begin with a / it is relative to the home directory of the user. An empty path remote: refers to the user's home directory.

"Note that some SFTP servers will need the leading / - Synology is a good example of this. rsync.net, on the other hand, requires users to OMIT the leading /.

Here is an example of making an SFTP configuration. First run

rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process.

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / SSH/SFTP Connection
   \ "sftp"
[snip]
Storage> sftp
SSH host to connect to
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Connect to example.com
   \ "example.com"
host> example.com
SSH username, leave blank for current username, ncw
user> sftpuser
SSH port, leave blank to use default (22)
port>
SSH password, leave blank to use ssh-agent.
y) Yes type in my own password
g) Generate random password
n) No leave this optional password blank
y/g/n> n
Path to unencrypted PEM-encoded private key file, leave blank to use ssh-agent.
key_file>
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
host = example.com
user = sftpuser
port =
pass =
key_file =
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

This remote is called remote and can now be used like this:

See all directories in the home directory

rclone lsd remote:

Make a new directory

rclone mkdir remote:path/to/directory

List the contents of a directory

rclone ls remote:path/to/directory

Sync /home/local/directory to the remote directory, deleting any excess files in the directory.

rclone sync /home/local/directory remote:directory

SSH Authentication

The SFTP remote supports three authentication methods:

Password
Key file
ssh-agent

Key files should be PEM-encoded private key files. For instance /home/$USER/.ssh/id_rsa. Only unencrypted OpenSSH or PEM encrypted files are supported.

If you don't specify pass or key_file then rclone will attempt to contact an ssh-agent.

You can also specify key_use_agent to force the usage of an ssh-agent. In this case key_file can also be specified to force the usage of a specific key in the ssh-agent.

Using an ssh-agent is the only way to load encrypted OpenSSH keys at the moment.

If you set the --sftp-ask-password option, rclone will prompt for a password when needed and no password has been configured.

ssh-agent on macOS

Note that there seem to be various problems with using an ssh-agent on macOS due to recent changes in the OS. The most effective work-around seems to be to start an ssh-agent in each session, eg

eval `ssh-agent -s` && ssh-add -A

And then at the end of the session

eval `ssh-agent -k`

These commands can be used in scripts of course.

Modified time

Modified times are stored on the server to 1 second precision.

Modified times are used in syncing and are fully supported.

Some SFTP servers disable setting/modifying the file modification time after upload (for example, certain configurations of ProFTPd with mod_sftp). If you are using one of these servers, you can set the option set_modtime = false in your RClone backend configuration to disable this behaviour.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to sftp (SSH/SFTP Connection).

-sftp-host

SSH host to connect to

Config: host
Env Var: RCLONE_SFTP_HOST
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"example.com"
Connect to example.com

-sftp-user

SSH username, leave blank for current username, ncw

Config: user
Env Var: RCLONE_SFTP_USER
Type: string
Default: ""

-sftp-port

SSH port, leave blank to use default (22)

Config: port
Env Var: RCLONE_SFTP_PORT
Type: string
Default: ""

-sftp-pass

SSH password, leave blank to use ssh-agent.

Config: pass
Env Var: RCLONE_SFTP_PASS
Type: string
Default: ""

-sftp-key-file

Path to PEM-encoded private key file, leave blank or set key-use-agent to use ssh-agent.

Config: key_file
Env Var: RCLONE_SFTP_KEY_FILE
Type: string
Default: ""

-sftp-key-file-pass

The passphrase to decrypt the PEM-encoded private key file.

Only PEM encrypted key files (old OpenSSH format) are supported. Encrypted keys in the new OpenSSH format can't be used.

Config: key_file_pass
Env Var: RCLONE_SFTP_KEY_FILE_PASS
Type: string
Default: ""

-sftp-key-use-agent

When set forces the usage of the ssh-agent.

When key-file is also set, the ".pub" file of the specified key-file is read and only the associated key is requested from the ssh-agent. This allows to avoid Too many authentication failures for *username* errors when the ssh-agent contains many keys.

Config: key_use_agent
Env Var: RCLONE_SFTP_KEY_USE_AGENT
Type: bool
Default: false

-sftp-use-insecure-cipher

Enable the use of insecure ciphers and key exchange methods.

This enables the use of the the following insecure ciphers and key exchange methods:

aes128-cbc
aes192-cbc
aes256-cbc
3des-cbc
diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256
diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1

Those algorithms are insecure and may allow plaintext data to be recovered by an attacker.

Config: use_insecure_cipher
Env Var: RCLONE_SFTP_USE_INSECURE_CIPHER
Type: bool
Default: false
Examples:
"false"
Use default Cipher list.
"true"
Enables the use of the aes128-cbc cipher and diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256, diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1 key exchange.

-sftp-disable-hashcheck

Disable the execution of SSH commands to determine if remote file hashing is available. Leave blank or set to false to enable hashing (recommended), set to true to disable hashing.

Config: disable_hashcheck
Env Var: RCLONE_SFTP_DISABLE_HASHCHECK
Type: bool
Default: false

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to sftp (SSH/SFTP Connection).

-sftp-ask-password

Allow asking for SFTP password when needed.

If this is set and no password is supplied then rclone will: - ask for a password - not contact the ssh agent

Config: ask_password
Env Var: RCLONE_SFTP_ASK_PASSWORD
Type: bool
Default: false

-sftp-path-override

Override path used by SSH connection.

This allows checksum calculation when SFTP and SSH paths are different. This issue affects among others Synology NAS boxes.

Shared folders can be found in directories representing volumes

rclone sync /home/local/directory remote:/directory --ssh-path-override /volume2/directory

Home directory can be found in a shared folder called "home"

rclone sync /home/local/directory remote:/home/directory --ssh-path-override /volume1/homes/USER/directory
Config: path_override
Env Var: RCLONE_SFTP_PATH_OVERRIDE
Type: string
Default: ""

-sftp-set-modtime

Set the modified time on the remote if set.

Config: set_modtime
Env Var: RCLONE_SFTP_SET_MODTIME
Type: bool
Default: true

-sftp-md5sum-command

The command used to read md5 hashes. Leave blank for autodetect.

Config: md5sum_command
Env Var: RCLONE_SFTP_MD5SUM_COMMAND
Type: string
Default: ""

-sftp-sha1sum-command

The command used to read sha1 hashes. Leave blank for autodetect.

Config: sha1sum_command
Env Var: RCLONE_SFTP_SHA1SUM_COMMAND
Type: string
Default: ""

Limitations

SFTP supports checksums if the same login has shell access and md5sum or sha1sum as well as echo are in the remote's PATH. This remote checksumming (file hashing) is recommended and enabled by default. Disabling the checksumming may be required if you are connecting to SFTP servers which are not under your control, and to which the execution of remote commands is prohibited. Set the configuration option disable_hashcheck to true to disable checksumming.

SFTP also supports about if the same login has shell access and df are in the remote's PATH. about will return the total space, free space, and used space on the remote for the disk of the specified path on the remote or, if not set, the disk of the root on the remote. about will fail if it does not have shell access or if df is not in the remote's PATH.

Note that some SFTP servers (eg Synology) the paths are different for SSH and SFTP so the hashes can't be calculated properly. For them using disable_hashcheck is a good idea.

The only ssh agent supported under Windows is Putty's pageant.

The Go SSH library disables the use of the aes128-cbc cipher by default, due to security concerns. This can be re-enabled on a per-connection basis by setting the use_insecure_cipher setting in the configuration file to true. Further details on the insecurity of this cipher can be found [in this paper] (http://www.isg.rhul.ac.uk/~kp/SandPfinal.pdf).

SFTP isn't supported under plan9 until this issue (https://github.com/pkg/sftp/issues/156) is fixed.

Note that since SFTP isn't HTTP based the following flags don't work with it: --dump-headers, --dump-bodies, --dump-auth

Note that --timeout isn't supported (but --contimeout is).

C14

C14 is supported through the SFTP backend.

See C14's documentation (https://www.online.net/en/storage/c14-cold-storage)

rsync.net

rsync.net is supported through the SFTP backend.

See rsync.net's documentation of rclone examples (https://www.rsync.net/products/rclone.html).

Union

The union remote provides a unification similar to UnionFS using other remotes.

Paths may be as deep as required or a local path, eg remote:directory/subdirectory or /directory/subdirectory.

During the initial setup with rclone config you will specify the target remotes as a space separated list. The target remotes can either be a local paths or other remotes.

The order of the remotes is important as it defines which remotes take precedence over others if there are files with the same name in the same logical path. The last remote is the topmost remote and replaces files with the same name from previous remotes.

Only the last remote is used to write to and delete from, all other remotes are read-only.

Subfolders can be used in target remote. Assume a union remote named backup with the remotes mydrive:private/backup mydrive2:/backup. Invoking rclone mkdir backup:desktop is exactly the same as invoking rclone mkdir mydrive2:/backup/desktop.

There will be no special handling of paths containing .. segments. Invoking rclone mkdir backup:../desktop is exactly the same as invoking rclone mkdir mydrive2:/backup/../desktop.

Here is an example of how to make a union called remote for local folders. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Union merges the contents of several remotes
   \ "union"
[snip]
Storage> union
List of space separated remotes.
Can be 'remotea:test/dir remoteb:', '"remotea:test/space dir" remoteb:', etc.
The last remote is used to write to.
Enter a string value. Press Enter for the default ("").
remotes>
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
type = union
remotes = C:\dir1 C:\dir2 C:\dir3
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y
Current remotes:

Name                 Type
====                 ====
remote               union

e) Edit existing remote
n) New remote
d) Delete remote
r) Rename remote
c) Copy remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
e/n/d/r/c/s/q> q

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level in C:\dir1, C:\dir2 and C:\dir3

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in C:\dir1, C:\dir2 and C:\dir3

rclone ls remote:

Copy another local directory to the union directory called source, which will be placed into C:\dir3

rclone copy C:\source remote:source

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to union (Union merges the contents of several remotes).

-union-remotes

List of space separated remotes. Can be `remotea:test/dir remoteb:', `"remotea:test/space dir" remoteb:', etc. The last remote is used to write to.

Config: remotes
Env Var: RCLONE_UNION_REMOTES
Type: string
Default: ""

WebDAV

Paths are specified as remote:path

Paths may be as deep as required, eg remote:directory/subdirectory.

To configure the WebDAV remote you will need to have a URL for it, and a username and password. If you know what kind of system you are connecting to then rclone can enable extra features.

Here is an example of how to make a remote called remote. First run:

 rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
q) Quit config
n/s/q> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Webdav
   \ "webdav"
[snip]
Storage> webdav
URL of http host to connect to
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Connect to example.com
   \ "https://example.com"
url> https://example.com/remote.php/webdav/
Name of the Webdav site/service/software you are using
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
 1 / Nextcloud
   \ "nextcloud"
 2 / Owncloud
   \ "owncloud"
 3 / Sharepoint
   \ "sharepoint"
 4 / Other site/service or software
   \ "other"
vendor> 1
User name
user> user
Password.
y) Yes type in my own password
g) Generate random password
n) No leave this optional password blank
y/g/n> y
Enter the password:
password:
Confirm the password:
password:
Bearer token instead of user/pass (eg a Macaroon)
bearer_token>
Remote config
--------------------
[remote]
type = webdav
url = https://example.com/remote.php/webdav/
vendor = nextcloud
user = user
pass = *** ENCRYPTED ***
bearer_token =
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

List directories in top level of your WebDAV

rclone lsd remote:

List all the files in your WebDAV

rclone ls remote:

To copy a local directory to an WebDAV directory called backup

rclone copy /home/source remote:backup

Modified time and hashes

Plain WebDAV does not support modified times. However when used with Owncloud or Nextcloud rclone will support modified times.

Likewise plain WebDAV does not support hashes, however when used with Owncloud or Nextcloud rclone will support SHA1 and MD5 hashes. Depending on the exact version of Owncloud or Nextcloud hashes may appear on all objects, or only on objects which had a hash uploaded with them.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to webdav (Webdav).

-webdav-url

URL of http host to connect to

Config: url
Env Var: RCLONE_WEBDAV_URL
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"https://example.com"
Connect to example.com

-webdav-vendor

Name of the Webdav site/service/software you are using

Config: vendor
Env Var: RCLONE_WEBDAV_VENDOR
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"nextcloud"
Nextcloud
"owncloud"
Owncloud
"sharepoint"
Sharepoint
"other"
Other site/service or software

-webdav-user

User name

Config: user
Env Var: RCLONE_WEBDAV_USER
Type: string
Default: ""

-webdav-pass

Password.

Config: pass
Env Var: RCLONE_WEBDAV_PASS
Type: string
Default: ""

-webdav-bearer-token

Bearer token instead of user/pass (eg a Macaroon)

Config: bearer_token
Env Var: RCLONE_WEBDAV_BEARER_TOKEN
Type: string
Default: ""

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to webdav (Webdav).

-webdav-bearer-token-command

Command to run to get a bearer token

Config: bearer_token_command
Env Var: RCLONE_WEBDAV_BEARER_TOKEN_COMMAND
Type: string
Default: ""

Provider notes

See below for notes on specific providers.

Owncloud

Click on the settings cog in the bottom right of the page and this will show the WebDAV URL that rclone needs in the config step. It will look something like https://example.com/remote.php/webdav/.

Owncloud supports modified times using the X-OC-Mtime header.

Nextcloud

This is configured in an identical way to Owncloud. Note that Nextcloud does not support streaming of files (rcat) whereas Owncloud does. This may be fixed (https://github.com/nextcloud/nextcloud-snap/issues/365) in the future.

Sharepoint

Rclone can be used with Sharepoint provided by OneDrive for Business or Office365 Education Accounts. This feature is only needed for a few of these Accounts, mostly Office365 Education ones. These accounts are sometimes not verified by the domain owner github#1975 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/1975)

This means that these accounts can't be added using the official API (other Accounts should work with the "onedrive" option). However, it is possible to access them using webdav.

To use a sharepoint remote with rclone, add it like this: First, you need to get your remote's URL:

Go here (https://onedrive.live.com/about/en-us/signin/) to open your OneDrive or to sign in
Now take a look at your address bar, the URL should look like this: https://[YOUR-DOMAIN]-my.sharepoint.com/personal/[YOUR-EMAIL]/_layouts/15/onedrive.aspx

You'll only need this URL upto the email address. After that, you'll most likely want to add "/Documents". That subdirectory contains the actual data stored on your OneDrive.

Add the remote to rclone like this: Configure the url as https://[YOUR-DOMAIN]-my.sharepoint.com/personal/[YOUR-EMAIL]/Documents and use your normal account email and password for user and pass. If you have 2FA enabled, you have to generate an app password. Set the vendor to sharepoint.

Your config file should look like this:

[sharepoint]
type = webdav
url = https://[YOUR-DOMAIN]-my.sharepoint.com/personal/[YOUR-EMAIL]/Documents
vendor = other
user = YourEmailAddress
pass = encryptedpassword

Required Flags for SharePoint

As SharePoint does some special things with uploaded documents, you won't be able to use the documents size or the documents hash to compare if a file has been changed since the upload / which file is newer.

For Rclone calls copying files (especially Office files such as .docx, .xlsx, etc.) from/to SharePoint (like copy, sync, etc.), you should append these flags to ensure Rclone uses the "Last Modified" datetime property to compare your documents:

--ignore-size --ignore-checksum --update

dCache

dCache is a storage system that supports many protocols and authentication/authorisation schemes. For WebDAV clients, it allows users to authenticate with username and password (BASIC), X.509, Kerberos, and various bearer tokens, including Macaroons (https://www.dcache.org/manuals/workshop-2017-05-29-Umea/000-Final/anupam_macaroons_v02.pdf) and OpenID-Connect (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenID_Connect) access tokens.

Configure as normal using the other type. Don't enter a username or password, instead enter your Macaroon as the bearer_token.

The config will end up looking something like this.

[dcache]
type = webdav
url = https://dcache...
vendor = other
user =
pass =
bearer_token = your-macaroon

There is a script (https://github.com/sara-nl/GridScripts/blob/master/get-macaroon) that obtains a Macaroon from a dCache WebDAV endpoint, and creates an rclone config file.

Macaroons may also be obtained from the dCacheView web-browser/JavaScript client that comes with dCache.

OpenID-Connect

dCache also supports authenticating with OpenID-Connect access tokens. OpenID-Connect is a protocol (based on OAuth 2.0) that allows services to identify users who have authenticated with some central service.

Support for OpenID-Connect in rclone is currently achieved using another software package called oidc-agent (https://github.com/indigo-dc/oidc-agent). This is a command-line tool that facilitates obtaining an access token. Once installed and configured, an access token is obtained by running the oidc-token command. The following example shows a (shortened) access token obtained from the XDC OIDC Provider.

paul [at] celebrimbor:~$ oidc-token XDC
eyJraWQ[...]QFXDt0
paul [at] celebrimbor:~$

Note Before the oidc-token command will work, the refresh token must be loaded into the oidc agent. This is done with the oidc-add command (e.g., oidc-add XDC). This is typically done once per login session. Full details on this and how to register oidc-agent with your OIDC Provider are provided in the oidc-agent documentation (https://indigo-dc.gitbooks.io/oidc-agent/).

The rclone bearer_token_command configuration option is used to fetch the access token from oidc-agent.

Configure as a normal WebDAV endpoint, using the `other' vendor, leaving the username and password empty. When prompted, choose to edit the advanced config and enter the command to get a bearer token (e.g., oidc-agent XDC).

The following example config shows a WebDAV endpoint that uses oidc-agent to supply an access token from the XDC OIDC Provider.

[dcache]
type = webdav
url = https://dcache.example.org/
vendor = other
bearer_token_command = oidc-token XDC

Yandex Disk

Yandex Disk (https://disk.yandex.com) is a cloud storage solution created by Yandex (https://yandex.com).

Here is an example of making a yandex configuration. First run

rclone config

This will guide you through an interactive setup process:

No remotes found - make a new one
n) New remote
s) Set configuration password
n/s> n
name> remote
Type of storage to configure.
Choose a number from below, or type in your own value
[snip]
XX / Yandex Disk
   \ "yandex"
[snip]
Storage> yandex
Yandex Client Id - leave blank normally.
client_id>
Yandex Client Secret - leave blank normally.
client_secret>
Remote config
Use auto config?
 * Say Y if not sure
 * Say N if you are working on a remote or headless machine
y) Yes
n) No
y/n> y
If your browser doesn't open automatically go to the following link: http://127.0.0.1:53682/auth
Log in and authorize rclone for access
Waiting for code...
Got code
--------------------
[remote]
client_id =
client_secret =
token = {"access_token":"xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx","token_type":"bearer","expiry":"2016-12-29T12:27:11.362788025Z"}
--------------------
y) Yes this is OK
e) Edit this remote
d) Delete this remote
y/e/d> y

See the remote setup docs (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/) for how to set it up on a machine with no Internet browser available.

Note that rclone runs a webserver on your local machine to collect the token as returned from Yandex Disk. This only runs from the moment it opens your browser to the moment you get back the verification code. This is on http://127.0.0.1:53682/ and this it may require you to unblock it temporarily if you are running a host firewall.

Once configured you can then use rclone like this,

See top level directories

rclone lsd remote:

Make a new directory

rclone mkdir remote:directory

List the contents of a directory

rclone ls remote:directory

Sync /home/local/directory to the remote path, deleting any excess files in the path.

rclone sync /home/local/directory remote:directory

Yandex paths may be as deep as required, eg remote:directory/subdirectory.

Modified time

Modified times are supported and are stored accurate to 1 ns in custom metadata called rclone_modified in RFC3339 with nanoseconds format.

MD5 checksums

MD5 checksums are natively supported by Yandex Disk.

Emptying Trash

If you wish to empty your trash you can use the rclone cleanup remote: command which will permanently delete all your trashed files. This command does not take any path arguments.

Quota information

To view your current quota you can use the rclone about remote: command which will display your usage limit (quota) and the current usage.

Restricted filename characters

The default restricted characters set (/overview/#restricted-characters) are replaced.

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be used in JSON strings.

Limitations

When uploading very large files (bigger than about 5GB) you will need to increase the --timeout parameter. This is because Yandex pauses (perhaps to calculate the MD5SUM for the entire file) before returning confirmation that the file has been uploaded. The default handling of timeouts in rclone is to assume a 5 minute pause is an error and close the connection - you'll see net/http: timeout awaiting response headers errors in the logs if this is happening. Setting the timeout to twice the max size of file in GB should be enough, so if you want to upload a 30GB file set a timeout of 2 * 30 = 60m, that is --timeout 60m.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to yandex (Yandex Disk).

-yandex-client-id

Yandex Client Id Leave blank normally.

Config: client_id
Env Var: RCLONE_YANDEX_CLIENT_ID
Type: string
Default: ""

-yandex-client-secret

Yandex Client Secret Leave blank normally.

Config: client_secret
Env Var: RCLONE_YANDEX_CLIENT_SECRET
Type: string
Default: ""

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to yandex (Yandex Disk).

-yandex-unlink

Remove existing public link to file/folder with link command rather than creating. Default is false, meaning link command will create or retrieve public link.

Config: unlink
Env Var: RCLONE_YANDEX_UNLINK
Type: bool
Default: false

Local Filesystem

Local paths are specified as normal filesystem paths, eg /path/to/wherever, so

rclone sync /home/source /tmp/destination

Will sync /home/source to /tmp/destination

These can be configured into the config file for consistencies sake, but it is probably easier not to.

Modified time

Rclone reads and writes the modified time using an accuracy determined by the OS. Typically this is 1ns on Linux, 10 ns on Windows and 1 Second on OS X.

Filenames

Filenames should be encoded in UTF-8 on disk. This is the normal case for Windows and OS X.

There is a bit more uncertainty in the Linux world, but new distributions will have UTF-8 encoded files names. If you are using an old Linux filesystem with non UTF-8 file names (eg latin1) then you can use the convmv tool to convert the filesystem to UTF-8. This tool is available in most distributions' package managers.

If an invalid (non-UTF8) filename is read, the invalid characters will be replaced with a quoted representation of the invalid bytes. The name gro\xdf will be transferred as gro1BDF. rclone will emit a debug message in this case (use -v to see), eg

Local file system at .: Replacing invalid UTF-8 characters in "gro\xdf"

Restricted characters

On non Windows platforms the following characters are replaced when handling file names.

Character Value Replacement

NUL 0x00 00
/ 0x2F 0F

When running on Windows the following characters are replaced. This list is based on the Windows file naming conventions (https://docs.microsoft.com/de-de/windows/desktop/FileIO/naming-a-file#naming-conventions).

Character Value Replacement

NUL 0x00 00
SOH 0x01 01
STX 0x02 02
ETX 0x03 03
EOT 0x04 04
ENQ 0x05 05
ACK 0x06 06
BEL 0x07 07
BS 0x08 08
HT 0x09 09
LF 0x0A 0A
VT 0x0B 0B
FF 0x0C 0C
CR 0x0D 0D
SO 0x0E 0E
SI 0x0F 0F
DLE 0x10 10
DC1 0x11 11
DC2 0x12 12
DC3 0x13 13
DC4 0x14 14
NAK 0x15 15
SYN 0x16 16
ETB 0x17 17
CAN 0x18 18
EM 0x19 19
SUB 0x1A 1A
ESC 0x1B 1B
FS 0x1C 1C
GS 0x1D 1D
RS 0x1E 1E
US 0x1F 1F
/ 0x2F 0F
" 0x22 02
* 0x2A 0A
: 0x3A 1A
< 0x3C 1C
> 0x3E 1E
? 0x3F 1F
\ 0x5C 3C
| 0x7C 5C

File names on Windows can also not end with the following characters. These only get replaced if they are last character in the name:

Character Value Replacement

SP 0x20 20
. 0x2E 0E

Invalid UTF-8 bytes will also be replaced (/overview/#invalid-utf8), as they can't be converted to UTF-16.

Long paths on Windows

Rclone handles long paths automatically, by converting all paths to long UNC paths (https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa365247(v=vs.85).aspx#maxpath) which allows paths up to 32,767 characters.

This is why you will see that your paths, for instance c:\files is converted to the UNC path \\?\c:\files in the output, and \\server\share is converted to \\?\UNC\server\share.

However, in rare cases this may cause problems with buggy file system drivers like EncFS (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/261). To disable UNC conversion globally, add this to your .rclone.conf file:

[local]
nounc = true

If you want to selectively disable UNC, you can add it to a separate entry like this:

[nounc]
type = local
nounc = true

And use rclone like this:

rclone copy c:\src nounc:z:\dst

This will use UNC paths on c:\src but not on z:\dst. Of course this will cause problems if the absolute path length of a file exceeds 258 characters on z, so only use this option if you have to.

Symlinks / Junction points

Normally rclone will ignore symlinks or junction points (which behave like symlinks under Windows).

If you supply --copy-links or -L then rclone will follow the symlink and copy the pointed to file or directory. Note that this flag is incompatible with -links / -l.

This flag applies to all commands.

For example, supposing you have a directory structure like this

$ tree /tmp/a
/tmp/a
1C0000 b -> ../b
1C0000 expected -> ../expected
1C0000 one
140000 two
    140000 three

Then you can see the difference with and without the flag like this

$ rclone ls /tmp/a
        6 one
        6 two/three

and

$ rclone -L ls /tmp/a
     4174 expected
        6 one
        6 two/three
        6 b/two
        6 b/one

-links, -l

Normally rclone will ignore symlinks or junction points (which behave like symlinks under Windows).

If you supply this flag then rclone will copy symbolic links from the local storage, and store them as text files, with a `.rclonelink' suffix in the remote storage.

The text file will contain the target of the symbolic link (see example).

This flag applies to all commands.

For example, supposing you have a directory structure like this

$ tree /tmp/a
/tmp/a
1C0000 file1 -> ./file4
140000 file2 -> /home/user/file3

Copying the entire directory with `-l'

$ rclone copyto -l /tmp/a/file1 remote:/tmp/a/

The remote files are created with a `.rclonelink' suffix

$ rclone ls remote:/tmp/a
       5 file1.rclonelink
      14 file2.rclonelink

The remote files will contain the target of the symbolic links

$ rclone cat remote:/tmp/a/file1.rclonelink
./file4

$ rclone cat remote:/tmp/a/file2.rclonelink
/home/user/file3

Copying them back with `-l'

$ rclone copyto -l remote:/tmp/a/ /tmp/b/

$ tree /tmp/b
/tmp/b
1C0000 file1 -> ./file4
140000 file2 -> /home/user/file3

However, if copied back without `-l'

$ rclone copyto remote:/tmp/a/ /tmp/b/

$ tree /tmp/b
/tmp/b
1C0000 file1.rclonelink
140000 file2.rclonelink

Note that this flag is incompatible with -copy-links / -L.

Restricting filesystems with -one-file-system

Normally rclone will recurse through filesystems as mounted.

However if you set --one-file-system or -x this tells rclone to stay in the filesystem specified by the root and not to recurse into different file systems.

For example if you have a directory hierarchy like this

root
1C0000 disk1     - disk1 mounted on the root
|   140000 file3 - stored on disk1
1C0000 disk2     - disk2 mounted on the root
|   140000 file4 - stored on disk12
1C0000 file1     - stored on the root disk
140000 file2     - stored on the root disk

Using rclone --one-file-system copy root remote: will only copy file1 and file2. Eg

$ rclone -q --one-file-system ls root
        0 file1
        0 file2
$ rclone -q ls root
        0 disk1/file3
        0 disk2/file4
        0 file1
        0 file2

NB Rclone (like most unix tools such as du, rsync and tar) treats a bind mount to the same device as being on the same filesystem.

NB This flag is only available on Unix based systems. On systems where it isn't supported (eg Windows) it will be ignored.

Standard Options

Here are the standard options specific to local (Local Disk).

-local-nounc

Disable UNC (long path names) conversion on Windows

Config: nounc
Env Var: RCLONE_LOCAL_NOUNC
Type: string
Default: ""
Examples:
"true"
Disables long file names

Advanced Options

Here are the advanced options specific to local (Local Disk).

-copy-links / -L

Follow symlinks and copy the pointed to item.

Config: copy_links
Env Var: RCLONE_LOCAL_COPY_LINKS
Type: bool
Default: false

-links / -l

Translate symlinks to/from regular files with a `.rclonelink' extension

Config: links
Env Var: RCLONE_LOCAL_LINKS
Type: bool
Default: false

-skip-links

Don't warn about skipped symlinks. This flag disables warning messages on skipped symlinks or junction points, as you explicitly acknowledge that they should be skipped.

Config: skip_links
Env Var: RCLONE_LOCAL_SKIP_LINKS
Type: bool
Default: false

-local-no-unicode-normalization

Don't apply unicode normalization to paths and filenames (Deprecated)

This flag is deprecated now. Rclone no longer normalizes unicode file names, but it compares them with unicode normalization in the sync routine instead.

Config: no_unicode_normalization
Env Var: RCLONE_LOCAL_NO_UNICODE_NORMALIZATION
Type: bool
Default: false

-local-no-check-updated

Don't check to see if the files change during upload

Normally rclone checks the size and modification time of files as they are being uploaded and aborts with a message which starts "can't copy - source file is being updated" if the file changes during upload.

However on some file systems this modification time check may fail (eg Glusterfs #2206 (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues/2206)) so this check can be disabled with this flag.

Config: no_check_updated
Env Var: RCLONE_LOCAL_NO_CHECK_UPDATED
Type: bool
Default: false

-one-file-system / -x

Don't cross filesystem boundaries (unix/macOS only).

Config: one_file_system
Env Var: RCLONE_LOCAL_ONE_FILE_SYSTEM
Type: bool
Default: false

-local-case-sensitive

Force the filesystem to report itself as case sensitive.

Normally the local backend declares itself as case insensitive on Windows/macOS and case sensitive for everything else. Use this flag to override the default choice.

Config: case_sensitive
Env Var: RCLONE_LOCAL_CASE_SENSITIVE
Type: bool
Default: false

-local-case-insensitive

Force the filesystem to report itself as case insensitive

Normally the local backend declares itself as case insensitive on Windows/macOS and case sensitive for everything else. Use this flag to override the default choice.

Config: case_insensitive
Env Var: RCLONE_LOCAL_CASE_INSENSITIVE
Type: bool
Default: false

Changelog

v1.50.2 - 2019-11-19

Bug Fixes
accounting: Fix memory leak on retries operations (Nick Craig-Wood)
Drive
Fix listing of the root directory with drive.files scope (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix -drive-root-folder-id with team/shared drives (Nick Craig-Wood)

v1.50.1 - 2019-11-02

Bug Fixes
hash: Fix accidentally changed hash names for DropboxHash and CRC-32 (Nick Craig-Wood)
fshttp: Fix error reporting on tpslimit token bucket errors (Nick Craig-Wood)
fshttp: Don't print token bucket errors on context cancelled (Nick Craig-Wood)
Local
Fix listings of . on Windows (Nick Craig-Wood)
Onedrive
Fix DirMove/Move after Onedrive change (Xiaoxing Ye)

v1.50.0 - 2019-10-26

New backends
Citrix Sharefile (/sharefile) (Nick Craig-Wood)
Chunker (/chunker) - an overlay backend to split files into smaller parts (Ivan Andreev)
Mail.ru Cloud (/mailru) (Ivan Andreev)
New Features
encodings (Fabian Möller & Nick Craig-Wood)
All backends now use file name encoding to ensure any file name can be written to any backend.
See the restricted file name docs (/overview/#restricted-filenames) for more info and the local backend docs (/local/#filenames).
Some file names may look different in rclone if you are using any control characters in names or unicode FULLWIDTH symbols (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halfwidth_and_Fullwidth_Forms_(Unicode_block)).
build
Update to use go1.13 for the build (Nick Craig-Wood)
Drop support for go1.9 (Nick Craig-Wood)
Build rclone with GitHub actions (Nick Craig-Wood)
Convert python scripts to python3 (Nick Craig-Wood)
Swap Azure/go-ansiterm for mattn/go-colorable (Nick Craig-Wood)
Dockerfile fixes (Matei David)
Add plugin support (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/blob/master/CONTRIBUTING.md#writing-a-plugin) for backends and commands (Richard Patel)
config
Use alternating Red/Green in config to make more obvious (Nick Craig-Wood)
contrib
Add sample DLNA server Docker Compose manifest. (pataquets)
Add sample WebDAV server Docker Compose manifest. (pataquets)
copyurl
Add --auto-filename flag for using file name from URL in destination path (Denis)
serve dlna:
Many compatability improvements (Dan Walters)
Support for external srt subtitles (Dan Walters)
rc
Added command core/quit (Saksham Khanna)
Bug Fixes
sync
Make --update/-u not transfer files that haven't changed (Nick Craig-Wood)
Free objects after they come out of the transfer pipe to save memory (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix --files-from without --no-traverse doing a recursive scan (Nick Craig-Wood)
operations
Fix accounting for server side copies (Nick Craig-Wood)
Display `All duplicates removed' only if dedupe successful (Sezal Agrawal)
Display `Deleted X extra copies' only if dedupe successful (Sezal Agrawal)
accounting
Only allow up to 100 completed transfers in the accounting list to save memory (Nick Craig-Wood)
Cull the old time ranges when possible to save memory (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix panic due to server-side copy fallback (Ivan Andreev)
Fix memory leak noticeable for transfers of large numbers of objects (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix total duration calculation (Nick Craig-Wood)
cmd
Fix environment variables not setting command line flags (Nick Craig-Wood)
Make autocomplete compatible with bash's posix mode for macOS (Danil Semelenov)
Make --progress work in git bash on Windows (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix `compopt: command not found' on autocomplete on macOS (Danil Semelenov)
config
Fix setting of non top level flags from environment variables (Nick Craig-Wood)
Check config names more carefully and report errors (Nick Craig-Wood)
Remove error: can't use --size-only and --ignore-size together. (Nick Craig-Wood)
filter: Prevent mixing options when --files-from is in use (Michele Caci)
serve sftp: Fix crash on unsupported operations (eg Readlink) (Nick Craig-Wood)
Mount
Allow files of unkown size to be read properly (Nick Craig-Wood)
Skip tests on <= 2 CPUs to avoid lockup (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix panic on File.Open (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix "mount_fusefs: -o timeout=: option not supported" on FreeBSD (Nick Craig-Wood)
Don't pass huge filenames (>4k) to FUSE as it can't cope (Nick Craig-Wood)
VFS
Add flag --vfs-case-insensitive for windows/macOS mounts (Ivan Andreev)
Make objects of unknown size readable through the VFS (Nick Craig-Wood)
Move writeback of dirty data out of close() method into its own method (FlushWrites) and remove close() call from Flush() (Brett Dutro)
Stop empty dirs disappearing when renamed on bucket based remotes (Nick Craig-Wood)
Stop change notify polling clearing so much of the directory cache (Nick Craig-Wood)
Azure Blob
Disable logging to the Windows event log (Nick Craig-Wood)
B2
Remove unverified: prefix on sha1 to improve interop (eg with CyberDuck) (Nick Craig-Wood)
Box
Add options to get access token via JWT auth (David)
Drive
Disable HTTP/2 by default to work around INTERNAL_ERROR problems (Nick Craig-Wood)
Make sure that drive root ID is always canonical (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix --drive-shared-with-me from the root with lsand --fast-list (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix ChangeNotify polling for shared drives (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix change notify polling when using appDataFolder (Nick Craig-Wood)
Dropbox
Make disallowed filenames errors not retry (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix nil pointer exception on restricted files (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fichier
Fix accessing files > 2GB on 32 bit systems (Nick Craig-Wood)
FTP
Allow disabling EPSV mode (Jon Fautley)
HTTP
HEAD directory entries in parallel to speedup (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add --http-no-head to stop rclone doing HEAD in listings (Nick Craig-Wood)
Putio
Add ability to resume uploads (Cenk Alti)
S3
Fix signature v2_auth headers (Anthony Rusdi)
Fix encoding for control characters (Nick Craig-Wood)
Only ask for URL encoded directory listings if we need them on Ceph (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add option for multipart failiure behaviour (Aleksandar Jankovic)
Support for multipart copy (8429FC)
Fix nil pointer reference if no metadata returned for object (Nick Craig-Wood)
SFTP
Fix --sftp-ask-password trying to contact the ssh agent (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix hashes of files with backslashes (Nick Craig-Wood)
Include more ciphers with --sftp-use-insecure-cipher (Carlos Ferreyra)
WebDAV
Parse and return Sharepoint error response (Henning Surmeier)

v1.49.5 - 2019-10-05

Bug Fixes
Revert back to go1.12.x for the v1.49.x builds as go1.13.x was causing issues (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix rpm packages by using master builds of nfpm (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix macOS build after brew changes (Nick Craig-Wood)

v1.49.4 - 2019-09-29

Bug Fixes
cmd/rcd: Address ZipSlip vulnerability (Richard Patel)
accounting: Fix file handle leak on errors (Nick Craig-Wood)
oauthutil: Fix security problem when running with two users on the same machine (Nick Craig-Wood)
FTP
Fix listing of an empty root returning: error dir not found (Nick Craig-Wood)
S3
Fix SetModTime on GLACIER/ARCHIVE objects and implement set/get tier (Nick Craig-Wood)

v1.49.3 - 2019-09-15

Bug Fixes
accounting
Fix total duration calculation (Aleksandar Jankovic)
Fix "file already closed" on transfer retries (Nick Craig-Wood)

v1.49.2 - 2019-09-08

New Features
build: Add Docker workflow support (Alfonso Montero)
Bug Fixes
accounting: Fix locking in Transfer to avoid deadlock with --progress (Nick Craig-Wood)
docs: Fix template argument for mktemp in install.sh (Cnly)
operations: Fix -u/--update with google photos / files of unknown size (Nick Craig-Wood)
rc: Fix docs for config/create /update /password (Nick Craig-Wood)
Google Cloud Storage
Fix need for elevated permissions on SetModTime (Nick Craig-Wood)

v1.49.1 - 2019-08-28

Bug Fixes
config: Fix generated passwords being stored as empty password (Nick Craig-Wood)
rcd: Added missing parameter for web-gui info logs. (Chaitanya)
Googlephotos
Fix crash on error response (Nick Craig-Wood)
Onedrive
Fix crash on error response (Nick Craig-Wood)

v1.49.0 - 2019-08-26

New backends
1fichier (https://rclone.org/fichier/) (Laura Hausmann)
Google Photos (/googlephotos) (Nick Craig-Wood)
Putio (https://rclone.org/putio/) (Cenk Alti)
premiumize.me (https://rclone.org/premiumizeme/) (Nick Craig-Wood)
New Features
Experimental web GUI (https://rclone.org/gui/) (Chaitanya Bankanhal)
Implement --compare-dest & --copy-dest (yparitcher)
Implement --suffix without --backup-dir for backup to current dir (yparitcher)
config reconnect to re-login (re-run the oauth login) for the backend. (Nick Craig-Wood)
config userinfo to discover which user you are logged in as. (Nick Craig-Wood)
config disconnect to disconnect you (log out) from the backend. (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add --use-json-log for JSON logging (justinalin)
Add context propagation to rclone (Aleksandar Jankovic)
Reworking internal statistics interfaces so they work with rc jobs (Aleksandar Jankovic)
Add Higher units for ETA (AbelThar)
Update rclone logos to new design (Andreas Chlupka)
hash: Add CRC-32 support (Cenk Alti)
help showbackend: Fixed advanced option category when there are no standard options (buengese)
ncdu: Display/Copy to Clipboard Current Path (Gary Kim)
operations:
Run hashing operations in parallel (Nick Craig-Wood)
Don't calculate checksums when using --ignore-checksum (Nick Craig-Wood)
Check transfer hashes when using --size-only mode (Nick Craig-Wood)
Disable multi thread copy for local to local copies (Nick Craig-Wood)
Debug successful hashes as well as failures (Nick Craig-Wood)
rc
Add ability to stop async jobs (Aleksandar Jankovic)
Return current settings if core/bwlimit called without parameters (Nick Craig-Wood)
Rclone-WebUI integration with rclone (Chaitanya Bankanhal)
Added command line parameter to control the cross origin resource sharing (CORS) in the rcd. (Security Improvement) (Chaitanya Bankanhal)
Add anchor tags to the docs so links are consistent (Nick Craig-Wood)
Remove _async key from input parameters after parsing so later operations won't get confused (buengese)
Add call to clear stats (Aleksandar Jankovic)
rcd
Auto-login for web-gui (Chaitanya Bankanhal)
Implement --baseurl for rcd and web-gui (Chaitanya Bankanhal)
serve dlna
Only select interfaces which can multicast for SSDP (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add more builtin mime types to cover standard audio/video (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix missing mime types on Android causing missing videos (Nick Craig-Wood)
serve ftp
Refactor to bring into line with other serve commands (Nick Craig-Wood)
Implement --auth-proxy (Nick Craig-Wood)
serve http: Implement --baseurl (Nick Craig-Wood)
serve restic: Implement --baseurl (Nick Craig-Wood)
serve sftp
Implement auth proxy (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix detection of whether server is authorized (Nick Craig-Wood)
serve webdav
Implement --baseurl (Nick Craig-Wood)
Support --auth-proxy (Nick Craig-Wood)
Bug Fixes
Make "bad record MAC" a retriable error (Nick Craig-Wood)
copyurl: Fix copying files that return HTTP errors (Nick Craig-Wood)
march: Fix checking sub-directories when using --no-traverse (buengese)
rc
Fix unmarshalable http.AuthFn in options and put in test for marshalability (Nick Craig-Wood)
Move job expire flags to rc to fix initalization problem (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix --loopback with rc/list and others (Nick Craig-Wood)
rcat: Fix slowdown on systems with multiple hashes (Nick Craig-Wood)
rcd: Fix permissions problems on cache directory with web gui download (Nick Craig-Wood)
Mount
Default --deamon-timout to 15 minutes on macOS and FreeBSD (Nick Craig-Wood)
Update docs to show mounting from root OK for bucket based (Nick Craig-Wood)
Remove nonseekable flag from write files (Nick Craig-Wood)
VFS
Make write without cache more efficient (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix --vfs-cache-mode minimal and writes ignoring cached files (Nick Craig-Wood)
Local
Add --local-case-sensitive and --local-case-insensitive (Nick Craig-Wood)
Avoid polluting page cache when uploading local files to remote backends (Michał Matczuk)
Don't calculate any hashes by default (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fadvise run syscall on a dedicated go routine (Michał Matczuk)
Azure Blob
Azure Storage Emulator support (Sandeep)
Updated config help details to remove connection string references (Sandeep)
Make all operations work from the root (Nick Craig-Wood)
B2
Implement link sharing (yparitcher)
Enable server side copy to copy between buckets (Nick Craig-Wood)
Make all operations work from the root (Nick Craig-Wood)
Drive
Fix server side copy of big files (Nick Craig-Wood)
Update API for teamdrive use (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add error for purge with --drive-trashed-only (ginvine)
Fichier
Make FolderID int and adjust related code (buengese)
Google Cloud Storage
Reduce oauth scope requested as suggested by Google (Nick Craig-Wood)
Make all operations work from the root (Nick Craig-Wood)
HTTP
Add --http-headers flag for setting arbitrary headers (Nick Craig-Wood)
Jottacloud
Use new api for retrieving internal username (buengese)
Refactor configuration and minor cleanup (buengese)
Koofr
Support setting modification times on Koofr backend. (jaKa)
Opendrive
Refactor to use existing lib/rest facilities for uploads (Nick Craig-Wood)
Qingstor
Upgrade to v3 SDK and fix listing loop (Nick Craig-Wood)
Make all operations work from the root (Nick Craig-Wood)
S3
Add INTELLIGENT_TIERING storage class (Matti Niemenmaa)
Make all operations work from the root (Nick Craig-Wood)
SFTP
Add missing interface check and fix About (Nick Craig-Wood)
Completely ignore all modtime checks if SetModTime=false (Jon Fautley)
Support md5/sha1 with rsync.net (Nick Craig-Wood)
Save the md5/sha1 command in use to the config file for efficiency (Nick Craig-Wood)
Opt-in support for diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256 diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1 (Yi FU)
Swift
Use FixRangeOption to fix 0 length files via the VFS (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix upload when using no_chunk to return the correct size (Nick Craig-Wood)
Make all operations work from the root (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix segments leak during failed large file uploads. (nguyenhuuluan434)
WebDAV
Add --webdav-bearer-token-command (Nick Craig-Wood)
Refresh token when it expires with --webdav-bearer-token-command (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add docs for using bearer_token_command with oidc-agent (Paul Millar)

v1.48.0 - 2019-06-15

New commands
serve sftp: Serve an rclone remote over SFTP (Nick Craig-Wood)
New Features
Multi threaded downloads to local storage (Nick Craig-Wood)
controlled with --multi-thread-cutoff and --multi-thread-streams
Use rclone.conf from rclone executable directory to enable portable use (albertony)
Allow sync of a file and a directory with the same name (forgems)
this is common on bucket based remotes, eg s3, gcs
Add --ignore-case-sync for forced case insensitivity (garry415)
Implement --stats-one-line-date and --stats-one-line-date-format (Peter Berbec)
Log an ERROR for all commands which exit with non-zero status (Nick Craig-Wood)
Use go-homedir to read the home directory more reliably (Nick Craig-Wood)
Enable creating encrypted config through external script invocation (Wojciech Smigielski)
build: Drop support for go1.8 (Nick Craig-Wood)
config: Make config create/update encrypt passwords where necessary (Nick Craig-Wood)
copyurl: Honor --no-check-certificate (Stefan Breunig)
install: Linux skip man pages if no mandb (didil)
lsf: Support showing the Tier of the object (Nick Craig-Wood)
lsjson
Added EncryptedPath to output (calisro)
Support showing the Tier of the object (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add IsBucket field for bucket based remote listing of the root (Nick Craig-Wood)
rc
Add --loopback flag to run commands directly without a server (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add operations/fsinfo: Return information about the remote (Nick Craig-Wood)
Skip auth for OPTIONS request (Nick Craig-Wood)
cmd/providers: Add DefaultStr, ValueStr and Type fields (Nick Craig-Wood)
jobs: Make job expiry timeouts configurable (Aleksandar Jankovic)
serve dlna reworked and improved (Dan Walters)
serve ftp: add --ftp-public-ip flag to specify public IP (calistri)
serve restic: Add support for --private-repos in serve restic (Florian Apolloner)
serve webdav: Combine serve webdav and serve http (Gary Kim)
size: Ignore negative sizes when calculating total (Garry McNulty)
Bug Fixes
Make move and copy individual files obey --backup-dir (Nick Craig-Wood)
If --ignore-checksum is in effect, don't calculate checksum (Nick Craig-Wood)
moveto: Fix case-insensitive same remote move (Gary Kim)
rc: Fix serving bucket based objects with --rc-serve (Nick Craig-Wood)
serve webdav: Fix serveDir not being updated with changes from webdav (Gary Kim)
Mount
Fix poll interval documentation (Animosity022)
VFS
Make WriteAt for non cached files work with non-sequential writes (Nick Craig-Wood)
Local
Only calculate the required hashes for big speedup (Nick Craig-Wood)
Log errors when listing instead of returning an error (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix preallocate warning on Linux with ZFS (Nick Craig-Wood)
Crypt
Make rclone dedupe work through crypt (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix wrapping of ChangeNotify to decrypt directories properly (Nick Craig-Wood)
Support PublicLink (rclone link) of underlying backend (Nick Craig-Wood)
Implement Optional methods SetTier, GetTier (Nick Craig-Wood)
B2
Implement server side copy (Nick Craig-Wood)
Implement SetModTime (Nick Craig-Wood)
Drive
Fix move and copy from TeamDrive to GDrive (Fionera)
Add notes that cleanup works in the background on drive (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add --drive-server-side-across-configs to default back to old server side copy semantics by default (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add --drive-size-as-quota to show storage quota usage for file size (Garry McNulty)
FTP
Add FTP List timeout (Jeff Quinn)
Add FTP over TLS support (Gary Kim)
Add --ftp-no-check-certificate option for FTPS (Gary Kim)
Google Cloud Storage
Fix upload errors when uploading pre 1970 files (Nick Craig-Wood)
Jottacloud
Add support for selecting device and mountpoint. (buengese)
Mega
Add cleanup support (Gary Kim)
Onedrive
More accurately check if root is found (Cnly)
S3
Suppport S3 Accelerated endpoints with --s3-use-accelerate-endpoint (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add config info for Wasabi's EU Central endpoint (Robert Marko)
Make SetModTime work for GLACIER while syncing (Philip Harvey)
SFTP
Add About support (Gary Kim)
Fix about parsing of df results so it can cope with -ve results (Nick Craig-Wood)
Send custom client version and debug server version (Nick Craig-Wood)
WebDAV
Retry on 423 Locked errors (Nick Craig-Wood)

v1.47.0 - 2019-04-13

New backends
Backend for Koofr cloud storage service. (jaKa)
New Features
Resume downloads if the reader fails in copy (Nick Craig-Wood)
this means rclone will restart transfers if the source has an error
this is most useful for downloads or cloud to cloud copies
Use --fast-list for listing operations where it won't use more memory (Nick Craig-Wood)
this should speed up the following operations on remotes which support ListR
dedupe, serve restic lsf, ls, lsl, lsjson, lsd, md5sum, sha1sum, hashsum, size, delete, cat, settier
use --disable ListR to get old behaviour if required
Make --files-from traverse the destination unless --no-traverse is set (Nick Craig-Wood)
this fixes --files-from with Google drive and excessive API use in general.
Make server side copy account bytes and obey --max-transfer (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add --create-empty-src-dirs flag and default to not creating empty dirs (ishuah)
Add client side TLS/SSL flags --ca-cert/--client-cert/--client-key (Nick Craig-Wood)
Implement --suffix-keep-extension for use with --suffix (Nick Craig-Wood)
build:
Switch to semvar compliant version tags to be go modules compliant (Nick Craig-Wood)
Update to use go1.12.x for the build (Nick Craig-Wood)
serve dlna: Add connection manager service description to improve compatibility (Dan Walters)
lsf: Add `e' format to show encrypted names and `o' for original IDs (Nick Craig-Wood)
lsjson: Added --files-only and --dirs-only flags (calistri)
rc: Implement operations/publiclink the equivalent of rclone link (Nick Craig-Wood)
Bug Fixes
accounting: Fix total ETA when --stats-unit bits is in effect (Nick Craig-Wood)
Bash TAB completion
Use private custom func to fix clash between rclone and kubectl (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix for remotes with underscores in their names (Six)
Fix completion of remotes (Florian Gamböck)
Fix autocompletion of remote paths with spaces (Danil Semelenov)
serve dlna: Fix root XML service descriptor (Dan Walters)
ncdu: Fix display corruption with Chinese characters (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add SIGTERM to signals which run the exit handlers on unix (Nick Craig-Wood)
rc: Reload filter when the options are set via the rc (Nick Craig-Wood)
VFS / Mount
Fix FreeBSD: Ignore Truncate if called with no readers and already the correct size (Nick Craig-Wood)
Read directory and check for a file before mkdir (Nick Craig-Wood)
Shorten the locking window for vfs/refresh (Nick Craig-Wood)
Azure Blob
Enable MD5 checksums when uploading files bigger than the "Cutoff" (Dr.Rx)
Fix SAS URL support (Nick Craig-Wood)
B2
Allow manual configuration of backblaze downloadUrl (Vince)
Ignore already_hidden error on remove (Nick Craig-Wood)
Ignore malformed src_last_modified_millis (Nick Craig-Wood)
Drive
Add --skip-checksum-gphotos to ignore incorrect checksums on Google Photos (Nick Craig-Wood)
Allow server side move/copy between different remotes. (Fionera)
Add docs on team drives and --fast-list eventual consistency (Nestar47)
Fix imports of text files (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix range requests on 0 length files (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix creation of duplicates with server side copy (Nick Craig-Wood)
Dropbox
Retry blank errors to fix long listings (Nick Craig-Wood)
FTP
Add --ftp-concurrency to limit maximum number of connections (Nick Craig-Wood)
Google Cloud Storage
Fall back to default application credentials (marcintustin)
Allow bucket policy only buckets (Nick Craig-Wood)
HTTP
Add --http-no-slash for websites with directories with no slashes (Nick Craig-Wood)
Remove duplicates from listings (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix socket leak on 404 errors (Nick Craig-Wood)
Jottacloud
Fix token refresh (Sebastian Bünger)
Add device registration (Oliver Heyme)
Onedrive
Implement graceful cancel of multipart uploads if rclone is interrupted (Cnly)
Always add trailing colon to path when addressing items, (Cnly)
Return errors instead of panic for invalid uploads (Fabian Möller)
S3
Add support for "Glacier Deep Archive" storage class (Manu)
Update Dreamhost endpoint (Nick Craig-Wood)
Note incompatibility with CEPH Jewel (Nick Craig-Wood)
SFTP
Allow custom ssh client config (Alexandru Bumbacea)
Swift
Obey Retry-After to enable OVH restore from cold storage (Nick Craig-Wood)
Work around token expiry on CEPH (Nick Craig-Wood)
WebDAV
Allow IsCollection property to be integer or boolean (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix race when creating directories (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix About/df when reading the available/total returns 0 (Nick Craig-Wood)

v1.46 - 2019-02-09

New backends
Support Alibaba Cloud (Aliyun) OSS via the s3 backend (Nick Craig-Wood)
New commands
serve dlna: serves a remove via DLNA for the local network (nicolov)
New Features
copy, move: Restore deprecated --no-traverse flag (Nick Craig-Wood)
This is useful for when transferring a small number of files into a large destination
genautocomplete: Add remote path completion for bash completion (Christopher Peterson & Danil Semelenov)
Buffer memory handling reworked to return memory to the OS better (Nick Craig-Wood)
Buffer recycling library to replace sync.Pool
Optionally use memory mapped memory for better memory shrinking
Enable with --use-mmap if having memory problems - not default yet
Parallelise reading of files specified by --files-from (Nick Craig-Wood)
check: Add stats showing total files matched. (Dario Guzik)
Allow rename/delete open files under Windows (Nick Craig-Wood)
lsjson: Use exactly the correct number of decimal places in the seconds (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add cookie support with cmdline switch --use-cookies for all HTTP based remotes (qip)
Warn if --checksum is set but there are no hashes available (Nick Craig-Wood)
Rework rate limiting (pacer) to be more accurate and allow bursting (Nick Craig-Wood)
Improve error reporting for too many/few arguments in commands (Nick Craig-Wood)
listremotes: Remove -l short flag as it conflicts with the new global flag (weetmuts)
Make http serving with auth generate INFO messages on auth fail (Nick Craig-Wood)
Bug Fixes
Fix layout of stats (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix --progress crash under Windows Jenkins (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix transfer of google/onedrive docs by calling Rcat in Copy when size is -1 (Cnly)
copyurl: Fix checking of --dry-run (Denis Skovpen)
Mount
Check that mountpoint and local directory to mount don't overlap (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix mount size under 32 bit Windows (Nick Craig-Wood)
VFS
Implement renaming of directories for backends without DirMove (Nick Craig-Wood)
now all backends except b2 support renaming directories
Implement --vfs-cache-max-size to limit the total size of the cache (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add --dir-perms and --file-perms flags to set default permissions (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix deadlock on concurrent operations on a directory (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix deadlock between RWFileHandle.close and File.Remove (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix renaming/deleting open files with cache mode "writes" under Windows (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix panic on rename with --dry-run set (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix vfs/refresh with recurse=true needing the --fast-list flag
Local
Add support for -l/--links (symbolic link translation) (yair [at] unicorn)
this works by showing links as link.rclonelink - see local backend docs for more info
this errors if used with -L/--copy-links
Fix renaming/deleting open files on Windows (Nick Craig-Wood)
Crypt
Check for maximum length before decrypting filename to fix panic (Garry McNulty)
Azure Blob
Allow building azureblob backend on *BSD (themylogin)
Use the rclone HTTP client to support --dump headers, --tpslimit etc (Nick Craig-Wood)
Use the s3 pacer for 0 delay in non error conditions (Nick Craig-Wood)
Ignore directory markers (Nick Craig-Wood)
Stop Mkdir attempting to create existing containers (Nick Craig-Wood)
B2
cleanup: will remove unfinished large files >24hrs old (Garry McNulty)
For a bucket limited application key check the bucket name (Nick Craig-Wood)
before this, rclone would use the authorised bucket regardless of what you put on the command line
Added --b2-disable-checksum flag (Wojciech Smigielski)
this enables large files to be uploaded without a SHA-1 hash for speed reasons
Drive
Set default pacer to 100ms for 10 tps (Nick Craig-Wood)
This fits the Google defaults much better and reduces the 403 errors massively
Add --drive-pacer-min-sleep and --drive-pacer-burst to control the pacer
Improve ChangeNotify support for items with multiple parents (Fabian Möller)
Fix ListR for items with multiple parents - this fixes oddities with vfs/refresh (Fabian Möller)
Fix using --drive-impersonate and appfolders (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix google docs in rclone mount for some (not all) applications (Nick Craig-Wood)
Dropbox
Retry-After support for Dropbox backend (Mathieu Carbou)
FTP
Wait for 60 seconds for a connection to Close then declare it dead (Nick Craig-Wood)
helps with indefinite hangs on some FTP servers
Google Cloud Storage
Update google cloud storage endpoints (weetmuts)
HTTP
Add an example with username and password which is supported but wasn't documented (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix backend with --files-from and non-existent files (Nick Craig-Wood)
Hubic
Make error message more informative if authentication fails (Nick Craig-Wood)
Jottacloud
Resume and deduplication support (Oliver Heyme)
Use token auth for all API requests Don't store password anymore (Sebastian Bünger)
Add support for 2-factor authentification (Sebastian Bünger)
Mega
Implement v2 account login which fixes logins for newer Mega accounts (Nick Craig-Wood)
Return error if an unknown length file is attempted to be uploaded (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add new error codes for better error reporting (Nick Craig-Wood)
Onedrive
Fix broken support for "shared with me" folders (Alex Chen)
Fix root ID not normalised (Cnly)
Return err instead of panic on unknown-sized uploads (Cnly)
Qingstor
Fix go routine leak on multipart upload errors (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add upload chunk size/concurrency/cutoff control (Nick Craig-Wood)
Default --qingstor-upload-concurrency to 1 to work around bug (Nick Craig-Wood)
S3
Implement --s3-upload-cutoff for single part uploads below this (Nick Craig-Wood)
Change --s3-upload-concurrency default to 4 to increase perfomance (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add --s3-bucket-acl to control bucket ACL (Nick Craig-Wood)
Auto detect region for buckets on operation failure (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add GLACIER storage class (William Cocker)
Add Scaleway to s3 documentation (Rémy Léone)
Add AWS endpoint eu-north-1 (weetmuts)
SFTP
Add support for PEM encrypted private keys (Fabian Möller)
Add option to force the usage of an ssh-agent (Fabian Möller)
Perform environment variable expansion on key-file (Fabian Möller)
Fix rmdir on Windows based servers (eg CrushFTP) (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix rmdir deleting directory contents on some SFTP servers (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix error on dangling symlinks (Nick Craig-Wood)
Swift
Add --swift-no-chunk to disable segmented uploads in rcat/mount (Nick Craig-Wood)
Introduce application credential auth support (kayrus)
Fix memory usage by slimming Object (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix extra requests on upload (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix reauth on big files (Nick Craig-Wood)
Union
Fix poll-interval not working (Nick Craig-Wood)
WebDAV
Support About which means rclone mount will show the correct disk size (Nick Craig-Wood)
Support MD5 and SHA1 hashes with Owncloud and Nextcloud (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fail soft on time parsing errors (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix infinite loop on failed directory creation (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix identification of directories for Bitrix Site Manager (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix upload of 0 length files on some servers (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix if MKCOL fails with 423 Locked assume the directory exists (Nick Craig-Wood)

v1.45 - 2018-11-24

New backends
The Yandex backend was re-written - see below for details (Sebastian Bünger)
New commands
rcd: New command just to serve the remote control API (Nick Craig-Wood)
New Features
The remote control API (rc) was greatly expanded to allow full control over rclone (Nick Craig-Wood)
sensitive operations require authorization or the --rc-no-auth flag
config/* operations to configure rclone
options/* for reading/setting command line flags
operations/* for all low level operations, eg copy file, list directory
sync/* for sync, copy and move
--rc-files flag to serve files on the rc http server
this is for building web native GUIs for rclone
Optionally serving objects on the rc http server
Ensure rclone fails to start up if the --rc port is in use already
See the rc docs (https://rclone.org/rc/) for more info
sync/copy/move
Make --files-from only read the objects specified and don't scan directories (Nick Craig-Wood)
This is a huge speed improvement for destinations with lots of files
filter: Add --ignore-case flag (Nick Craig-Wood)
ncdu: Add remove function (`d' key) (Henning Surmeier)
rc command
Add --json flag for structured JSON input (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add --user and --pass flags and interpret --rc-user, --rc-pass, --rc-addr (Nick Craig-Wood)
build
Require go1.8 or later for compilation (Nick Craig-Wood)
Enable softfloat on MIPS arch (Scott Edlund)
Integration test framework revamped with a better report and better retries (Nick Craig-Wood)
Bug Fixes
cmd: Make --progress update the stats correctly at the end (Nick Craig-Wood)
config: Create config directory on save if it is missing (Nick Craig-Wood)
dedupe: Check for existing filename before renaming a dupe file (ssaqua)
move: Don't create directories with --dry-run (Nick Craig-Wood)
operations: Fix Purge and Rmdirs when dir is not the root (Nick Craig-Wood)
serve http/webdav/restic: Ensure rclone exits if the port is in use (Nick Craig-Wood)
Mount
Make --volname work for Windows and macOS (Nick Craig-Wood)
Azure Blob
Avoid context deadline exceeded error by setting a large TryTimeout value (brused27)
Fix erroneous Rmdir error "directory not empty" (Nick Craig-Wood)
Wait for up to 60s to create a just deleted container (Nick Craig-Wood)
Dropbox
Add dropbox impersonate support (Jake Coggiano)
Jottacloud
Fix bug in --fast-list handing of empty folders (albertony)
Opendrive
Fix transfer of files with + and & in (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix retries of upload chunks (Nick Craig-Wood)
S3
Set ACL for server side copies to that provided by the user (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix role_arn, credential_source, ... (Erik Swanson)
Add config info for Wasabi's US-West endpoint (Henry Ptasinski)
SFTP
Ensure file hash checking is really disabled (Jon Fautley)
Swift
Add pacer for retries to make swift more reliable (Nick Craig-Wood)
WebDAV
Add Content-Type to PUT requests (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix config parsing so --webdav-user and --webdav-pass flags work (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add RFC3339 date format (Ralf Hemberger)
Yandex
The yandex backend was re-written (Sebastian Bünger)
This implements low level retries (Sebastian Bünger)
Copy, Move, DirMove, PublicLink and About optional interfaces (Sebastian Bünger)
Improved general error handling (Sebastian Bünger)
Removed ListR for now due to inconsistent behaviour (Sebastian Bünger)

v1.44 - 2018-10-15

New commands
serve ftp: Add ftp server (Antoine GIRARD)
settier: perform storage tier changes on supported remotes (sandeepkru)
New Features
Reworked command line help
Make default help less verbose (Nick Craig-Wood)
Split flags up into global and backend flags (Nick Craig-Wood)
Implement specialised help for flags and backends (Nick Craig-Wood)
Show URL of backend help page when starting config (Nick Craig-Wood)
stats: Long names now split in center (Joanna Marek)
Add --log-format flag for more control over log output (dcpu)
rc: Add support for OPTIONS and basic CORS (frenos)
stats: show FatalErrors and NoRetryErrors in stats (Cédric Connes)
Bug Fixes
Fix -P not ending with a new line (Nick Craig-Wood)
config: don't create default config dir when user supplies --config (albertony)
Don't print non-ASCII characters with --progress on windows (Nick Craig-Wood)
Correct logs for excluded items (ssaqua)
Mount
Remove EXPERIMENTAL tags (Nick Craig-Wood)
VFS
Fix race condition detected by serve ftp tests (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add vfs/poll-interval rc command (Fabian Möller)
Enable rename for nearly all remotes using server side Move or Copy (Nick Craig-Wood)
Reduce directory cache cleared by poll-interval (Fabian Möller)
Remove EXPERIMENTAL tags (Nick Craig-Wood)
Local
Skip bad symlinks in dir listing with -L enabled (Cédric Connes)
Preallocate files on Windows to reduce fragmentation (Nick Craig-Wood)
Preallocate files on linux with fallocate(2) (Nick Craig-Wood)
Cache
Add cache/fetch rc function (Fabian Möller)
Fix worker scale down (Fabian Möller)
Improve performance by not sending info requests for cached chunks (dcpu)
Fix error return value of cache/fetch rc method (Fabian Möller)
Documentation fix for cache-chunk-total-size (Anagh Kumar Baranwal)
Preserve leading / in wrapped remote path (Fabian Möller)
Add plex_insecure option to skip certificate validation (Fabian Möller)
Remove entries that no longer exist in the source (dcpu)
Crypt
Preserve leading / in wrapped remote path (Fabian Möller)
Alias
Fix handling of Windows network paths (Nick Craig-Wood)
Azure Blob
Add --azureblob-list-chunk parameter (Santiago Rodríguez)
Implemented settier command support on azureblob remote. (sandeepkru)
Work around SDK bug which causes errors for chunk-sized files (Nick Craig-Wood)
Box
Implement link sharing. (Sebastian Bünger)
Drive
Add --drive-import-formats - google docs can now be imported (Fabian Möller)
Rewrite mime type and extension handling (Fabian Möller)
Add document links (Fabian Möller)
Add support for multipart document extensions (Fabian Möller)
Add support for apps-script to json export (Fabian Möller)
Fix escaped chars in documents during list (Fabian Möller)
Add --drive-v2-download-min-size a workaround for slow downloads (Fabian Möller)
Improve directory notifications in ChangeNotify (Fabian Möller)
When listing team drives in config, continue on failure (Nick Craig-Wood)
FTP
Add a small pause after failed upload before deleting file (Nick Craig-Wood)
Google Cloud Storage
Fix service_account_file being ignored (Fabian Möller)
Jottacloud
Minor improvement in quota info (omit if unlimited) (albertony)
Add --fast-list support (albertony)
Add permanent delete support: --jottacloud-hard-delete (albertony)
Add link sharing support (albertony)
Fix handling of reserved characters. (Sebastian Bünger)
Fix socket leak on Object.Remove (Nick Craig-Wood)
Onedrive
Rework to support Microsoft Graph (Cnly)
NB this will require re-authenticating the remote
Removed upload cutoff and always do session uploads (Oliver Heyme)
Use single-part upload for empty files (Cnly)
Fix new fields not saved when editing old config (Alex Chen)
Fix sometimes special chars in filenames not replaced (Alex Chen)
Ignore OneNote files by default (Alex Chen)
Add link sharing support (jackyzy823)
S3
Use custom pacer, to retry operations when reasonable (Craig Miskell)
Use configured server-side-encryption and storace class options when calling CopyObject() (Paul Kohout)
Make --s3-v2-auth flag (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix v2 auth on files with spaces (Nick Craig-Wood)
Union
Implement union backend which reads from multiple backends (Felix Brucker)
Implement optional interfaces (Move, DirMove, Copy etc) (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix ChangeNotify to support multiple remotes (Fabian Möller)
Fix --backup-dir on union backend (Nick Craig-Wood)
WebDAV
Add another time format (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add a small pause after failed upload before deleting file (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add workaround for missing mtime (buergi)
Sharepoint: Renew cookies after 12hrs (Henning Surmeier)
Yandex
Remove redundant nil checks (teresy)

v1.43.1 - 2018-09-07

Point release to fix hubic and azureblob backends.

Bug Fixes
ncdu: Return error instead of log.Fatal in Show (Fabian Möller)
cmd: Fix crash with --progress and --stats 0 (Nick Craig-Wood)
docs: Tidy website display (Anagh Kumar Baranwal)
Azure Blob:
Fix multi-part uploads. (sandeepkru)
Hubic
Fix uploads (Nick Craig-Wood)
Retry auth fetching if it fails to make hubic more reliable (Nick Craig-Wood)

v1.43 - 2018-09-01

New backends
Jottacloud (Sebastian Bünger)
New commands
copyurl: copies a URL to a remote (Denis)
New Features
Reworked config for backends (Nick Craig-Wood)
All backend config can now be supplied by command line, env var or config file
Advanced section in the config wizard for the optional items
A large step towards rclone backends being usable in other go software
Allow on the fly remotes with :backend: syntax
Stats revamp
Add --progress/-P flag to show interactive progress (Nick Craig-Wood)
Show the total progress of the sync in the stats (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add --stats-one-line flag for single line stats (Nick Craig-Wood)
Added weekday schedule into --bwlimit (Mateusz)
lsjson: Add option to show the original object IDs (Fabian Möller)
serve webdav: Make Content-Type without reading the file and add --etag-hash (Nick Craig-Wood)
build
Build macOS with native compiler (Nick Craig-Wood)
Update to use go1.11 for the build (Nick Craig-Wood)
rc
Added core/stats to return the stats (reddi1)
version --check: Prints the current release and beta versions (Nick Craig-Wood)
Bug Fixes
accounting
Fix time to completion estimates (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix moving average speed for file stats (Nick Craig-Wood)
config: Fix error reading password from piped input (Nick Craig-Wood)
move: Fix --delete-empty-src-dirs flag to delete all empty dirs on move (ishuah)
Mount
Implement --daemon-timeout flag for OSXFUSE (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix mount --daemon not working with encrypted config (Alex Chen)
Clip the number of blocks to 2ha32-1 on macOS - fixes borg backup (Nick Craig-Wood)
VFS
Enable vfs-read-chunk-size by default (Fabian Möller)
Add the vfs/refresh rc command (Fabian Möller)
Add non recursive mode to vfs/refresh rc command (Fabian Möller)
Try to seek buffer on read only files (Fabian Möller)
Local
Fix crash when deprecated --local-no-unicode-normalization is supplied (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix mkdir error when trying to copy files to the root of a drive on windows (Nick Craig-Wood)
Cache
Fix nil pointer deref when using lsjson on cached directory (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix nil pointer deref for occasional crash on playback (Nick Craig-Wood)
Crypt
Fix accounting when checking hashes on upload (Nick Craig-Wood)
Amazon Cloud Drive
Make very clear in the docs that rclone has no ACD keys (Nick Craig-Wood)
Azure Blob
Add connection string and SAS URL auth (Nick Craig-Wood)
List the container to see if it exists (Nick Craig-Wood)
Port new Azure Blob Storage SDK (sandeepkru)
Added blob tier, tier between Hot, Cool and Archive. (sandeepkru)
Remove leading / from paths (Nick Craig-Wood)
B2
Support Application Keys (Nick Craig-Wood)
Remove leading / from paths (Nick Craig-Wood)
Box
Fix upload of > 2GB files on 32 bit platforms (Nick Craig-Wood)
Make --box-commit-retries flag defaulting to 100 to fix large uploads (Nick Craig-Wood)
Drive
Add --drive-keep-revision-forever flag (lewapm)
Handle gdocs when filtering file names in list (Fabian Möller)
Support using --fast-list for large speedups (Fabian Möller)
FTP
Fix Put mkParentDir failed: 521 for BunnyCDN (Nick Craig-Wood)
Google Cloud Storage
Fix index out of range error with --fast-list (Nick Craig-Wood)
Jottacloud
Fix MD5 error check (Oliver Heyme)
Handle empty time values (Martin Polden)
Calculate missing MD5s (Oliver Heyme)
Docs, fixes and tests for MD5 calculation (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add optional MimeTyper interface. (Sebastian Bünger)
Implement optional About interface (for df support). (Sebastian Bünger)
Mega
Wait for events instead of arbitrary sleeping (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add --mega-hard-delete flag (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix failed logins with upper case chars in email (Nick Craig-Wood)
Onedrive
Shared folder support (Yoni Jah)
Implement DirMove (Cnly)
Fix rmdir sometimes deleting directories with contents (Nick Craig-Wood)
Pcloud
Delete half uploaded files on upload error (Nick Craig-Wood)
Qingstor
Remove leading / from paths (Nick Craig-Wood)
S3
Fix index out of range error with --fast-list (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add --s3-force-path-style (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add support for KMS Key ID (bsteiss)
Remove leading / from paths (Nick Craig-Wood)
Swift
Add storage_policy (Ruben Vandamme)
Make it so just storage_url or auth_token can be overidden (Nick Craig-Wood)
Fix server side copy bug for unusal file names (Nick Craig-Wood)
Remove leading / from paths (Nick Craig-Wood)
WebDAV
Ensure we call MKCOL with a URL with a trailing / for QNAP interop (Nick Craig-Wood)
If root ends with / then don't check if it is a file (Nick Craig-Wood)
Don't accept redirects when reading metadata (Nick Craig-Wood)
Add bearer token (Macaroon) support for dCache (Nick Craig-Wood)
Document dCache and Macaroons (Onno Zweers)
Sharepoint recursion with different depth (Henning)
Attempt to remove failed uploads (Nick Craig-Wood)
Yandex
Fix listing/deleting files in the root (Nick Craig-Wood)

v1.42 - 2018-06-16

New backends
OpenDrive (Oliver Heyme, Jakub Karlicek, ncw)
New commands
deletefile command (Filip Bartodziej)
New Features
copy, move: Copy single files directly, don't use --files-from work-around
this makes them much more efficient
Implement --max-transfer flag to quit transferring at a limit
make exit code 8 for --max-transfer exceeded
copy: copy empty source directories to destination (Ishuah Kariuki)
check: Add --one-way flag (Kasper Byrdal Nielsen)
Add siginfo handler for macOS for ctrl-T stats (kubatasiemski)
rc
add core/gc to run a garbage collection on demand
enable go profiling by default on the --rc port
return error from remote on failure
lsf
Add --absolute flag to add a leading / onto path names
Add --csv flag for compliant CSV output
Add `m' format specifier to show the MimeType
Implement `i' format for showing object ID
lsjson
Add MimeType to the output
Add ID field to output to show Object ID
Add --retries-sleep flag (Benjamin Joseph Dag)
Oauth tidy up web page and error handling (Henning Surmeier)
Bug Fixes
Password prompt output with --log-file fixed for unix (Filip Bartodziej)
Calculate ModifyWindow each time on the fly to fix various problems (Stefan Breunig)
Mount
Only print "File.rename error" if there actually is an error (Stefan Breunig)
Delay rename if file has open writers instead of failing outright (Stefan Breunig)
Ensure atexit gets run on interrupt
macOS enhancements
Make --noappledouble --noapplexattr
Add --volname flag and remove special chars from it
Make Get/List/Set/Remove xattr return ENOSYS for efficiency
Make --daemon work for macOS without CGO
VFS
Add --vfs-read-chunk-size and --vfs-read-chunk-size-limit (Fabian Möller)
Fix ChangeNotify for new or changed folders (Fabian Möller)
Local
Fix symlink/junction point directory handling under Windows
NB you will need to add -L to your command line to copy files with reparse points
Cache
Add non cached dirs on notifications (Remus Bunduc)
Allow root to be expired from rc (Remus Bunduc)
Clean remaining empty folders from temp upload path (Remus Bunduc)
Cache lists using batch writes (Remus Bunduc)
Use secure websockets for HTTPS Plex addresses (John Clayton)
Reconnect plex websocket on failures (Remus Bunduc)
Fix panic when running without plex configs (Remus Bunduc)
Fix root folder caching (Remus Bunduc)
Crypt
Check the crypted hash of files when uploading for extra data security
Dropbox
Make Dropbox for business folders accessible using an initial / in the path
Google Cloud Storage
Low level retry all operations if necessary
Google Drive
Add --drive-acknowledge-abuse to download flagged files
Add --drive-alternate-export to fix large doc export
Don't attempt to choose Team Drives when using rclone config create
Fix change list polling with team drives
Fix ChangeNotify for folders (Fabian Möller)
Fix about (and df on a mount) for team drives
Onedrive
Errorhandler for onedrive for business requests (Henning Surmeier)
S3
Adjust upload concurrency with --s3-upload-concurrency (themylogin)
Fix --s3-chunk-size which was always using the minimum
SFTP
Add --ssh-path-override flag (Piotr Oleszczyk)
Fix slow downloads for long latency connections
Webdav
Add workarounds for biz.mail.ru
Ignore Reason-Phrase in status line to fix 4shared (Rodrigo)
Better error message generation

v1.41 - 2018-04-28

New backends
Mega support added
Webdav now supports SharePoint cookie authentication (hensur)
New commands
link: create public link to files and folders (Stefan Breunig)
about: gets quota info from a remote (a-roussos, ncw)
hashsum: a generic tool for any hash to produce md5sum like output
New Features
lsd: Add -R flag and fix and update docs for all ls commands
ncdu: added a "refresh" key - CTRL-L (Keith Goldfarb)
serve restic: Add append-only mode (Steve Kriss)
serve restic: Disallow overwriting files in append-only mode (Alexander Neumann)
serve restic: Print actual listener address (Matt Holt)
size: Add -json flag (Matthew Holt)
sync: implement -ignore-errors (Mateusz Pabian)
dedupe: Add dedupe largest functionality (Richard Yang)
fs: Extend SizeSuffix to include TB and PB for rclone about
fs: add -dump goroutines and -dump openfiles for debugging
rc: implement core/memstats to print internal memory usage info
rc: new call rc/pid (Michael P. Dubner)
Compile
Drop support for go1.6
Release
Fix make tarball (Chih-Hsuan Yen)
Bug Fixes
filter: fix -min-age and -max-age together check
fs: limit MaxIdleConns and MaxIdleConnsPerHost in transport
lsd,lsf: make sure all times we output are in local time
rc: fix setting bwlimit to unlimited
rc: take note of the -rc-addr flag too as per the docs
Mount
Use About to return the correct disk total/used/free (eg in df)
Set --attr-timeout default to 1s - fixes:
rclone using too much memory
rclone not serving files to samba
excessive time listing directories
Fix df -i (upstream fix)
VFS
Filter files . and .. from directory listing
Only make the VFS cache if -vfs-cache-mode > Off
Local
Add -local-no-check-updated to disable updated file checks
Retry remove on Windows sharing violation error
Cache
Flush the memory cache after close
Purge file data on notification
Always forget parent dir for notifications
Integrate with Plex websocket
Add rc cache/stats (seuffert)
Add info log on notification
Box
Fix failure reading large directories - parse file/directory size as float
Dropbox
Fix crypt+obfuscate on dropbox
Fix repeatedly uploading the same files
FTP
Work around strange response from box FTP server
More workarounds for FTP servers to fix mkParentDir error
Fix no error on listing non-existent directory
Google Cloud Storage
Add service_account_credentials (Matt Holt)
Detect bucket presence by listing it - minimises permissions needed
Ignore zero length directory markers
Google Drive
Add service_account_credentials (Matt Holt)
Fix directory move leaving a hardlinked directory behind
Return proper google errors when Opening files
When initialized with a filepath, optional features used incorrect root path (Stefan Breunig)
HTTP
Fix sync for servers which don't return Content-Length in HEAD
Onedrive
Add QuickXorHash support for OneDrive for business
Fix socket leak in multipart session upload
S3
Look in S3 named profile files for credentials
Add --s3-disable-checksum to disable checksum uploading (Chris Redekop)
Hierarchical configuration support (Giri Badanahatti)
Add in config for all the supported S3 providers
Add One Zone Infrequent Access storage class (Craig Rachel)
Add -use-server-modtime support (Peter Baumgartner)
Add -s3-chunk-size option to control multipart uploads
Ignore zero length directory markers
SFTP
Update docs to match code, fix typos and clarify disable_hashcheck prompt (Michael G. Noll)
Update docs with Synology quirks
Fail soft with a debug on hash failure
Swift
Add -use-server-modtime support (Peter Baumgartner)
Webdav
Support SharePoint cookie authentication (hensur)
Strip leading and trailing / off root

v1.40 - 2018-03-19

New backends
Alias backend to create aliases for existing remote names (Fabian Möller)
New commands
lsf: list for parsing purposes (Jakub Tasiemski)
by default this is a simple non recursive list of files and directories
it can be configured to add more info in an easy to parse way
serve restic: for serving a remote as a Restic REST endpoint
This enables restic to use any backends that rclone can access
Thanks Alexander Neumann for help, patches and review
rc: enable the remote control of a running rclone
The running rclone must be started with -rc and related flags.
Currently there is support for bwlimit, and flushing for mount and cache.
New Features
--max-delete flag to add a delete threshold (Bjørn Erik Pedersen)
All backends now support RangeOption for ranged Open
cat: Use RangeOption for limited fetches to make more efficient
cryptcheck: make reading of nonce more efficient with RangeOption
serve http/webdav/restic
support SSL/TLS
add --user --pass and --htpasswd for authentication
copy/move: detect file size change during copy/move and abort transfer (ishuah)
cryptdecode: added option to return encrypted file names. (ishuah)
lsjson: add --encrypted to show encrypted name (Jakub Tasiemski)
Add --stats-file-name-length to specify the printed file name length for stats (Will Gunn)
Compile
Code base was shuffled and factored
backends moved into a backend directory
large packages split up
See the CONTRIBUTING.md doc for info as to what lives where now
Update to using go1.10 as the default go version
Implement daily full integration tests (https://pub.rclone.org/integration-tests/)
Release
Include a source tarball and sign it and the binaries
Sign the git tags as part of the release process
Add .deb and .rpm packages as part of the build
Make a beta release for all branches on the main repo (but not pull requests)
Bug Fixes
config: fixes errors on non existing config by loading config file only on first access
config: retry saving the config after failure (Mateusz)
sync: when using --backup-dir don't delete files if we can't set their modtime
this fixes odd behaviour with Dropbox and --backup-dir
fshttp: fix idle timeouts for HTTP connections
serve http: fix serving files with : in - fixes
Fix --exclude-if-present to ignore directories which it doesn't have permission for (Iakov Davydov)
Make accounting work properly with crypt and b2
remove --no-traverse flag because it is obsolete
Mount
Add --attr-timeout flag to control attribute caching in kernel
this now defaults to 0 which is correct but less efficient
see the mount docs (/commands/rclone_mount/#attribute-caching) for more info
Add --daemon flag to allow mount to run in the background (ishuah)
Fix: Return ENOSYS rather than EIO on attempted link
This fixes FileZilla accessing an rclone mount served over sftp.
Fix setting modtime twice
Mount tests now run on CI for Linux (mount & cmount)/Mac/Windows
Many bugs fixed in the VFS layer - see below
VFS
Many fixes for --vfs-cache-mode writes and above
Update cached copy if we know it has changed (fixes stale data)
Clean path names before using them in the cache
Disable cache cleaner if --vfs-cache-poll-interval=0
Fill and clean the cache immediately on startup
Fix Windows opening every file when it stats the file
Fix applying modtime for an open Write Handle
Fix creation of files when truncating
Write 0 bytes when flushing unwritten handles to avoid race conditions in FUSE
Downgrade "poll-interval is not supported" message to Info
Make OpenFile and friends return EINVAL if O_RDONLY and O_TRUNC
Local
Downgrade "invalid cross-device link: trying copy" to debug
Make DirMove return fs.ErrorCantDirMove to allow fallback to Copy for cross device
Fix race conditions updating the hashes
Cache
Add support for polling - cache will update when remote changes on supported backends
Reduce log level for Plex api
Fix dir cache issue
Implement --cache-db-wait-time flag
Improve efficiency with RangeOption and RangeSeek
Fix dirmove with temp fs enabled
Notify vfs when using temp fs
Offline uploading
Remote control support for path flushing
Amazon cloud drive
Rclone no longer has any working keys - disable integration tests
Implement DirChangeNotify to notify cache/vfs/mount of changes
Azureblob
Don't check for bucket/container presense if listing was OK
this makes rclone do one less request per invocation
Improve accounting for chunked uploads
Backblaze B2
Don't check for bucket/container presense if listing was OK
this makes rclone do one less request per invocation
Box
Improve accounting for chunked uploads
Dropbox
Fix custom oauth client parameters
Google Cloud Storage
Don't check for bucket/container presense if listing was OK
this makes rclone do one less request per invocation
Google Drive
Migrate to api v3 (Fabian Möller)
Add scope configuration and root folder selection
Add --drive-impersonate for service accounts
thanks to everyone who tested, explored and contributed docs
Add --drive-use-created-date to use created date as modified date (nbuchanan)
Request the export formats only when required
This makes rclone quicker when there are no google docs
Fix finding paths with latin1 chars (a workaround for a drive bug)
Fix copying of a single Google doc file
Fix --drive-auth-owner-only to look in all directories
HTTP
Fix handling of directories with & in
Onedrive
Removed upload cutoff and always do session uploads
this stops the creation of multiple versions on business onedrive
Overwrite object size value with real size when reading file. (Victor)
this fixes oddities when onedrive misreports the size of images
Pcloud
Remove unused chunked upload flag and code
Qingstor
Don't check for bucket/container presense if listing was OK
this makes rclone do one less request per invocation
S3
Support hashes for multipart files (Chris Redekop)
Initial support for IBM COS (S3) (Giri Badanahatti)
Update docs to discourage use of v2 auth with CEPH and others
Don't check for bucket/container presense if listing was OK
this makes rclone do one less request per invocation
Fix server side copy and set modtime on files with + in
SFTP
Add option to disable remote hash check command execution (Jon Fautley)
Add --sftp-ask-password flag to prompt for password when needed (Leo R. Lundgren)
Add set_modtime configuration option
Fix following of symlinks
Fix reading config file outside of Fs setup
Fix reading $USER in username fallback not $HOME
Fix running under crontab - Use correct OS way of reading username
Swift
Fix refresh of authentication token
in v1.39 a bug was introduced which ignored new tokens - this fixes it
Fix extra HEAD transaction when uploading a new file
Don't check for bucket/container presense if listing was OK
this makes rclone do one less request per invocation
Webdav
Add new time formats to support mydrive.ch and others

v1.39 - 2017-12-23

New backends
WebDAV
tested with nextcloud, owncloud, put.io and others!
Pcloud
cache - wraps a cache around other backends (Remus Bunduc)
useful in combination with mount
NB this feature is in beta so use with care
New commands
serve command with subcommands:
serve webdav: this implements a webdav server for any rclone remote.
serve http: command to serve a remote over HTTP
config: add sub commands for full config file management
create/delete/dump/edit/file/password/providers/show/update
touch: to create or update the timestamp of a file (Jakub Tasiemski)
New Features
curl install for rclone (Filip Bartodziej)
-stats now shows percentage, size, rate and ETA in condensed form (Ishuah Kariuki)
-exclude-if-present to exclude a directory if a file is present (Iakov Davydov)
rmdirs: add -leave-root flag (lewpam)
move: add -delete-empty-src-dirs flag to remove dirs after move (Ishuah Kariuki)
Add -dump flag, introduce -dump requests, responses and remove -dump-auth, -dump-filters
Obscure X-Auth-Token: from headers when dumping too
Document and implement exit codes for different failure modes (Ishuah Kariuki)
Compile
Bug Fixes
Retry lots more different types of errors to make multipart transfers more reliable
Save the config before asking for a token, fixes disappearing oauth config
Warn the user if -include and -exclude are used together (Ernest Borowski)
Fix duplicate files (eg on Google drive) causing spurious copies
Allow trailing and leading whitespace for passwords (Jason Rose)
ncdu: fix crashes on empty directories
rcat: fix goroutine leak
moveto/copyto: Fix to allow copying to the same name
Mount
-vfs-cache mode to make writes into mounts more reliable.
this requires caching files on the disk (see -cache-dir)
As this is a new feature, use with care
Use sdnotify to signal systemd the mount is ready (Fabian Möller)
Check if directory is not empty before mounting (Ernest Borowski)
Local
Add error message for cross file system moves
Fix equality check for times
Dropbox
Rework multipart upload
buffer the chunks when uploading large files so they can be retried
change default chunk size to 48MB now we are buffering them in memory
retry every error after the first chunk is done successfully
Fix error when renaming directories
Swift
Fix crash on bad authentication
Google Drive
Add service account support (Tim Cooijmans)
S3
Make it work properly with Digital Ocean Spaces (Andrew Starr-Bochicchio)
Fix crash if a bad listing is received
Add support for ECS task IAM roles (David Minor)
Backblaze B2
Fix multipart upload retries
Fix -hard-delete to make it work 100% of the time
Swift
Allow authentication with storage URL and auth key (Giovanni Pizzi)
Add new fields for swift configuration to support IBM Bluemix Swift (Pierre Carlson)
Add OS_TENANT_ID and OS_USER_ID to config
Allow configs with user id instead of user name
Check if swift segments container exists before creating (John Leach)
Fix memory leak in swift transfers (upstream fix)
SFTP
Add option to enable the use of aes128-cbc cipher (Jon Fautley)
Amazon cloud drive
Fix download of large files failing with "Only one auth mechanism allowed"
crypt
Option to encrypt directory names or leave them intact
Implement DirChangeNotify (Fabian Möller)
onedrive
Add option to choose resourceURL during setup of OneDrive Business account if more than one is available for user

v1.38 - 2017-09-30

New backends
Azure Blob Storage (thanks Andrei Dragomir)
Box
Onedrive for Business (thanks Oliver Heyme)
QingStor from QingCloud (thanks wuyu)
New commands
rcat - read from standard input and stream upload
tree - shows a nicely formatted recursive listing
cryptdecode - decode crypted file names (thanks ishuah)
config show - print the config file
config file - print the config file location
New Features
Empty directories are deleted on sync
dedupe - implement merging of duplicate directories
check and cryptcheck made more consistent and use less memory
cleanup for remaining remotes (thanks ishuah)
--immutable for ensuring that files don't change (thanks Jacob McNamee)
--user-agent option (thanks Alex McGrath Kraak)
--disable flag to disable optional features
--bind flag for choosing the local addr on outgoing connections
Support for zsh auto-completion (thanks bpicode)
Stop normalizing file names but do a normalized compare in sync
Compile
Update to using go1.9 as the default go version
Remove snapd build due to maintenance problems
Bug Fixes
Improve retriable error detection which makes multipart uploads better
Make check obey --ignore-size
Fix bwlimit toggle in conjunction with schedules (thanks cbruegg)
config ensures newly written config is on the same mount
Local
Revert to copy when moving file across file system boundaries
--skip-links to suppress symlink warnings (thanks Zhiming Wang)
Mount
Re-use rcat internals to support uploads from all remotes
Dropbox
Fix "entry doesn't belong in directory" error
Stop using deprecated API methods
Swift
Fix server side copy to empty container with --fast-list
Google Drive
Change the default for --drive-use-trash to true
S3
Set session token when using STS (thanks Girish Ramakrishnan)
Glacier docs and error messages (thanks Jan Varho)
Read 1000 (not 1024) items in dir listings to fix Wasabi
Backblaze B2
Fix SHA1 mismatch when downloading files with no SHA1
Calculate missing hashes on the fly instead of spooling
--b2-hard-delete to permanently delete (not hide) files (thanks John Papandriopoulos)
Hubic
Fix creating containers - no longer have to use the default container
Swift
Optionally configure from a standard set of OpenStack environment vars
Add endpoint_type config
Google Cloud Storage
Fix bucket creation to work with limited permission users
SFTP
Implement connection pooling for multiple ssh connections
Limit new connections per second
Add support for MD5 and SHA1 hashes where available (thanks Christian Brüggemann)
HTTP
Fix URL encoding issues
Fix directories with : in
Fix panic with URL encoded content

v1.37 - 2017-07-22

New backends
FTP - thanks to Antonio Messina
HTTP - thanks to Vasiliy Tolstov
New commands
rclone ncdu - for exploring a remote with a text based user interface.
rclone lsjson - for listing with a machine readable output
rclone dbhashsum - to show Dropbox style hashes of files (local or Dropbox)
New Features
Implement -fast-list flag
This allows remotes to list recursively if they can
This uses less transactions (important if you pay for them)
This may or may not be quicker
This will use more memory as it has to hold the listing in memory
-old-sync-method deprecated - the remaining uses are covered by -fast-list
This involved a major re-write of all the listing code
Add -tpslimit and -tpslimit-burst to limit transactions per second
this is useful in conjuction with rclone mount to limit external apps
Add -stats-log-level so can see -stats without -v
Print password prompts to stderr - Hraban Luyat
Warn about duplicate files when syncing
Oauth improvements
allow auth_url and token_url to be set in the config file
Print redirection URI if using own credentials.
Don't Mkdir at the start of sync to save transactions
Compile
Update build to go1.8.3
Require go1.6 for building rclone
Compile 386 builds with "GO386=387" for maximum compatibility
Bug Fixes
Fix menu selection when no remotes
Config saving reworked to not kill the file if disk gets full
Don't delete remote if name does not change while renaming
moveto, copyto: report transfers and checks as per move and copy
Local
Add -local-no-unicode-normalization flag - Bob Potter
Mount
Now supported on Windows using cgofuse and WinFsp - thanks to Bill Zissimopoulos for much help
Compare checksums on upload/download via FUSE
Unmount when program ends with SIGINT (Ctrl+C) or SIGTERM - Jérôme Vizcaino
On read only open of file, make open pending until first read
Make -read-only reject modify operations
Implement ModTime via FUSE for remotes that support it
Allow modTime to be changed even before all writers are closed
Fix panic on renames
Fix hang on errored upload
Crypt
Report the name:root as specified by the user
Add an "obfuscate" option for filename encryption - Stephen Harris
Amazon Drive
Fix initialization order for token renewer
Remove revoked credentials, allow oauth proxy config and update docs
B2
Reduce minimum chunk size to 5MB
Drive
Add team drive support
Reduce bandwidth by adding fields for partial responses - Martin Kristensen
Implement -drive-shared-with-me flag to view shared with me files - Danny Tsai
Add -drive-trashed-only to read only the files in the trash
Remove obsolete -drive-full-list
Add missing seek to start on retries of chunked uploads
Fix stats accounting for upload
Convert / in names to a unicode equivalent (0F)
Poll for Google Drive changes when mounted
OneDrive
Fix the uploading of files with spaces
Fix initialization order for token renewer
Display speeds accurately when uploading - Yoni Jah
Swap to using http://localhost:53682/ as redirect URL - Michael Ledin
Retry on token expired error, reset upload body on retry - Yoni Jah
Google Cloud Storage
Add ability to specify location and storage class via config and command line - thanks gdm85
Create container if necessary on server side copy
Increase directory listing chunk to 1000 to increase performance
Obtain a refresh token for GCS - Steven Lu
Yandex
Fix the name reported in log messages (was empty)
Correct error return for listing empty directory
Dropbox
Rewritten to use the v2 API
Now supports ModTime
Can only set by uploading the file again
If you uploaded with an old rclone, rclone may upload everything again
Use --size-only or --checksum to avoid this
Now supports the Dropbox content hashing scheme
Now supports low level retries
S3
Work around eventual consistency in bucket creation
Create container if necessary on server side copy
Add us-east-2 (Ohio) and eu-west-2 (London) S3 regions - Zahiar Ahmed
Swift, Hubic
Fix zero length directory markers showing in the subdirectory listing
this caused lots of duplicate transfers
Fix paged directory listings
this caused duplicate directory errors
Create container if necessary on server side copy
Increase directory listing chunk to 1000 to increase performance
Make sensible error if the user forgets the container
SFTP
Add support for using ssh key files
Fix under Windows
Fix ssh agent on Windows
Adapt to latest version of library - Igor Kharin

v1.36 - 2017-03-18

New Features
SFTP remote (Jack Schmidt)
Re-implement sync routine to work a directory at a time reducing memory usage
Logging revamped to be more inline with rsync - now much quieter * -v only shows transfers * -vv is for full debug * -syslog to log to syslog on capable platforms
Implement -backup-dir and -suffix
Implement -track-renames (initial implementation by Bjørn Erik Pedersen)
Add time-based bandwidth limits (Lukas Loesche)
rclone cryptcheck: checks integrity of crypt remotes
Allow all config file variables and options to be set from environment variables
Add -buffer-size parameter to control buffer size for copy
Make -delete-after the default
Add -ignore-checksum flag (fixed by Hisham Zarka)
rclone check: Add -download flag to check all the data, not just hashes
rclone cat: add -head, -tail, -offset, -count and -discard
rclone config: when choosing from a list, allow the value to be entered too
rclone config: allow rename and copy of remotes
rclone obscure: for generating encrypted passwords for rclone's config (T.C. Ferguson)
Comply with XDG Base Directory specification (Dario Giovannetti)
this moves the default location of the config file in a backwards compatible way
Release changes
Ubuntu snap support (Dedsec1)
Compile with go 1.8
MIPS/Linux big and little endian support
Bug Fixes
Fix copyto copying things to the wrong place if the destination dir didn't exist
Fix parsing of remotes in moveto and copyto
Fix -delete-before deleting files on copy
Fix -files-from with an empty file copying everything
Fix sync: don't update mod times if -dry-run set
Fix MimeType propagation
Fix filters to add ** rules to directory rules
Local
Implement -L, -copy-links flag to allow rclone to follow symlinks
Open files in write only mode so rclone can write to an rclone mount
Fix unnormalised unicode causing problems reading directories
Fix interaction between -x flag and -max-depth
Mount
Implement proper directory handling (mkdir, rmdir, renaming)
Make include and exclude filters apply to mount
Implement read and write async buffers - control with -buffer-size
Fix fsync on for directories
Fix retry on network failure when reading off crypt
Crypt
Add -crypt-show-mapping to show encrypted file mapping
Fix crypt writer getting stuck in a loop
IMPORTANT this bug had the potential to cause data corruption when
reading data from a network based remote and
writing to a crypt on Google Drive
Use the cryptcheck command to validate your data if you are concerned
If syncing two crypt remotes, sync the unencrypted remote
Amazon Drive
Fix panics on Move (rename)
Fix panic on token expiry
B2
Fix inconsistent listings and rclone check
Fix uploading empty files with go1.8
Constrain memory usage when doing multipart uploads
Fix upload url not being refreshed properly
Drive
Fix Rmdir on directories with trashed files
Fix "Ignoring unknown object" when downloading
Add -drive-list-chunk
Add -drive-skip-gdocs (Károly Oláh)
OneDrive
Implement Move
Fix Copy
Fix overwrite detection in Copy
Fix waitForJob to parse errors correctly
Use token renewer to stop auth errors on long uploads
Fix uploading empty files with go1.8
Google Cloud Storage
Fix depth 1 directory listings
Yandex
Fix single level directory listing
Dropbox
Normalise the case for single level directory listings
Fix depth 1 listing
S3
Added ca-central-1 region (Jon Yergatian)

v1.35 - 2017-01-02

New Features
moveto and copyto commands for choosing a destination name on copy/move
rmdirs command to recursively delete empty directories
Allow repeated -include/-exclude/-filter options
Only show transfer stats on commands which transfer stuff
show stats on any command using the --stats flag
Allow overlapping directories in move when server side dir move is supported
Add -stats-unit option - thanks Scott McGillivray
Bug Fixes
Fix the config file being overwritten when two rclones are running
Make rclone lsd obey the filters properly
Fix compilation on mips
Fix not transferring files that don't differ in size
Fix panic on nil retry/fatal error
Mount
Retry reads on error - should help with reliability a lot
Report the modification times for directories from the remote
Add bandwidth accounting and limiting (fixes -bwlimit)
If -stats provided will show stats and which files are transferring
Support R/W files if truncate is set.
Implement statfs interface so df works
Note that write is now supported on Amazon Drive
Report number of blocks in a file - thanks Stefan Breunig
Crypt
Prevent the user pointing crypt at itself
Fix failed to authenticate decrypted block errors
these will now return the underlying unexpected EOF instead
Amazon Drive
Add support for server side move and directory move - thanks Stefan Breunig
Fix nil pointer deref on size attribute
B2
Use new prefix and delimiter parameters in directory listings
This makes -max-depth 1 dir listings as used in mount much faster
Reauth the account while doing uploads too - should help with token expiry
Drive
Make DirMove more efficient and complain about moving the root
Create destination directory on Move()

v1.34 - 2016-11-06

New Features
Stop single file and --files-from operations iterating through the source bucket.
Stop removing failed upload to cloud storage remotes
Make ContentType be preserved for cloud to cloud copies
Add support to toggle bandwidth limits via SIGUSR2 - thanks Marco Paganini
rclone check shows count of hashes that couldn't be checked
rclone listremotes command
Support linux/arm64 build - thanks Fredrik Fornwall
Remove Authorization: lines from --dump-headers output
Bug Fixes
Ignore files with control characters in the names
Fix rclone move command
Delete src files which already existed in dst
Fix deletion of src file when dst file older
Fix rclone check on crypted file systems
Make failed uploads not count as "Transferred"
Make sure high level retries show with -q
Use a vendor directory with godep for repeatable builds
rclone mount - FUSE
Implement FUSE mount options
--no-modtime, --debug-fuse, --read-only, --allow-non-empty, --allow-root, --allow-other
--default-permissions, --write-back-cache, --max-read-ahead, --umask, --uid, --gid
Add --dir-cache-time to control caching of directory entries
Implement seek for files opened for read (useful for video players)
with -no-seek flag to disable
Fix crash on 32 bit ARM (alignment of 64 bit counter)
...and many more internal fixes and improvements!
Crypt
Don't show encrypted password in configurator to stop confusion
Amazon Drive
New wait for upload option --acd-upload-wait-per-gb
upload timeouts scale by file size and can be disabled
Add 502 Bad Gateway to list of errors we retry
Fix overwriting a file with a zero length file
Fix ACD file size warning limit - thanks Felix Bünemann
Local
Unix: implement -x/--one-file-system to stay on a single file system
thanks Durval Menezes and Luiz Carlos Rumbelsperger Viana
Windows: ignore the symlink bit on files
Windows: Ignore directory based junction points
B2
Make sure each upload has at least one upload slot - fixes strange upload stats
Fix uploads when using crypt
Fix download of large files (sha1 mismatch)
Return error when we try to create a bucket which someone else owns
Update B2 docs with Data usage, and Crypt section - thanks Tomasz Mazur
S3
Command line and config file support for
Setting/overriding ACL - thanks Radek Senfeld
Setting storage class - thanks Asko Tamm
Drive
Make exponential backoff work exactly as per Google specification
add .epub, .odp and .tsv as export formats.
Swift
Don't read metadata for directory marker objects

v1.33 - 2016-08-24

New Features
Implement encryption
data encrypted in NACL secretbox format
with optional file name encryption
New commands
rclone mount - implements FUSE mounting of remotes (EXPERIMENTAL)
works on Linux, FreeBSD and OS X (need testers for the last 2!)
rclone cat - outputs remote file or files to the terminal
rclone genautocomplete - command to make a bash completion script for rclone
Editing a remote using rclone config now goes through the wizard
Compile with go 1.7 - this fixes rclone on macOS Sierra and on 386 processors
Use cobra for sub commands and docs generation
drive
Document how to make your own client_id
s3
User-configurable Amazon S3 ACL (thanks Radek vSenfeld)
b2
Fix stats accounting for upload - no more jumping to 100% done
On cleanup delete hide marker if it is the current file
New B2 API endpoint (thanks Per Cederberg)
Set maximum backoff to 5 Minutes
onedrive
Fix URL escaping in file names - eg uploading files with + in them.
amazon cloud drive
Fix token expiry during large uploads
Work around 408 REQUEST_TIMEOUT and 504 GATEWAY_TIMEOUT errors
local
Fix filenames with invalid UTF-8 not being uploaded
Fix problem with some UTF-8 characters on OS X

v1.32 - 2016-07-13

Backblaze B2
Fix upload of files large files not in root

v1.31 - 2016-07-13

New Features
Reduce memory on sync by about 50%
Implement -no-traverse flag to stop copy traversing the destination remote.
This can be used to reduce memory usage down to the smallest possible.
Useful to copy a small number of files into a large destination folder.
Implement cleanup command for emptying trash / removing old versions of files
Currently B2 only
Single file handling improved
Now copied with -files-from
Automatically sets -no-traverse when copying a single file
Info on using installing with ansible - thanks Stefan Weichinger
Implement -no-update-modtime flag to stop rclone fixing the remote modified times.
Bug Fixes
Fix move command - stop it running for overlapping Fses - this was causing data loss.
Local
Fix incomplete hashes - this was causing problems for B2.
Amazon Drive
Rename Amazon Cloud Drive to Amazon Drive - no changes to config file needed.
Swift
Add support for non-default project domain - thanks Antonio Messina.
S3
Add instructions on how to use rclone with minio.
Add ap-northeast-2 (Seoul) and ap-south-1 (Mumbai) regions.
Skip setting the modified time for objects > 5GB as it isn't possible.
Backblaze B2
Add -b2-versions flag so old versions can be listed and retreived.
Treat 403 errors (eg cap exceeded) as fatal.
Implement cleanup command for deleting old file versions.
Make error handling compliant with B2 integrations notes.
Fix handling of token expiry.
Implement -b2-test-mode to set X-Bz-Test-Mode header.
Set cutoff for chunked upload to 200MB as per B2 guidelines.
Make upload multi-threaded.
Dropbox
Don't retry 461 errors.

v1.30 - 2016-06-18

New Features
Directory listing code reworked for more features and better error reporting (thanks to Klaus Post for help). This enables
Directory include filtering for efficiency
-max-depth parameter
Better error reporting
More to come
Retry more errors
Add -ignore-size flag - for uploading images to onedrive
Log -v output to stdout by default
Display the transfer stats in more human readable form
Make 0 size files specifiable with --max-size 0b
Add b suffix so we can specify bytes in -bwlimit, -min-size etc
Use "password:" instead of "password>" prompt - thanks Klaus Post and Leigh Klotz
Bug Fixes
Fix retry doing one too many retries
Local
Fix problems with OS X and UTF-8 characters
Amazon Drive
Check a file exists before uploading to help with 408 Conflict errors
Reauth on 401 errors - this has been causing a lot of problems
Work around spurious 403 errors
Restart directory listings on error
Google Drive
Check a file exists before uploading to help with duplicates
Fix retry of multipart uploads
Backblaze B2
Implement large file uploading
S3
Add AES256 server-side encryption for - thanks Justin R. Wilson
Google Cloud Storage
Make sure we don't use conflicting content types on upload
Add service account support - thanks Michal Witkowski
Swift
Add auth version parameter
Add domain option for openstack (v3 auth) - thanks Fabian Ruff

v1.29 - 2016-04-18

New Features
Implement -I, --ignore-times for unconditional upload
Improve dedupecommand
Now removes identical copies without asking
Now obeys --dry-run
Implement --dedupe-mode for non interactive running
--dedupe-mode interactive - interactive the default.
--dedupe-mode skip - removes identical files then skips anything left.
--dedupe-mode first - removes identical files then keeps the first one.
--dedupe-mode newest - removes identical files then keeps the newest one.
--dedupe-mode oldest - removes identical files then keeps the oldest one.
--dedupe-mode rename - removes identical files then renames the rest to be different.
Bug fixes
Make rclone check obey the --size-only flag.
Use "application/octet-stream" if discovered mime type is invalid.
Fix missing "quit" option when there are no remotes.
Google Drive
Increase default chunk size to 8 MB - increases upload speed of big files
Speed up directory listings and make more reliable
Add missing retries for Move and DirMove - increases reliability
Preserve mime type on file update
Backblaze B2
Enable mod time syncing
This means that B2 will now check modification times
It will upload new files to update the modification times
(there isn't an API to just set the mod time.)
If you want the old behaviour use --size-only.
Update API to new version
Fix parsing of mod time when not in metadata
Swift/Hubic
Don't return an MD5SUM for static large objects
S3
Fix uploading files bigger than 50GB

v1.28 - 2016-03-01

New Features
Configuration file encryption - thanks Klaus Post
Improve rclone config adding more help and making it easier to understand
Implement -u/--update so creation times can be used on all remotes
Implement --low-level-retries flag
Optionally disable gzip compression on downloads with --no-gzip-encoding
Bug fixes
Don't make directories if --dry-run set
Fix and document the move command
Fix redirecting stderr on unix-like OSes when using --log-file
Fix delete command to wait until all finished - fixes missing deletes.
Backblaze B2
Use one upload URL per go routine fixes more than one upload using auth token
Add pacing, retries and reauthentication - fixes token expiry problems
Upload without using a temporary file from local (and remotes which support SHA1)
Fix reading metadata for all files when it shouldn't have been
Drive
Fix listing drive documents at root
Disable copy and move for Google docs
Swift
Fix uploading of chunked files with non ASCII characters
Allow setting of storage_url in the config - thanks Xavier Lucas
S3
Allow IAM role and credentials from environment variables - thanks Brian Stengaard
Allow low privilege users to use S3 (check if directory exists during Mkdir) - thanks Jakub Gedeon
Amazon Drive
Retry on more things to make directory listings more reliable

v1.27 - 2016-01-31

New Features
Easier headless configuration with rclone authorize
Add support for multiple hash types - we now check SHA1 as well as MD5 hashes.
delete command which does obey the filters (unlike purge)
dedupe command to deduplicate a remote. Useful with Google Drive.
Add --ignore-existing flag to skip all files that exist on destination.
Add --delete-before, --delete-during, --delete-after flags.
Add --memprofile flag to debug memory use.
Warn the user about files with same name but different case
Make --include rules add their implict exclude * at the end of the filter list
Deprecate compiling with go1.3
Amazon Drive
Fix download of files > 10 GB
Fix directory traversal ("Next token is expired") for large directory listings
Remove 409 conflict from error codes we will retry - stops very long pauses
Backblaze B2
SHA1 hashes now checked by rclone core
Drive
Add --drive-auth-owner-only to only consider files owned by the user - thanks Björn Harrtell
Export Google documents
Dropbox
Make file exclusion error controllable with -q
Swift
Fix upload from unprivileged user.
S3
Fix updating of mod times of files with + in.
Local
Add local file system option to disable UNC on Windows.

v1.26 - 2016-01-02

New Features
Yandex storage backend - thank you Dmitry Burdeev ("dibu")
Implement Backblaze B2 storage backend
Add -min-age and -max-age flags - thank you Adriano Aurélio Meirelles
Make ls/lsl/md5sum/size/check obey includes and excludes
Fixes
Fix crash in http logging
Upload releases to github too
Swift
Fix sync for chunked files
OneDrive
Re-enable server side copy
Don't mask HTTP error codes with JSON decode error
S3
Fix corrupting Content-Type on mod time update (thanks Joseph Spurrier)

v1.25 - 2015-11-14

New features
Implement Hubic storage system
Fixes
Fix deletion of some excluded files without -delete-excluded
This could have deleted files unexpectedly on sync
Always check first with --dry-run!
Swift
Stop SetModTime losing metadata (eg X-Object-Manifest)
This could have caused data loss for files > 5GB in size
Use ContentType from Object to avoid lookups in listings
OneDrive
disable server side copy as it seems to be broken at Microsoft

v1.24 - 2015-11-07

New features
Add support for Microsoft OneDrive
Add --no-check-certificate option to disable server certificate verification
Add async readahead buffer for faster transfer of big files
Fixes
Allow spaces in remotes and check remote names for validity at creation time
Allow `&' and disallow `:' in Windows filenames.
Swift
Ignore directory marker objects where appropriate - allows working with Hubic
Don't delete the container if fs wasn't at root
S3
Don't delete the bucket if fs wasn't at root
Google Cloud Storage
Don't delete the bucket if fs wasn't at root

v1.23 - 2015-10-03

New features
Implement rclone size for measuring remotes
Fixes
Fix headless config for drive and gcs
Tell the user they should try again if the webserver method failed
Improve output of --dump-headers
S3
Allow anonymous access to public buckets
Swift
Stop chunked operations logging "Failed to read info: Object Not Found"
Use Content-Length on uploads for extra reliability

v1.22 - 2015-09-28

Implement rsync like include and exclude flags
swift
Support files > 5GB - thanks Sergey Tolmachev

v1.21 - 2015-09-22

New features
Display individual transfer progress
Make lsl output times in localtime
Fixes
Fix allowing user to override credentials again in Drive, GCS and ACD
Amazon Drive
Implement compliant pacing scheme
Google Drive
Make directory reads concurrent for increased speed.

v1.20 - 2015-09-15

New features
Amazon Drive support
Oauth support redone - fix many bugs and improve usability
Use "golang.org/x/oauth2" as oauth libary of choice
Improve oauth usability for smoother initial signup
drive, googlecloudstorage: optionally use auto config for the oauth token
Implement -dump-headers and -dump-bodies debug flags
Show multiple matched commands if abbreviation too short
Implement server side move where possible
local
Always use UNC paths internally on Windows - fixes a lot of bugs
dropbox
force use of our custom transport which makes timeouts work
Thanks to Klaus Post for lots of help with this release

v1.19 - 2015-08-28

New features
Server side copies for s3/swift/drive/dropbox/gcs
Move command - uses server side copies if it can
Implement -retries flag - tries 3 times by default
Build for plan9/amd64 and solaris/amd64 too
Fixes
Make a current version download with a fixed URL for scripting
Ignore rmdir in limited fs rather than throwing error
dropbox
Increase chunk size to improve upload speeds massively
Issue an error message when trying to upload bad file name

v1.18 - 2015-08-17

drive
Add --drive-use-trash flag so rclone trashes instead of deletes
Add "Forbidden to download" message for files with no downloadURL
dropbox
Remove datastore
This was deprecated and it caused a lot of problems
Modification times and MD5SUMs no longer stored
Fix uploading files > 2GB
s3
use official AWS SDK from github.com/aws/aws-sdk-go
NB will most likely require you to delete and recreate remote
enable multipart upload which enables files > 5GB
tested with Ceph / RadosGW / S3 emulation
many thanks to Sam Liston and Brian Haymore at the Utah Center for High Performance Computing (https://www.chpc.utah.edu/) for a Ceph test account
misc
Show errors when reading the config file
Do not print stats in quiet mode - thanks Leonid Shalupov
Add FAQ
Fix created directories not obeying umask
Linux installation instructions - thanks Shimon Doodkin

v1.17 - 2015-06-14

dropbox: fix case insensitivity issues - thanks Leonid Shalupov

v1.16 - 2015-06-09

Fix uploading big files which was causing timeouts or panics
Don't check md5sum after download with -size-only

v1.15 - 2015-06-06

Add -checksum flag to only discard transfers by MD5SUM - thanks Alex Couper
Implement -size-only flag to sync on size not checksum & modtime
Expand docs and remove duplicated information
Document rclone's limitations with directories
dropbox: update docs about case insensitivity

v1.14 - 2015-05-21

local: fix encoding of non utf-8 file names - fixes a duplicate file problem
drive: docs about rate limiting
google cloud storage: Fix compile after API change in "google.golang.org/api/storage/v1"

v1.13 - 2015-05-10

Revise documentation (especially sync)
Implement -timeout and -conntimeout
s3: ignore etags from multipart uploads which aren't md5sums

v1.12 - 2015-03-15

drive: Use chunked upload for files above a certain size
drive: add -drive-chunk-size and -drive-upload-cutoff parameters
drive: switch to insert from update when a failed copy deletes the upload
core: Log duplicate files if they are detected

v1.11 - 2015-03-04

swift: add region parameter
drive: fix crash on failed to update remote mtime
In remote paths, change native directory separators to /
Add synchronization to ls/lsl/lsd output to stop corruptions
Ensure all stats/log messages to go stderr
Add -log-file flag to log everything (including panics) to file
Make it possible to disable stats printing with -stats=0
Implement -bwlimit to limit data transfer bandwidth

v1.10 - 2015-02-12

s3: list an unlimited number of items
Fix getting stuck in the configurator

v1.09 - 2015-02-07

windows: Stop drive letters (eg C:) getting mixed up with remotes (eg drive:)
local: Fix directory separators on Windows
drive: fix rate limit exceeded errors

v1.08 - 2015-02-04

drive: fix subdirectory listing to not list entire drive
drive: Fix SetModTime
dropbox: adapt code to recent library changes

v1.07 - 2014-12-23

google cloud storage: fix memory leak

v1.06 - 2014-12-12

Fix "Couldn't find home directory" on OSX
swift: Add tenant parameter
Use new location of Google API packages

v1.05 - 2014-08-09

Improved tests and consequently lots of minor fixes
core: Fix race detected by go race detector
core: Fixes after running errcheck
drive: reset root directory on Rmdir and Purge
fs: Document that Purger returns error on empty directory, test and fix
google cloud storage: fix ListDir on subdirectory
google cloud storage: re-read metadata in SetModTime
s3: make reading metadata more reliable to work around eventual consistency problems
s3: strip trailing / from ListDir()
swift: return directories without / in ListDir

v1.04 - 2014-07-21

google cloud storage: Fix crash on Update

v1.03 - 2014-07-20

swift, s3, dropbox: fix updated files being marked as corrupted
Make compile with go 1.1 again

v1.02 - 2014-07-19

Implement Dropbox remote
Implement Google Cloud Storage remote
Verify Md5sums and Sizes after copies
Remove times from "ls" command - lists sizes only
Add add "lsl" - lists times and sizes
Add "md5sum" command

v1.01 - 2014-07-04

drive: fix transfer of big files using up lots of memory

v1.00 - 2014-07-03

drive: fix whole second dates

v0.99 - 2014-06-26

Fix -dry-run not working
Make compatible with go 1.1

v0.98 - 2014-05-30

s3: Treat missing Content-Length as 0 for some ceph installations
rclonetest: add file with a space in

v0.97 - 2014-05-05

Implement copying of single files
s3 & swift: support paths inside containers/buckets

v0.96 - 2014-04-24

drive: Fix multiple files of same name being created
drive: Use o.Update and fs.Put to optimise transfers
Add version number, -V and -version

v0.95 - 2014-03-28

rclone.org: website, docs and graphics
drive: fix path parsing

v0.94 - 2014-03-27

Change remote format one last time
GNU style flags

v0.93 - 2014-03-16

drive: store token in config file
cross compile other versions
set strict permissions on config file

v0.92 - 2014-03-15

Config fixes and -config option

v0.91 - 2014-03-15

Make config file

v0.90 - 2013-06-27

Project named rclone

v0.00 - 2012-11-18

Project started

Bugs and Limitations

Limitations

Directory timestamps aren't preserved

Rclone doesn't currently preserve the timestamps of directories. This is because rclone only really considers objects when syncing.

Rclone struggles with millions of files in a directory

Currently rclone loads each directory entirely into memory before using it. Since each Rclone object takes 0.5k-1k of memory this can take a very long time and use an extremely large amount of memory.

Millions of files in a directory tend caused by software writing cloud storage (eg S3 buckets).

Bucket based remotes and folders

Bucket based remotes (eg S3/GCS/Swift/B2) do not have a concept of directories. Rclone therefore cannot create directories in them which means that empty directories on a bucket based remote will tend to disappear.

Some software creates empty keys ending in / as directory markers. Rclone doesn't do this as it potentially creates more objects and costs more. It may do in future (probably with a flag).

Bugs

Bugs are stored in rclone's GitHub project:

Reported bugs (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues?q=is%3Aopen+is%3Aissue+label%3Abug)
Known issues (https://github.com/rclone/rclone/issues?q=is%3Aopen+is%3Aissue+milestone%3A%22Known+Problem%22)

Frequently Asked Questions

Do all cloud storage systems support all rclone commands

Yes they do. All the rclone commands (eg sync, copy etc) will work on all the remote storage systems.

Can I copy the config from one machine to another

Sure! Rclone stores all of its config in a single file. If you want to find this file, run rclone config file which will tell you where it is.

See the remote setup docs (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/) for more info.

How do I configure rclone on a remote / headless box with no browser?

This has now been documented in its own remote setup page (https://rclone.org/remote_setup/).

Can rclone sync directly from drive to s3

Rclone can sync between two remote cloud storage systems just fine.

Note that it effectively downloads the file and uploads it again, so the node running rclone would need to have lots of bandwidth.

The syncs would be incremental (on a file by file basis).

Eg

rclone sync drive:Folder s3:bucket

Using rclone from multiple locations at the same time

You can use rclone from multiple places at the same time if you choose different subdirectory for the output, eg

Server A> rclone sync /tmp/whatever remote:ServerA
Server B> rclone sync /tmp/whatever remote:ServerB

If you sync to the same directory then you should use rclone copy otherwise the two rclones may delete each others files, eg

Server A> rclone copy /tmp/whatever remote:Backup
Server B> rclone copy /tmp/whatever remote:Backup

The file names you upload from Server A and Server B should be different in this case, otherwise some file systems (eg Drive) may make duplicates.

Why doesn't rclone support partial transfers / binary diffs like rsync?

Rclone stores each file you transfer as a native object on the remote cloud storage system. This means that you can see the files you upload as expected using alternative access methods (eg using the Google Drive web interface). There is a 1:1 mapping between files on your hard disk and objects created in the cloud storage system.

Cloud storage systems (at least none I've come across yet) don't support partially uploading an object. You can't take an existing object, and change some bytes in the middle of it.

It would be possible to make a sync system which stored binary diffs instead of whole objects like rclone does, but that would break the 1:1 mapping of files on your hard disk to objects in the remote cloud storage system.

All the cloud storage systems support partial downloads of content, so it would be possible to make partial downloads work. However to make this work efficiently this would require storing a significant amount of metadata, which breaks the desired 1:1 mapping of files to objects.

Can rclone do bi-directional sync?

No, not at present. rclone only does uni-directional sync from A -> B. It may do in the future though since it has all the primitives - it just requires writing the algorithm to do it.

Can I use rclone with an HTTP proxy?

Yes. rclone will follow the standard environment variables for proxies, similar to cURL and other programs.

In general the variables are called http_proxy (for services reached over http) and https_proxy (for services reached over https). Most public services will be using https, but you may wish to set both.

The content of the variable is protocol://server:port. The protocol value is the one used to talk to the proxy server, itself, and is commonly either http or socks5.

Slightly annoyingly, there is no standard for the name; some applications may use http_proxy but another one HTTP_PROXY. The Go libraries used by rclone will try both variations, but you may wish to set all possibilities. So, on Linux, you may end up with code similar to

export http_proxy=http://proxyserver:12345
export https_proxy=$http_proxy
export HTTP_PROXY=$http_proxy
export HTTPS_PROXY=$http_proxy

The NO_PROXY allows you to disable the proxy for specific hosts. Hosts must be comma separated, and can contain domains or parts. For instance "foo.com" also matches "bar.foo.com".

e.g.

export no_proxy=localhost,127.0.0.0/8,my.host.name
export NO_PROXY=$no_proxy

Note that the ftp backend does not support ftp_proxy yet.

Rclone gives x509: failed to load system roots and no roots provided error

This means that rclone can't file the SSL root certificates. Likely you are running rclone on a NAS with a cut-down Linux OS, or possibly on Solaris.

Rclone (via the Go runtime) tries to load the root certificates from these places on Linux.

"/etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt", // Debian/Ubuntu/Gentoo etc.
"/etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt",   // Fedora/RHEL
"/etc/ssl/ca-bundle.pem",             // OpenSUSE
"/etc/pki/tls/cacert.pem",            // OpenELEC

So doing something like this should fix the problem. It also sets the time which is important for SSL to work properly.

mkdir -p /etc/ssl/certs/
curl -o /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt https://raw.githubusercontent.com/bagder/ca-bundle/master/ca-bundle.crt
ntpclient -s -h pool.ntp.org

The two environment variables SSL_CERT_FILE and SSL_CERT_DIR, mentioned in the x509 package (https://godoc.org/crypto/x509), provide an additional way to provide the SSL root certificates.

Note that you may need to add the --insecure option to the curl command line if it doesn't work without.

curl --insecure -o /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt https://raw.githubusercontent.com/bagder/ca-bundle/master/ca-bundle.crt

Rclone gives Failed to load config file: function not implemented error

Likely this means that you are running rclone on Linux version not supported by the go runtime, ie earlier than version 2.6.23.

See the system requirements section in the go install docs (https://golang.org/doc/install) for full details.

All my uploaded docx/xlsx/pptx files appear as archive/zip

This is caused by uploading these files from a Windows computer which hasn't got the Microsoft Office suite installed. The easiest way to fix is to install the Word viewer and the Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack for Word, Excel, and PowerPoint 2007 and later versions' file formats

tcp lookup some.domain.com no such host

This happens when rclone cannot resolve a domain. Please check that your DNS setup is generally working, e.g.

# both should print a long list of possible IP addresses
dig www.googleapis.com          # resolve using your default DNS
dig www.googleapis.com @8.8.8.8 # resolve with Google's DNS server

If you are using systemd-resolved (default on Arch Linux), ensure it is at version 233 or higher. Previous releases contain a bug which causes not all domains to be resolved properly.

Additionally with the GODEBUG=netdns= environment variable the Go resolver decision can be influenced. This also allows to resolve certain issues with DNS resolution. See the name resolution section in the go docs (https://golang.org/pkg/net/#hdr-Name_Resolution).

The total size reported in the stats for a sync is wrong and keeps changing

It is likely you have more than 10,000 files that need to be synced. By default rclone only gets 10,000 files ahead in a sync so as not to use up too much memory. You can change this default with the -max-backlog (/docs/#max-backlog-n) flag.

Rclone is using too much memory or appears to have a memory leak

Rclone is written in Go which uses a garbage collector. The default settings for the garbage collector mean that it runs when the heap size has doubled.

However it is possible to tune the garbage collector to use less memory by setting GOGC (https://dave.cheney.net/tag/gogc) to a lower value, say export GOGC=20. This will make the garbage collector work harder, reducing memory size at the expense of CPU usage.

The most common cause of rclone using lots of memory is a single directory with thousands or millions of files in. Rclone has to load this entirely into memory as rclone objects. Each rclone object takes 0.5k-1k of memory.

License

This is free software under the terms of MIT the license (check the COPYING file included with the source code).

Copyright (C) 2019 by Nick Craig-Wood https://www.craig-wood.com/nick/

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
THE SOFTWARE.

Authors

Nick Craig-Wood <nick [at] craig-wood.com>

Contributors

Alex Couper <amcouper [at] gmail.com>
Leonid Shalupov <leonid [at] shalupov.com> <shalupov [at] diverse.org.ru>
Shimon Doodkin <helpmepro1 [at] gmail.com>
Colin Nicholson <colin [at] colinn.com>
Klaus Post <klauspost [at] gmail.com>
Sergey Tolmachev <tolsi.ru [at] gmail.com>
Adriano Aurélio Meirelles <adriano [at] atinge.com>
C. Bess <cbess [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Dmitry Burdeev <dibu28 [at] gmail.com>
Joseph Spurrier <github [at] josephspurrier.com>
Björn Harrtell <bjorn [at] wololo.org>
Xavier Lucas <xavier.lucas [at] corp.ovh.com>
Werner Beroux <werner [at] beroux.com>
Brian Stengaard <brian [at] stengaard.eu>
Jakub Gedeon <jgedeon [at] sofi.com>
Jim Tittsler <jwt [at] onjapan.net>
Michal Witkowski <michal [at] improbable.io>
Fabian Ruff <fabian.ruff [at] sap.com>
Leigh Klotz <klotz [at] quixey.com>
Romain Lapray <lapray.romain [at] gmail.com>
Justin R. Wilson <jrw972 [at] gmail.com>
Antonio Messina <antonio.s.messina [at] gmail.com>
Stefan G. Weichinger <office [at] oops.co.at>
Per Cederberg <cederberg [at] gmail.com>
Radek vSenfeld <rush [at] logic.cz>
Fredrik Fornwall <fredrik [at] fornwall.net>
Asko Tamm <asko [at] deekit.net>
xor-zz <xor [at] gstocco.com>
Tomasz Mazur <tmazur90 [at] gmail.com>
Marco Paganini <paganini [at] paganini.net>
Felix Bünemann <buenemann [at] louis.info>
Durval Menezes <jmrclone [at] durval.com>
Luiz Carlos Rumbelsperger Viana <maxd13_luiz_carlos [at] hotmail.com>
Stefan Breunig <stefan-github [at] yrden.de>
Alishan Ladhani <ali-l [at] users.noreply.github.com>
0xJAKE <0xJAKE [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Thibault Molleman <thibaultmol [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Scott McGillivray <scott.mcgillivray [at] gmail.com>
Bjørn Erik Pedersen <bjorn.erik.pedersen [at] gmail.com>
Lukas Loesche <lukas [at] mesosphere.io>
emyarod <allllaboutyou [at] gmail.com>
T.C. Ferguson <tcf909 [at] gmail.com>
Brandur <brandur [at] mutelight.org>
Dario Giovannetti <dev [at] dariogiovannetti.net>
Károly Oláh <okaresz [at] aol.com>
Jon Yergatian <jon [at] macfanatic.ca>
Jack Schmidt <github [at] mowsey.org>
Dedsec1 <Dedsec1 [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Hisham Zarka <hzarka [at] gmail.com>
Jérôme Vizcaino <jerome.vizcaino [at] gmail.com>
Mike Tesch <mjt6129 [at] rit.edu>
Marvin Watson <marvwatson [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Danny Tsai <danny8376 [at] gmail.com>
Yoni Jah <yonjah+git [at] gmail.com> <yonjah+github [at] gmail.com>
Stephen Harris <github [at] spuddy.org> <sweharris [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Ihor Dvoretskyi <ihor.dvoretskyi [at] gmail.com>
Jon Craton <jncraton [at] gmail.com>
Hraban Luyat <hraban [at] 0brg.net>
Michael Ledin <mledin89 [at] gmail.com>
Martin Kristensen <me [at] azgul.com>
Too Much IO <toomuchio [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Anisse Astier <anisse [at] astier.eu>
Zahiar Ahmed <zahiar [at] live.com>
Igor Kharin <igorkharin [at] gmail.com>
Bill Zissimopoulos <billziss [at] navimatics.com>
Bob Potter <bobby.potter [at] gmail.com>
Steven Lu <tacticalazn [at] gmail.com>
Sjur Fredriksen <sjurtf [at] ifi.uio.no>
Ruwbin <hubus12345 [at] gmail.com>
Fabian Möller <fabianm88 [at] gmail.com> <f.moeller [at] nynex.de>
Edward Q. Bridges <github [at] eqbridges.com>
Vasiliy Tolstov <v.tolstov [at] selfip.ru>
Harshavardhana <harsha [at] minio.io>
sainaen <sainaen [at] gmail.com>
gdm85 <gdm85 [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Yaroslav Halchenko <debian [at] onerussian.com>
John Papandriopoulos <jpap [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Zhiming Wang <zmwangx [at] gmail.com>
Andy Pilate <cubox [at] cubox.me>
Oliver Heyme <olihey [at] googlemail.com> <olihey [at] users.noreply.github.com> <de8olihe [at] lego.com>
wuyu <wuyu [at] yunify.com>
Andrei Dragomir <adragomi [at] adobe.com>
Christian Brüggemann <mail [at] cbruegg.com>
Alex McGrath Kraak <amkdude [at] gmail.com>
bpicode <bjoern.pirnay [at] googlemail.com>
Daniel Jagszent <daniel [at] jagszent.de>
Josiah White <thegenius2009 [at] gmail.com>
Ishuah Kariuki <kariuki [at] ishuah.com> <ishuah91 [at] gmail.com>
Jan Varho <jan [at] varho.org>
Girish Ramakrishnan <girish [at] cloudron.io>
LingMan <LingMan [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Jacob McNamee <jacobmcnamee [at] gmail.com>
jersou <jertux [at] gmail.com>
thierry <thierry [at] substantiel.fr>
Simon Leinen <simon.leinen [at] gmail.com> <ubuntu [at] s3-test.novalocal>
Dan Dascalescu <ddascalescu+github [at] gmail.com>
Jason Rose <jason [at] jro.io>
Andrew Starr-Bochicchio <a.starr.b [at] gmail.com>
John Leach <john [at] johnleach.co.uk>
Corban Raun <craun [at] instructure.com>
Pierre Carlson <mpcarl [at] us.ibm.com>
Ernest Borowski <er.borowski [at] gmail.com>
Remus Bunduc <remus.bunduc [at] gmail.com>
Iakov Davydov <iakov.davydov [at] unil.ch> <dav05.gith [at] myths.ru>
Jakub Tasiemski <tasiemski [at] gmail.com>
David Minor <dminor [at] saymedia.com>
Tim Cooijmans <cooijmans.tim [at] gmail.com>
Laurence <liuxy6 [at] gmail.com>
Giovanni Pizzi <gio.piz [at] gmail.com>
Filip Bartodziej <filipbartodziej [at] gmail.com>
Jon Fautley <jon [at] dead.li>
lewapm <32110057+lewapm [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Yassine Imounachen <yassine256 [at] gmail.com>
Chris Redekop <chris-redekop [at] users.noreply.github.com> <chris.redekop [at] gmail.com>
Jon Fautley <jon [at] adenoid.appstal.co.uk>
Will Gunn <WillGunn [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Lucas Bremgartner <lucas [at] bremis.ch>
Jody Frankowski <jody.frankowski [at] gmail.com>
Andreas Roussos <arouss1980 [at] gmail.com>
nbuchanan <nbuchanan [at] utah.gov>
Durval Menezes <rclone [at] durval.com>
Victor <vb-github [at] viblo.se>
Mateusz <pabian.mateusz [at] gmail.com>
Daniel Loader <spicypixel [at] gmail.com>
David0rk <davidork [at] gmail.com>
Alexander Neumann <alexander [at] bumpern.de>
Giri Badanahatti <gbadanahatti [at] us.ibm.com@Giris-MacBook-Pro.local>
Leo R. Lundgren <leo [at] finalresort.org>
wolfv <wolfv6 [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Dave Pedu <dave [at] davepedu.com>
Stefan Lindblom <lindblom [at] spotify.com>
seuffert <oliver [at] seuffert.biz>
gbadanahatti <37121690+gbadanahatti [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Keith Goldfarb <barkofdelight [at] gmail.com>
Steve Kriss <steve [at] heptio.com>
Chih-Hsuan Yen <yan12125 [at] gmail.com>
Alexander Neumann <fd0 [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Matt Holt <mholt [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Eri Bastos <bastos.eri [at] gmail.com>
Michael P. Dubner <pywebmail [at] list.ru>
Antoine GIRARD <sapk [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Mateusz Piotrowski <mpp302 [at] gmail.com>
Animosity022 <animosity22 [at] users.noreply.github.com> <earl.texter [at] gmail.com>
Peter Baumgartner <pete [at] lincolnloop.com>
Craig Rachel <craig [at] craigrachel.com>
Michael G. Noll <miguno [at] users.noreply.github.com>
hensur <me [at] hensur.de>
Oliver Heyme <de8olihe [at] lego.com>
Richard Yang <richard [at] yenforyang.com>
Piotr Oleszczyk <piotr.oleszczyk [at] gmail.com>
Rodrigo <rodarima [at] gmail.com>
NoLooseEnds <NoLooseEnds [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Jakub Karlicek <jakub [at] karlicek.me>
John Clayton <john [at] codemonkeylabs.com>
Kasper Byrdal Nielsen <byrdal76 [at] gmail.com>
Benjamin Joseph Dag <bjdag1234 [at] users.noreply.github.com>
themylogin <themylogin [at] gmail.com>
Onno Zweers <onno.zweers [at] surfsara.nl>
Jasper Lievisse Adriaanse <jasper [at] humppa.nl>
sandeepkru <sandeep.ummadi [at] gmail.com> <sandeepkru [at] users.noreply.github.com>
HerrH <atomtigerzoo [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Andrew <4030760+sparkyman215 [at] users.noreply.github.com>
dan smith <XX1011 [at] gmail.com>
Oleg Kovalov <iamolegkovalov [at] gmail.com>
Ruben Vandamme <github-com-00ff86 [at] vandamme.email>
Cnly <minecnly [at] gmail.com>
Andres Alvarez <1671935+kir4h [at] users.noreply.github.com>
reddi1 <xreddi [at] gmail.com>
Matt Tucker <matthewtckr [at] gmail.com>
Sebastian Bünger <buengese [at] gmail.com>
Martin Polden <mpolden [at] mpolden.no>
Alex Chen <Cnly [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Denis <deniskovpen [at] gmail.com>
bsteiss <35940619+bsteiss [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Cédric Connes <cedric.connes [at] gmail.com>
Dr. Tobias Quathamer <toddy15 [at] users.noreply.github.com>
dcpu <42736967+dcpu [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Sheldon Rupp <me [at] shel.io>
albertony <12441419+albertony [at] users.noreply.github.com>
cron410 <cron410 [at] gmail.com>
Anagh Kumar Baranwal <anaghk.dos [at] gmail.com>
Felix Brucker <felix [at] felixbrucker.com>
Santiago Rodríguez <scollazo [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Craig Miskell <craig.miskell [at] fluxfederation.com>
Antoine GIRARD <sapk [at] sapk.fr>
Joanna Marek <joanna.marek [at] u2i.com>
frenos <frenos [at] users.noreply.github.com>
ssaqua <ssaqua [at] users.noreply.github.com>
xnaas <me [at] xnaas.info>
Frantisek Fuka <fuka [at] fuxoft.cz>
Paul Kohout <pauljkohout [at] yahoo.com>
dcpu <43330287+dcpu [at] users.noreply.github.com>
jackyzy823 <jackyzy823 [at] gmail.com>
David Haguenauer <ml [at] kurokatta.org>
teresy <hi.teresy [at] gmail.com>
buergi <patbuergi [at] gmx.de>
Florian Gamboeck <mail [at] floga.de>
Ralf Hemberger <10364191+rhemberger [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Scott Edlund <sedlund [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Erik Swanson <erik [at] retailnext.net>
Jake Coggiano <jake [at] stripe.com>
brused27 <brused27 [at] noemailaddress>
Peter Kaminski <kaminski [at] istori.com>
Henry Ptasinski <henry [at] logout.com>
Alexander <kharkovalexander [at] gmail.com>
Garry McNulty <garrmcnu [at] gmail.com>
Mathieu Carbou <mathieu.carbou [at] gmail.com>
Mark Otway <mark [at] otway.com>
William Cocker <37018962+WilliamCocker [at] users.noreply.github.com>
François Leurent <131.js [at] cloudyks.org>
Arkadius Stefanski <arkste [at] gmail.com>
Jay <dev [at] jaygoel.com>
andrea rota <a@xelera.eu>
nicolov <nicolov [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Dario Guzik <dario [at] guzik.com.ar>
qip <qip [at] users.noreply.github.com>
yair [at] unicorn <yair [at] unicorn>
Matt Robinson <brimstone [at] the.narro.ws>
kayrus <kay.diam [at] gmail.com>
Rémy Léone <remy.leone [at] gmail.com>
Wojciech Smigielski <wojciech.hieronim.smigielski [at] gmail.com>
weetmuts <oehrstroem [at] gmail.com>
Jonathan <vanillajonathan [at] users.noreply.github.com>
James Carpenter <orbsmiv [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Vince <vince0villamora [at] gmail.com>
Nestar47 <47841759+Nestar47 [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Six <brbsix [at] gmail.com>
Alexandru Bumbacea <alexandru.bumbacea [at] booking.com>
calisro <robert.calistri [at] gmail.com>
Dr.Rx <david.rey [at] nventive.com>
marcintustin <marcintustin [at] users.noreply.github.com>
jaKa Mo0Dnik <jaka [at] koofr.net>
Fionera <fionera [at] fionera.de>
Dan Walters <dan [at] walters.io>
Danil Semelenov <sgtpep [at] users.noreply.github.com>
xopez <28950736+xopez [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Ben Boeckel <mathstuf [at] gmail.com>
Manu <manu [at] snapdragon.cc>
Kyle E. Mitchell <kyle [at] kemitchell.com>
Gary Kim <gary [at] garykim.dev>
Jon <jonathn [at] github.com>
Jeff Quinn <jeffrey.quinn [at] bluevoyant.com>
Peter Berbec <peter [at] berbec.com>
didil <1284255+didil [at] users.noreply.github.com>
id01 <gaviniboom [at] gmail.com>
Robert Marko <robimarko [at] gmail.com>
Philip Harvey <32467456+pharveybattelle [at] users.noreply.github.com>
JorisE <JorisE [at] users.noreply.github.com>
garry415 <garry.415 [at] gmail.com>
forgems <forgems [at] gmail.com>
Florian Apolloner <florian [at] apolloner.eu>
Aleksandar Jankovic <office [at] ajankovic.com>
Maran <maran [at] protonmail.com>
nguyenhuuluan434 <nguyenhuuluan434 [at] gmail.com>
Laura Hausmann <zotan [at] zotan.pw> <laura [at] hausmann.dev>
yparitcher <y@paritcher.com>
AbelThar <abela.tharen [at] gmail.com>
Matti Niemenmaa <matti.niemenmaa+git [at] iki.fi>
Russell Davis <russelldavis [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Yi FU <yi.fu [at] tink.se>
Paul Millar <paul.millar [at] desy.de>
justinalin <justinalin [at] qnap.com>
EliEron <subanimehd [at] gmail.com>
justina777 <chiahuei.lin [at] gmail.com>
Chaitanya Bankanhal <bchaitanya15 [at] gmail.com>
Michał Matczuk <michal [at] scylladb.com>
Macavirus <macavirus [at] zoho.com>
Abhinav Sharma <abhi18av [at] users.noreply.github.com>
ginvine <34869051+ginvine [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Patrick Wang <mail6543210 [at] yahoo.com.tw>
Cenk Alti <cenkalti [at] gmail.com>
Andreas Chlupka <andy [at] chlupka.com>
Alfonso Montero <amontero [at] tinet.org>
Ivan Andreev <ivandeex [at] gmail.com>
David Baumgold <david [at] davidbaumgold.com>
Lars Lehtonen <lars.lehtonen [at] gmail.com>
Matei David <matei.david [at] gmail.com>
David <david.bramwell [at] endemolshine.com>
Anthony Rusdi <33247310+antrusd [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Richard Patel <me [at] terorie.dev>
8429FC <zty0826 [at] gmail.com>
SwitchJS <dev [at] switchjs.com>
Raphael <PowershellNinja [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Sezal Agrawal <sezalagrawal [at] gmail.com>
Tyler <TylerNakamura [at] users.noreply.github.com>
Brett Dutro <brett.dutro [at] gmail.com>
Vighnesh SK <booterror99 [at] gmail.com>
Arijit Biswas <dibbyo456 [at] gmail.com>
Michele Caci <michele.caci [at] gmail.com>
AlexandrBoltris <ua2fgb [at] gmail.com>
Bryce Larson <blarson [at] saltstack.com>
Carlos Ferreyra <crypticmind [at] gmail.com>
Saksham Khanna <sakshamkhanna [at] outlook.com>
dausruddin <5763466+dausruddin [at] users.noreply.github.com>

Contact the rclone project

Forum

Forum for questions and general discussion:

https://forum.rclone.org

Gitub project

The project website is at:

https://github.com/rclone/rclone

There you can file bug reports or contribute pull requests.

Twitter

You can also follow me on twitter for rclone announcements:

[@njcw](https://twitter.com/njcw)

Email

Or if all else fails or you want to ask something private or confidential email Nick Craig-Wood (mailto:nick [at] craig-wood.com). Please don't email me requests for help - those are better directed to the forum - thanks!

AUTHORS

Nick Craig-Wood.