pwd (1p) - Linux Man Pages
pwd: return working directory name
PROLOGThis manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual. The Linux implementation of this interface may differ (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.
pwd - return working directory name
The pwd utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.
The following options shall be supported by the implementation:
- If the PWD environment variable contains an absolute pathname of the current directory that does not contain the filenames dot or dot-dot, pwd shall write this pathname to standard output. Otherwise, the -L option shall behave as the -P option.
The absolute pathname written shall not contain filenames that, in
the context of the pathname, refer to files of type symbolic
The following environment variables shall affect the execution of pwd:
- Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or null. (See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Internationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables used to determine the values of locale categories.)
- If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other internationalization variables.
- Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error.
- Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .
If the -P option is in effect, this variable shall be set to
an absolute pathname of the current working directory that
does not contain any components that specify symbolic links, does
not contain any components that are dot, and does not contain any
components that are dot-dot. If an application sets or unsets the
value of PWD, the behavior of pwd is
The pwd utility output is an absolute pathname of the current working directory:
"%s\n", <directory pathname>
The following exit values shall be returned:
- Successful completion.
- An error occurred.
CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
If an error is detected, output shall not be written to standard output, a diagnostic message shall be written to standard error, and the exit status is not zero.
Some implementations have historically provided pwd as a shell special built-in command.
In most utilities, if an error occurs, partial output may be written to standard output. This does not happen in historical implementations of pwd. Because pwd is frequently used in historical shell scripts without checking the exit status, it is important that the historical behavior is required here; therefore, the CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS section specifically disallows any partial output being written to standard output.
COPYRIGHTPortions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .