# std::div,std::ldiv,std::lldiv (3) - Linux Man Pages

## NAME

std::div,std::ldiv,std::lldiv - std::div,std::ldiv,std::lldiv

## Synopsis

std::div_t div( int x, int y ); (1)
std::ldiv_t div( long x, long y ); (2)
std::lldiv_t div( long long x, long long y ); (3) (since C++11)
std::ldiv_t ldiv( long x, long y ); (4)
std::lldiv_t lldiv( long long x, long long y ); (5) (since C++11)
std::imaxdiv_t div( std::intmax_t x, std::intmax_t y ); (6) (since C++11)
std::imaxdiv_t imaxdiv( std::intmax_t x, std::intmax_t y ); (7) (since C++11)

Computes both the quotient and the remainder of the division of the numerator x by the denominator y

The quotient is the algebraic quotient with any fractional part discarded (truncated towards zero). The remainder is such that quot * y + rem == x. (until C++11)
The quotient is the result of the expression x/y. The remainder is the result of the expression x%y. (since C++11)

## Parameters

x, y - integer values

## Return value

If both the remainder and the quotient can be represented as objects of the corresponding type (int, long, long long, std::imaxdiv_t, respectively), returns both as an object of type std::div_t, std::ldiv_t, std::lldiv_t, std::imaxdiv_t defined as follows:

std::div_t

struct div_t { int quot; int rem; };

or

struct div_t { int rem; int quot; };

std::ldiv_t

struct ldiv_t { long quot; long rem; };

or

struct ldiv_t { long rem; long quot; };

std::lldiv_t

struct lldiv_t { long long quot; long long rem; };

or

struct lldiv_t { long long rem; long long quot; };

std::imaxdiv_t

struct imaxdiv_t { std::intmax_t quot; std::intmax_t rem; };

or

struct imaxdiv_t { std::intmax_t rem; std::intmax_t quot; };

If either the remainder or the quotient cannot be represented, the behavior is undefined.

## Notes

Until C++11, the rounding direction of the quotient and the sign of the remainder in the built-in_division_and_remainder_operators was implementation-defined if either of the operands was negative, but it was well-defined in std::div.
On many platforms, a single CPU instruction obtains both the quotient and the remainder, and this function may leverage that, although compilers are generally able to merge nearby / and % where suitable.

## Example

// Run this code

#include <string>
#include <cmath>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <iostream>

std::string itoa(int n, int base)
{
std::string buf;
std::div_t dv{}; dv.quot = n;
do {
dv = std::div(dv.quot, base);
buf += "0123456789abcdef"[std::abs(dv.rem)]; // string literals are arrays
} while(dv.quot);
if(n<0) buf += '-';
return {buf.rbegin(), buf.rend()};
}

int main()
{
std::cout << itoa(12345, 10) << '\n'
<< itoa(-12345, 10) << '\n'
<< itoa(65535, 16) << '\n';
}

## Output:

12345
-12345
ffff

fmod
fmodf
fmodl remainder of the floating point division operation
(function)

(C++11)
(C++11)

remainder
remainderf
remainderl signed remainder of the division operation
(function)
(C++11)
(C++11)
(C++11)

remquo
remquof
remquol signed remainder as well as the three last bits of the division operation
(function)
(C++11)
(C++11)
(C++11)