std::filesystem::status,std::filesystem::symlink_status (3) - Linux Manuals

std::filesystem::status,std::filesystem::symlink_status: std::filesystem::status,std::filesystem::symlink_status


std::filesystem::status,std::filesystem::symlink_status - std::filesystem::status,std::filesystem::symlink_status


Defined in header <filesystem>
std::filesystem::file_status status(const std::filesystem::path& p);
std::filesystem::file_status status(const std::filesystem::path& p, (1) (since C++17)
std::error_code& ec) noexcept;
std::filesystem::file_status symlink_status(const std::filesystem::path& p);
std::filesystem::file_status symlink_status(const std::filesystem::path& p, (2) (since C++17)
std::error_code& ec) noexcept;

1) Determines the type and attributes of the filesystem object identified by p as if by POSIX stat (symlinks are followed to their targets). In the following description, prms is the result of (m & perms::mask), where m is obtained as if by taking st_mode from the POSIX struct stat and converting it to the type std::filesystem::perms.

      * If p is a regular file (as if by POSIX S_ISREG), returns file_status(file_type::regular, prms).
      * If p is a directory (as if by POSIX S_ISDIR), returns file_status(file_type::directory, prms)
      * If p is a block special file (as if by POSIX S_ISBLK), returns file_status(file_type::block, prms)
      * If p is a character special file (as if by POSIX S_ISCHR), returns file_status(file_type::character, prms)
      * If p is a fifo or pipe file (as if by POSIX S_ISFIFO), returns file_status(file_type::fifo, prms)
      * If p is a socket (as if by POSIX S_ISSOCK), returns file_status(file_type::socket, prms)
      * If p has an implementation-defined file type, returns file_status(file_type::A, prms) where A is the implementation-defined file_type constant for that type.
      * If p does not exist, returns file_status(file_type::not_found)
      * If p exists but file attributes cannot be determined, e.g. due to lack of permissions, returns file_status(file_type::unknown)
      * If errors prevent even knowing whether p exists, the non-throwing overload sets ec and returns file_status(file_type::none), and the throwing overload throws filesystem_error
      * Otherwise, returns file_status(file_type::unknown, prms)

2) Same as (1) except that the behavior is as if the POSIX lstat is used (symlinks are not followed):

      * If p is a symlink, returns file_status(file_type::symlink)


p - path to examine
ec - out-parameter for error reporting in the non-throwing overload

Return value

The file status (a file_status object)


The overload that does not take a std::error_code& parameter throws filesystem_error on underlying OS API errors, constructed with p as the first path argument and the OS error code as the error code argument. The overload taking a std::error_code& parameter sets it to the OS API error code if an OS API call fails, and executes ec.clear() if no errors occur. Any overload not marked noexcept may throw std::bad_alloc if memory allocation fails.


The information provided by this function is usually also provided as a byproduct of directory iteration, and may be obtained by the member functions of directory_entry. During directory iteration, calling status again is unnecessary.


// Run this code

  #include <iostream>
  #include <fstream>
  #include <cstdio>
  #include <cstring>
  #include <filesystem>
  #include <unistd.h>
  #include <sys/socket.h>
  #include <sys/un.h>
  #include <sys/stat.h>

  namespace fs = std::filesystem;

  void demo_status(const fs::path& p, fs::file_status s)
      std::cout << p;
      // alternative: switch(s.type()) { case fs::file_type::regular: ...}
      if(fs::is_regular_file(s)) std::cout << " is a regular file\n";
      if(fs::is_directory(s)) std::cout << " is a directory\n";
      if(fs::is_block_file(s)) std::cout << " is a block device\n";
      if(fs::is_character_file(s)) std::cout << " is a character device\n";
      if(fs::is_fifo(s)) std::cout << " is a named IPC pipe\n";
      if(fs::is_socket(s)) std::cout << " is a named IPC socket\n";
      if(fs::is_symlink(s)) std::cout << " is a symlink\n";
      if(!fs::exists(s)) std::cout << " does not exist\n";
  int main()
      // create files of different kinds
      std::ofstream("sandbox/file"); // create regular file
      mkfifo("sandbox/pipe", 0644);
      struct sockaddr_un addr;
      addr.sun_family = AF_UNIX;
      std::strcpy(addr.sun_path, "sandbox/sock");
      int fd = socket(PF_UNIX, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
      bind(fd, (struct sockaddr*)&addr, sizeof addr);
      fs::create_symlink("file", "sandbox/symlink");

      // demo different status accessors
      for(auto it = fs::directory_iterator("sandbox"); it != fs::directory_iterator(); ++it)
          demo_status(*it, it->symlink_status()); // use cached status from directory entry
      demo_status("dev/null", fs::status("/dev/null")); // direct calls to status
      demo_status("dev/sda", fs::status("/dev/sda"));
      demo_status("sandbox/no", fs::status("/sandbox/no"));

      // cleanup

Possible output:

  "sandbox/file" is a regular file
  "sandbox/dir" is a directory
  "sandbox/pipe" is a named IPC pipe
  "sandbox/sock" is a named IPC socket
  "sandbox/symlink" is a symlink
  "dev/null" is a character device
  "dev/sda" is a block device
  "sandbox/no" does not exist

See also

file_status represents file type and permissions

status_known checks whether file status is known

is_block_file checks whether the given path refers to block device

is_character_file checks whether the given path refers to a character device

is_directory checks whether the given path refers to a directory

is_fifo checks whether the given path refers to a named pipe

is_other checks whether the argument refers to an other file

is_regular_file checks whether the argument refers to a regular file

is_socket checks whether the argument refers to a named IPC socket

is_symlink checks whether the argument refers to a symbolic link

exists checks whether path refers to existing file system object
                  status of the file designated by this directory entry
status symlink_status of the file designated by this directory entry
symlink_status (public member function of std::filesystem::directory_entry)