std::forward (3) - Linux Man Pages

std::forward: std::forward

NAME

std::forward - std::forward

Synopsis


Defined in header <utility>
template< class T > (1) (since C++11)
T&& forward( typename std::remove_reference<T>::type& t ) noexcept; (until C++14)
template< class T > (1) (since C++14)
constexpr T&& forward( typename std::remove_reference<T>::type& t ) noexcept;
template< class T > (2) (since C++11)
T&& forward( typename std::remove_reference<T>::type&& t ) noexcept; (until C++14)
template< class T > (2) (since C++14)
constexpr T&& forward( typename std::remove_reference<T>::type&& t ) noexcept;


1) Forwards lvalues as either lvalues or as rvalues, depending on T
When t is a forwarding_reference (a function argument that is declared as an rvalue reference to a cv-unqualified function template parameter), this overload forwards the argument to another function with the value_category it had when passed to the calling function.
For example, if used in wrapper such as the following, the template behaves as described below:


  template<class T>
  void wrapper(T&& arg)
  {
      // arg is always lvalue
      foo(std::forward<T>(arg)); // Forward as lvalue or as rvalue, depending on T
  }


* If a call to wrapper() passes an rvalue std::string, then T is deduced to std::string (not std::string&, const std::string&, or std::string&&), and std::forward ensures that an rvalue reference is passed to foo.
* If a call to wrapper() passes a const lvalue std::string, then T is deduced to const std::string&, and std::forward ensures that a const lvalue reference is passed to foo.
* If a call to wrapper() passes a non-const lvalue std::string, then T is deduced to std::string&, and std::forward ensures that a non-const lvalue reference is passed to foo.


2) Forwards rvalues as rvalues and prohibits forwarding of rvalues as lvalues
This overload makes it possible to forward a result of an expression (such as function call), which may be rvalue or lvalue, as the original value category of a forwarding reference argument.
For example, if a wrapper does not just forward its argument, but calls a member function on the argument, and forwards its result:


  // transforming wrapper
  template<class T>
  void wrapper(T&& arg)
  {
      foo(forward<decltype(forward<T>(arg).get())>(forward<T>(arg).get()));
  }


where the type of arg may be


  struct Arg
  {
      int i = 1;
      int get() && { return i; } // call to this overload is rvalue
      int& get() & { return i; } // call to this overload is lvalue
  };


Attempting to forward an rvalue as an lvalue, such as by instantiating the form (2) with lvalue reference type T, is a compile-time error.

Notes


See template_argument_deduction for the special rules behind forwarding references (T&& used as a function parameter) and forwarding_references for other detail.

Parameters


t - the object to be forwarded

Return value


static_cast<T&&>(t)

Example


This example demonstrates perfect forwarding of the parameter(s) to the argument of the constructor of class T. Also, perfect forwarding of parameter packs is demonstrated.
// Run this code


  #include <iostream>
  #include <memory>
  #include <utility>


  struct A {
      A(int&& n) { std::cout << "rvalue overload, n=" << n << "\n"; }
      A(int& n) { std::cout << "lvalue overload, n=" << n << "\n"; }
  };


  class B {
  public:
      template<class T1, class T2, class T3>
      B(T1&& t1, T2&& t2, T3&& t3) :
          a1_{std::forward<T1>(t1)},
          a2_{std::forward<T2>(t2)},
          a3_{std::forward<T3>(t3)}
      {
      }


  private:
      A a1_, a2_, a3_;
  };


  template<class T, class U>
  std::unique_ptr<T> make_unique1(U&& u)
  {
      return std::unique_ptr<T>(new T(std::forward<U>(u)));
  }


  template<class T, class... U>
  std::unique_ptr<T> make_unique2(U&&... u)
  {
      return std::unique_ptr<T>(new T(std::forward<U>(u)...));
  }


  int main()
  {
      auto p1 = make_unique1<A>(2); // rvalue
      int i = 1;
      auto p2 = make_unique1<A>(i); // lvalue


      std::cout << "B\n";
      auto t = make_unique2<B>(2, i, 3);
  }

Output:


  rvalue overload, n=2
  lvalue overload, n=1
  B
  rvalue overload, n=2
  lvalue overload, n=1
  rvalue overload, n=3

Complexity


Constant

See also


move obtains an rvalue reference
                 (function template)
(C++11)


move_if_noexcept obtains an rvalue reference if the move constructor does not throw
                 (function template)
(C++11)