std::mbrtoc16 (3) - Linux Manuals

std::mbrtoc16: std::mbrtoc16


std::mbrtoc16 - std::mbrtoc16


Defined in header <cuchar>
std::size_t mbrtoc16( char16_t* pc16,
const char* s, (since C++11)
std::size_t n,
std::mbstate_t* ps );

Converts a narrow multibyte character to UTF-16 character representation.
If s is not a null pointer, inspects at most n bytes of the multibyte character string, beginning with the byte pointed to by s to determine the number of bytes necessary to complete the next multibyte character (including any shift sequences). If the function determines that the next multibyte character in s is complete and valid, converts it to the corresponding 16-bit character and stores it in *pc16 (if pc16 is not null).
If the multibyte character in *s corresponds to a multi-char16_t sequence (e.g. a surrogate pair in UTF-16), then after the first call to this function, *ps is updated in such a way that the next call to mbrtoc16 will write out the additional char16_t, without considering *s.
If s is a null pointer, the values of n and pc16 are ignored and the call is equivalent to std::mbrtoc16(NULL, "", 1, ps).
If the wide character produced is the null character, the conversion state *ps represents the initial shift state.
The multibyte encoding used by this function is specified by the currently active C locale.


pc16 - pointer to the location where the resulting 16-bit character will be written
s - pointer to the multibyte character string used as input
n - limit on the number of bytes in s that can be examined
ps - pointer to the conversion state object used when interpreting the multibyte string

Return value

The first of the following that applies:

* 0 if the character converted from s (and stored in *pc16 if non-null) was the null character
* the number of bytes [1...n] of the multibyte character successfully converted from s
* -3 if the next char16_t from a multi-char16_t character (e.g. a surrogate pair) has now been written to *pc16. No bytes are processed from the input in this case.
* -2 if the next n bytes constitute an incomplete, but so far valid, multibyte character. Nothing is written to *pc16.
* -1 if encoding error occurs. Nothing is written to *pc16, the value EILSEQ is stored in errno and the value of *ps is unspecified.


// Run this code

  #include <iostream>
  #include <iomanip>
  #include <clocale>
  #include <cstring>
  #include <cwchar>
  #include <cuchar>

  int main()
      std::setlocale(LC_ALL, "en_US.utf8");

      std::string str = u8"z\u00df\u6c34\U0001F34C"; // or u8"zß水🍌"

      std::cout << "Processing " << str.size() << " bytes: [ " << std::showbase;
      for(unsigned char c: str) std::cout << std::hex << +c << ' ';
      std::cout << "]\n";

      std::mbstate_t state{}; // zero-initialized to initial state
      char16_t c16;
      const char *ptr = &str[0], *end = &str[0] + str.size();

      while(std::size_t rc = std::mbrtoc16(&c16, ptr, end - ptr + 1, &state))
          std::cout << "Next UTF-16 char: " << std::hex << c16 << " obtained from ";
          if(rc == (std::size_t)-3)
              std::cout << "earlier surrogate pair\n";
          else if(rc == (std::size_t)-2)
          else if(rc == (std::size_t)-1)
          else {
              std::cout << std::dec << rc << " bytes [ ";
              for(std::size_t n = 0; n < rc; ++n)
                  std::cout << std::hex << +(unsigned char)ptr[n] << ' ';
              std::cout << "]\n";
              ptr += rc;


  Processing 10 bytes: [ 0x7a 0xc3 0x9f 0xe6 0xb0 0xb4 0xf0 0x9f 0x8d 0x8c ]
  Next UTF-16 char: 0x7a obtained from 1 bytes [ 0x7a ]
  Next UTF-16 char: 0xdf obtained from 2 bytes [ 0xc3 0x9f ]
  Next UTF-16 char: 0x6c34 obtained from 3 bytes [ 0xe6 0xb0 0xb4 ]
  Next UTF-16 char: 0xd83c obtained from 4 bytes [ 0xf0 0x9f 0x8d 0x8c ]
  Next UTF-16 char: 0xdf4c obtained from earlier surrogate pair

See also

c16rtomb convert a 16-bit wide character to narrow multibyte string

do_in converts a string from externT to internT, such as when reading from file
          (virtual protected member function of std::codecvt<InternT,ExternT,State>)