std::priority_queue (3) - Linux Manuals

std::priority_queue: std::priority_queue


std::priority_queue - std::priority_queue


Defined in header <queue>
class T,
class Container = std::vector<T>,
class Compare = std::less<typename Container::value_type>
> class priority_queue;

A priority queue is a container adaptor that provides constant time lookup of the largest (by default) element, at the expense of logarithmic insertion and extraction.
A user-provided Compare can be supplied to change the ordering, e.g. using std::greater<T> would cause the smallest element to appear as the top().
Working with a priority_queue is similar to managing a heap in some random access container, with the benefit of not being able to accidentally invalidate the heap.

Template parameters

            The type of the stored elements.
T - The behavior is undefined if T is not the same type as Container::value_type.
            (since C++17)
            The type of the underlying container to use to store the elements. The container must satisfy the requirements of SequenceContainer, and its iterators must satisfy the requirements of LegacyRandomAccessIterator. Additionally, it must provide the following functions with the usual semantics:

            * front()
Container - * push_back()
            * pop_back()

            The standard containers std::vector and std::deque satisfy these requirements.
Compare - A Compare type providing a strict weak ordering.

Note that the Compare parameter is defined such that it returns true if its first argument comes before its second argument in a weak ordering. But because the priority queue outputs largest elements first, the elements that "come before" are actually output last. That is, the front of the queue contains the "last" element according to the weak ordering imposed by Compare.

Member types

Member type Definition
container_type Container
value_compare (C++17) Compare
value_type Container::value_type
size_type Container::size_type
reference Container::reference
const_reference Container::const_reference

Member functions

              constructs the priority_queue
constructor (public member function)
              destructs the priority_queue
destructor (public member function)
              assigns values to the container adaptor
operator= (public member function)

Element access

              accesses the top element
top (public member function)


              checks whether the underlying container is empty
empty (public member function)
              returns the number of elements
size (public member function)


              inserts element and sorts the underlying container
push (public member function)

emplace constructs element in-place and sorts the underlying container
              (public member function)
              removes the top element
pop (public member function)
              swaps the contents
swap (public member function)

Member objects

              the underlying container
Container c (protected member object)
              the comparison function object
Compare comp (protected member object)

Non-member functions

                               specializes the std::swap algorithm
std::swap(std::priority_queue) (function template)

Helper classes

std::uses_allocator<std::priority_queue> specializes the std::uses_allocator type trait
                                         (function template)

Deduction_guides(since C++17)


// Run this code

  #include <functional>
  #include <queue>
  #include <vector>
  #include <iostream>

  template<typename T> void print_queue(T& q) {
      while(!q.empty()) {
          std::cout << << " ";
      std::cout << '\n';

  int main() {
      std::priority_queue<int> q;

      for(int n : {1,8,5,6,3,4,0,9,7,2})


      std::priority_queue<int, std::vector<int>, std::greater<int> > q2;

      for(int n : {1,8,5,6,3,4,0,9,7,2})


      // Using lambda to compare elements.
      auto cmp = [](int left, int right) { return (left ^ 1) < (right ^ 1);};
      std::priority_queue<int, std::vector<int>, decltype(cmp)> q3(cmp);

      for(int n : {1,8,5,6,3,4,0,9,7,2})




  9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
  8 9 6 7 4 5 2 3 0 1