std::thread::thread (3) - Linux Man Pages

std::thread::thread: std::thread::thread

NAME

std::thread::thread - std::thread::thread

Synopsis


thread() noexcept; (1) (since C++11)
thread( thread&& other ) noexcept; (2) (since C++11)
template< class Function, class... Args > (3) (since C++11)
explicit thread( Function&& f, Args&&... args );
thread(const thread&) = delete; (4) (since C++11)


Constructs new thread object.
1) Creates new thread object which does not represent a thread.
2) Move constructor. Constructs the thread object to represent the thread of execution that was represented by other. After this call other no longer represents a thread of execution.
3) Creates new std::thread object and associates it with a thread of execution. The new thread of execution starts executing


  std::invoke(decay_copy(std::forward<Function>(f)),
              decay_copy(std::forward<Args>(args))...);


where decay_copy is defined as


  template <class T>
  std::decay_t<T> decay_copy(T&& v) { return std::forward<T>(v); }


Except that the calls to decay_copy are evaluated in the context of the caller, so that any exceptions thrown during evaluation and copying/moving of the arguments are thrown in the current thread, without starting the new thread.
The completion of the invocation of the constructor synchronizes-with (as defined in std::memory_order) the beginning of the invocation of the copy of f on the new thread of execution.


This constructor does not participate in overload resolution if std::decay_t<Function> is the same type as std::thread. (since C++14)


4) The copy constructor is deleted; threads are not copyable. No two std::thread objects may represent the same thread of execution.

Parameters


other - another thread object to construct this thread object with
f - Callable object to execute in the new thread
args... - arguments to pass to the new function

Postconditions


1) get_id() equal to std::thread::id() (i.e. joinable is false)
2) other.get_id() equal to std::thread::id() and get_id() returns the value of other.get_id() prior to the start of construction
3) get_id() not equal to std::thread::id() (i.e. joinable is true)

Exceptions


3) std::system_error if the thread could not be started. The exception may represent the error condition std::errc::resource_unavailable_try_again or another implementation-specific error condition.

Notes


The arguments to the thread function are moved or copied by value. If a reference argument needs to be passed to the thread function, it has to be wrapped (e.g. with std::ref or std::cref).
Any return value from the function is ignored. If the function throws an exception, std::terminate is called. In order to pass return values or exceptions back to the calling thread, std::promise or std::async may be used.

Example


// Run this code


  #include <iostream>
  #include <utility>
  #include <thread>
  #include <chrono>


  void f1(int n)
  {
      for (int i = 0; i < 5; ++i) {
          std::cout << "Thread 1 executing\n";
          ++n;
          std::this_thread::sleep_for(std::chrono::milliseconds(10));
      }
  }


  void f2(int& n)
  {
      for (int i = 0; i < 5; ++i) {
          std::cout << "Thread 2 executing\n";
          ++n;
          std::this_thread::sleep_for(std::chrono::milliseconds(10));
      }
  }


  class foo
  {
  public:
      void bar()
      {
          for (int i = 0; i < 5; ++i) {
              std::cout << "Thread 3 executing\n";
              ++n;
              std::this_thread::sleep_for(std::chrono::milliseconds(10));
          }
      }
      int n = 0;
  };


  class baz
  {
  public:
      void operator()()
      {
          for (int i = 0; i < 5; ++i) {
              std::cout << "Thread 4 executing\n";
              ++n;
              std::this_thread::sleep_for(std::chrono::milliseconds(10));
          }
      }
      int n = 0;
  };


  int main()
  {
      int n = 0;
      foo f;
      baz b;
      std::thread t1; // t1 is not a thread
      std::thread t2(f1, n + 1); // pass by value
      std::thread t3(f2, std::ref(n)); // pass by reference
      std::thread t4(std::move(t3)); // t4 is now running f2(). t3 is no longer a thread
      std::thread t5(&foo::bar, &f); // t5 runs foo::bar() on object f
      std::thread t6(b); // t6 runs baz::operator() on object b
      t2.join();
      t4.join();
      t5.join();
      t6.join();
      std::cout << "Final value of n is " << n << '\n';
      std::cout << "Final value of foo::n is " << f.n << '\n';
  }

Possible output:


  Thread 1 executing
  Thread 2 executing
  Thread 3 executing
  Thread 4 executing
  Thread 3 executing
  Thread 1 executing
  Thread 2 executing
  Thread 4 executing
  Thread 2 executing
  Thread 3 executing
  Thread 1 executing
  Thread 4 executing
  Thread 3 executing
  Thread 2 executing
  Thread 1 executing
  Thread 4 executing
  Thread 3 executing
  Thread 1 executing
  Thread 2 executing
  Thread 4 executing
  Final value of n is 5
  Final value of foo::n is 5

References


* C++11 standard (ISO/IEC 14882:2011):


      * 30.3.1.2 thread constructors [thread.thread.constr]

See also