apgd (8) - Linux Manuals

apgd: server that generates several random passwords


apgd - server that generates several random passwords


apgd [-a algorithm] [-M mode] [-E char_string] [-n num_of_pass] [-m min_pass_len] [-x max_pass_len] [-r dictfile] [-b filter_file] [-p min_substr_len] [-k] [-t] [-l]


apgd program is a server that supports Password Generation Protocol described in RFC972. It uses several password generation algorithms (currently two) and a built-in pseudo random number generator.

apgd is normally invoked by the Internet superserver (see inetd (8)) for requests to connect to the pwdgen port (pwdgen port is 129 according to RFC1700 ) as indicated by the /etc/services file (see services (5)).

Default algorithm is pronounceable password generation algorithm designed by Morrie Gasser and described in A Random Word Generator For Pronounceable Passwords National Technical Information Service (NTIS) AD-A-017676. The original paper is very old and had never been put online, so I have to use NIST implementation described in FIPS-181.

Another algorithm is simple random character generation algorithm, but it uses four user-defined symbol sets to produce random password. It means that user can choose type of symbols that should appear in password. Symbol sets are: numeric symbol set (0,...,9) , capital letters symbol set (A,...,Z) , small letters symbol set (a,...,z) and special symbols symbol set (#,@,!,...).

Built-in pseudo random number generator is an implementation of algorithm described in Appendix C of ANSI X9.17 or RFC1750 with exception that it uses CAST or SHA-1 instead of Triple DES. It uses local time with precision of microseconds (see gettimeofday(2)) and /dev/random (if available) to produce initial random seed.

apgd also have the ability to check generated password quality using dictionary. You can use this ability if you specify command-line option -r dictfile or -b filtername where dictfile is dictionary file name and filtername is the name of Bloom filter file. In that dictionary you may place words (one per line) that should not appear as generated passwords. For example: user names common words, etc. You even can use one of the dictionaries that come with dictionary password crackers. Bloom filter file should be created with apgbfm(1) utility included in apg distribution. In future releases I plan to implement some other techniques to check passwords just to make life easier.

apgd has the ability log user password generation activity and internal debug information. It does this using
facility = daemon

priority = info for user password generation activity logging
priority = debug for internal debug information
See the syslogd(8) and syslog.conf(5) man pages for information on how to configure your syslog daemon.


Password generation modes options

-a algorithm
use algorithm for password generation.
0 - (default) pronounceable password generation
1 - random character password generation
-n num_of_pass
generate num_of_pass number of passwords. Default is 6.
-m min_pass_len
generate password with minimum length min_pass_len. If min_pass_len > max_pass_len then max_pass_len = min_pass_len. Default minimum password length is 8.
-x max_pass_len
generate password with maximum length max_pass_len If min_pass_len > max_pass_len then max_pass_len = min_pass_len. Default maximum password length is 10.
-M mode
Use symbolsets specified with mode for password generation. mode is a text string consisting of characters S, s, N, n, C, c, L, l. Where:
generator must use special symbol set for every generated password.
generator should use special symbol set for password generation.
generator must use numeral symbol set for every generated password.
generator should use numeral symbol set for password generation.
generator must use capital symbol set for every generated password.
generator should use capital symbol set for password generation.
generator must use small letters symbol set for every generated password (always present if pronounceable password generation algorithm is used).
generator should use small letters symbol set for password generation.
not supported any more. Use -E char_string option instead.

mode can not be more than 4 characters in length.

Usage of L, M, N, C will slow down password generation process.

-M sncl or -M SNCL or -M Cn

-E char_string
exclude characters in char_string from password generation process (in pronounceable password generation mode you can not exclude small letters). To include special symbols that can be recognized by shell (apostrophe, quotes, dollar sign, etc.) in char_string use the backslashed versions.


Command apgd -a 1 -M n -n 3 -m 8 -e 23456789 will generate a set of passwords that will look like this

Command apgd -a 1 -M nc -n 3 -m 26 -e GHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ will generate a set of passwords that will look like this

Password quality control options

check every generated password using cracklib. To use this ability you must enable cracklib support during programm building.
-r dictfile
check generated passwords for their appearance in dictfile
-b filter_file
check generated passwords for their appearance in filter_file. filter_file should be created with apgbfm(1) utility.
-p min_substr_len
this option tells apg(1) to check every substring of the generated password for appearance in filter_file. If any of such substrings would be found in the filter_file then generated password would be rejected and apg(1) will generate another one. min_substr_len is specifies minimum substring length to check. This option is active only if -b option is defined.

Password output options

spell genetated passwords. Useful when you want to read generated password by telephone.
WARNING: Think twice before read your password by phone.
print pronunciation for generated pronounceable password


apgd -a 0 -M sncl -n 6 -x 10 -m 8 (new style)


On successful completion of its task, apgd will complete with exit code 0. An exit code of -1 indicates an error occurred. Textual errors are written to the syslogd (8).


All textual info is written to the syslogd(8).




None. If you've found one, please send bug description to the author.


Adel I. Mirzazhanov, <a-del [at] iname.com>
Project home page: http://www.adel.nursat.kz/apg/


apg(1), apgbfm(1)