sqrt (3p)  Linux Manuals
sqrt: square root function
PROLOG
This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual. The Linux implementation of this interface may differ (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.NAME
sqrt, sqrtf, sqrtl  square root function
SYNOPSIS
#include <math.h>
double sqrt(double x);
float sqrtf(float x);
long double sqrtl(long double x);
DESCRIPTION
These functions shall compute the square root of their argument x, sqrt(x).
An application wishing to check for error situations should set errno to zero and call feclearexcept(FE_ALL_EXCEPT) before calling these functions. On return, if errno is nonzero or fetestexcept(FE_INVALID  FE_DIVBYZERO  FE_OVERFLOW  FE_UNDERFLOW) is nonzero, an error has occurred.
RETURN VALUE
Upon successful completion, these functions shall return the square root of x.
For finite values of x < 0, a domain error shall occur, and
If x is NaN, a NaN shall be returned.
If x is ±0 or +Inf, x shall be returned.
If x is Inf, a domain error shall occur, and either a NaN (if supported), or an implementationdefined value shall be returned.
ERRORS
These functions shall fail if:
 Domain Error
 The finite value of x is < 0, or x is Inf.
If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is nonzero, then errno shall be set to [EDOM]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is nonzero, then the invalid floatingpoint exception shall be raised.
The following sections are informative.
EXAMPLES
Taking the Square Root of 9.0

#include <math.h> ... double x = 9.0; double result; ... result = sqrt(x);
APPLICATION USAGE
On error, the expressions (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) and (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) are independent of each other, but at least one of them must be nonzero.
RATIONALE
FUTURE DIRECTIONS
COPYRIGHT
Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology  Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 20012003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .
SEE ALSO
feclearexcept(), fetestexcept(), isnan(), the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.12001, Section 4.18, Treatment of Error Conditions for Mathematical Functions, <math.h>, <stdio.h>