It depends on how your AdSense code is added to your WordPress site.
If you added the code in your theme .php files, you may use the
wp_is_mobile() to detect the users' browser and decide whether to show or not show the AdSense ads.
If you added the code to your sidebar as text, you may try the widget logic plugin to control whether you will show an widget depending the true of false of a piece of php code.
If you added the code by using 3rd party plugins, you will need to check whether these plugins have an option to control when and whether to show the code.
Note that if you are using some caching plugins such WP Super Cache, you will need to configure the plugins to cache mobile and normal views differently. For your reference, in WP super cache, it is called "Mobile device support".