How to upgrade packages installed by ELPA in Emacs?

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ELPA manages packages for Emacs nicely. But, how to upgrade packages installed by ELPA in Emacs? Within Emacs, list all packages by M-x list-packages and it will automatically refresh the archive contents. Then, press U to mark all upgradable packages to be upgraded. Last, press x to perform the new updates. Emacs will then download
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How to find which package can be installed for a file, like “yum provides”?

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How to find which package can be installed for a file, like “yum provides”? That is, the package is not installed yet and I do not know the package for a file that I want. The apt-file tool can do the similar things as yum provides. You may need to install it first by sudo
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How to find all available versions of a package in dpkg, apt-get or aptitude?

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How to find all available versions of a package in dpkg, apt-get or aptitude? To list available versions of a package: apt-cache showpkg <package-name> For example, to check all versions of thunderbird: $ sudo apt-cache showpkg thunderbird Package: thunderbird Versions: 1:31.1.1+build1-0ubuntu0.14.04.1 (/var/lib/apt/lists/archive.ubuntu.com_ubuntu_dists_trusty-updates_main_binary-amd64_Packages) (/var/lib/apt/lists/security.ubuntu.com_ubuntu_dists_trusty-security_main_binary-amd64_Packages) Description Language: File: /var/lib/apt/lists/archive.ubuntu.com_ubuntu_dists_trusty_main_binary-amd64_Packages MD5: 68ed1001b79d708ad48956a0c129114d Description Language: en File: /var/lib/apt/lists/archive.ubuntu.com_ubuntu_dists_trusty_main_i18n_Translation-en MD5:
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Notes for Beginners of Software Development on Linux

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Linux is a great platform for software development targeting servers or backends. In general, working on Linux is very productive. The problem that beginners on Linux face is the the learning curve is steep at the beginning. But believe me, after you get through the initial green steep learning step as in the figure below
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