Linux Kernel 5.4.102 Release

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This post summarizes Linux Kernel new features, bugfixes and changes in Linux 5.4.102 Release. Linux 5.4.102 Release contains 338 changes, patches or new features. In total, there are 160,715 lines of Linux source code changed/added in Linux 5.4.102 release compared to Linux 5.4 release. To view the source code of Linux 5.4.102 kernel release online,
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Release Notes For Linux v0.95a

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This is the release notes for linux release v0.95a (source code: linux-0.95a.tar.gz) with format adjusted by removing/replacing tabs/spaces/new lines. This notes document can give us an understanding of the early development of the Linux kernel. The the formatted version of the referenced RELNOTES-0.95 can be found at Release Notes For Linux v0.95. The original ASCII
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Release Notes For Linux v0.95

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This is the release notes for linux release v0.95 (source code: linux-0.95.tar.gz) with format adjusted by removing/replacing tabs/spaces/new lines. This notes document can give us an understanding of the early development of the Linux kernel. The original ASCII formatted version is at the end of this post. RELEASE NOTES FOR LINUX v0.95 Linus Torvalds, March
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Release Notes For Linux v0.12

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This is the release notes for linux release v0.12 (source code: linux-0.12.tar.gz) with format adjusted by removing/replacing tabs/spaces/new lines. This notes document can give us an understanding of the very initial development of the Linux kernel. Also check Notes for linux release 0.01. The original ASCII formatted version is at the end of this post.
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Release Notes For Linux v0.01

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This is the notes for linux kernel release 0.01 (source code: linux-0.01.tar.gz) with format adjusted by removing/replacing tabs/spaces/new lines. This notes document can give us an understanding of whether the Linux kernel started with its very first release. The original ASCII formatted version is at the end of this post. Notes for linux release 0.01
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How to enlarge root partition and filesystem size of cloud Linux VM at runtime without rebooting Linux

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It is common that the root disk space is not enough when running a Virtual Machine in the cloud such as Amazon Web Service (AWS). The cloud storage usually provides tools or facilities to enlarge a virtual disk size. However, to make the Linux recognize and and use the enlarged disks without rebooting the OS,
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How to Add a File Based Swap for Linux

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We may want to add some swap space for a Linux box while only find that all disk space is partitioned and mounted. Some partition has large available free space. For such cases, we may not want to change the partition allocation. The solution may be to add a file based swap for Linux as
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How to list start and end sectors of a partition by parted in Linux?

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How to list start and end of a partition by the sectors in parted on Linux? The default behavior seems be listing the start and end by bytes in parted. # parted /dev/sdc print Model: Innostor IS888 ext. HDD (scsi) Disk /dev/sdc: 2000GB Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: gpt Disk Flags: Number Start End
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How to find the disk where root / is on in Bash on Linux?

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Question: how to find the disk where the Linux’s root(/) is on in Bash? The root may be on a LVM volume or on a raw disk. 2 cases: One example: # df -hT | grep /$ /dev/sda4 ext4 48G 32G 14G 71% / For another example: # df -hT | grep /$ /dev/mapper/fedora-root ext4
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How to attach and mount Xen DomU’s disk partitions on Linux without Xen?

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How to attach and mount Xen DomU’s disk partitions on Linux without Xen? You can use kpartx to create devices from the VM disk image (say, ./vmdisk0). To activate all the partitions in a raw VM disk image: # kpartx -av ./vmdisk0 This will output lines such as: add map loop1p1 (253:8): 0 497664 linear
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mkfs refuses to make filesystem with message “is apparently in use by the system; will not make a filesystem here!”

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I have a disk from another server installed on a new server. However, when I try to make a filesystem on it, mkfs reports # mkfs -t ext4 /dev/sdd1 mke2fs 1.42.8 (20-Jun-2013) /dev/sdd1 is apparently in use by the system; will not make a filesystem here! This is a new disk to the new server.
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How to mount LVM volume from an external hard disk on CentOS?

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On Fedora, after inserting/plugging in an exteranl hard disk with LVM partitions on it, the partitions will appear under /dev like /dev/lvm-group/lvm-partition. However, on CentOS 6, the LVM volumes do not appear automatically. How to mount LVM partitions from an external hard disk on CentOS? What you need on CentOS is to activate the LVM
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How to move all the files under Users for a user to another drive on Windows?

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Unfortunately, my C: drive is almost full. Most of the space are used by the user home under C:Users. How can I move the home directory to another drive while not affecting the user’s usage of Windows. On Linux/Unix, moving the directory to another drive/partition and then keeping a softlink is enough. But how to
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how to skip mapper function in hadoop

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In hadoop I need to skip mapper function and directly execute the reducer function. We doing this to improve hadoop performance, if the hadoop framework is used to analyze same data sets, then mapper’s output will be same for different kind of jobs. To save the redundant computation for same results, I am planning to
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Making `fdisk -l` display partition sizes by GB/MB

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How to make fdisk -l display partition sizes by bytes instead of sectors? fdisk does not have such options as far as I know. However, good news is that you can use parted: # parted -l It will print partition info like # parted -l Model: Linux device-mapper (linear) (dm) Disk /dev/mapper/fedora_vm235-swap: 2164MB Sector size
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How to dynamically attach a disk to running DomU in Xen?

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I want to attach a disk to a DomU. The Xen DomU is running and should not be rebooted. Hence, changing its configuration file is not an option. How to dynamically attach a disk to running DomU in Xen? To attach phy:vg_xen/vm-228-large to vm-228 as xvdb, run this on Dom0: # xl block-attach vm-228 phy:vg_xen/vm-228-large
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How to adjust the system partition (C:) size of Windows?

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The disk management tools of Windows can adjust it to some level. But there are more space available as far as I can tell. How to further adjust the system partition (C:) size of Windows? You may check these tools: EASEUS Partition Master (free) Includes Partition Manager, Disk & Partition Copy Wizard and Partition Recovery
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How to attach and mount Xen DomU’s disk to Dom0

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How to attach and mount Xen DomU’s disk to Dom0 To attach phy:vg_xen/vm-10.1.1.228 to xvda on Domain-0: # xm block-attach Domain-0 phy:vg_xen/vm-10.1.1.228 xvda w Mount the new partition /dev/xvda2 to /mnt/xvda2: # mount /dev/xvda2 /mnt/xvda2 After finishing using the partition, umount it and detach it: # umount /mnt/xvda2/ # xm block-detach Domain-0 xvda