Release Notes For Linux v0.01

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This is the notes for linux kernel release 0.01 (source code: linux-0.01.tar.gz) with format adjusted by removing/replacing tabs/spaces/new lines. This notes document can give us an understanding of whether the Linux kernel started with its very first release. The original ASCII formatted version is at the end of this post. Notes for linux release 0.01
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Allowing root Access to NFS Directories

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For local filesystems, root usually has full access (read/write) to directories/files inside of it. But for NFS directory mounted from network, root usually has no permission to write to directories or files within the NFS directory. How to make root act similarly in an NFS directory to the behavior in local directories? The reason that
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How do I force Linux to unmount a filesystem?

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Some time, Linux fails to unmount a filesystem reporting “device is busy”. I understand that this helps avoid data lost by disallowing unmouting a filesystem when it is being used. But for some situations, I am sure there is something wrong happened or I care not data lost, such as a NFS mounting while the
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How to force umount a NFS directory on Linux?

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The NFS server is down. It is reported “Stale NFS file handle”. I tried ‘umount’ and ‘umount -f’. But neither succeeded. # umount /mnt/store umount.nfs: /mnt/store: Stale NFS file handle # umount -f /mnt/store umount.nfs: /mnt/store: Stale NFS file handle How to force umounting the NFS without rebooting the Linux server? I usually have to
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How to allow non-root users on Linux to mount and unmount disks?

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On a Linux box, we may allow non-root users mount and umount certain disks, such as /dev/sde1. How to allow non-root users on Linux to mount and unmount disks? Please check the tutorial at Controlling Filesystem Mounting on Linux by Playing with /etc/fstab: Allow non-root users to mount and unmount filesystems.

How to dynamically attach a disk to running DomU in Xen?

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I want to attach a disk to a DomU. The Xen DomU is running and should not be rebooted. Hence, changing its configuration file is not an option. How to dynamically attach a disk to running DomU in Xen? To attach phy:vg_xen/vm-228-large to vm-228 as xvdb, run this on Dom0: # xl block-attach vm-228 phy:vg_xen/vm-228-large
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How to attach and mount Xen DomU’s disk to Dom0

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How to attach and mount Xen DomU’s disk to Dom0 To attach phy:vg_xen/vm-10.1.1.228 to xvda on Domain-0: # xm block-attach Domain-0 phy:vg_xen/vm-10.1.1.228 xvda w Mount the new partition /dev/xvda2 to /mnt/xvda2: # mount /dev/xvda2 /mnt/xvda2 After finishing using the partition, umount it and detach it: # umount /mnt/xvda2/ # xm block-detach Domain-0 xvda

Forcing Linux to Unmount a Filesystem Reporting “device is busy”

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Linux may report "device is busy" when we try to umount a filesystem. This behavior is reasonable as it can help us avoid data loss by disallowing unmouting a filesystem when it is being used. But for situations when we are sure there is something wrong happened or we care not data lost such as
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Controlling Filesystem Mounting on Linux using /etc/fstab

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Controlling the mounting of filesystems is a useful technique for managing Linux systems. The mounting configurations are mostly in the /etc/fstab file. In this post, we will discuss 2 common and useful techniques for controlling the filesystem mounting by playing with the /etc/fstab file: allowing non-root users to mount/unmount filesystems and avoiding mounting failures blocking
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Shrinking an Ext4 File System on LVM in Linux

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In Extending a Mounted Ext4 File System on LVM in Linux, we introduced how to extend a mounted ext4 filesystem on LVM Logical volume by adding a new physical volume. It is also common to shrink an ext4 file system as to spare some disk space. In this post, I will discuss how to shrink
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How to Extend a Mounted Ext4 File System on LVM in Linux

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LVM is a great tool to manage hard disks on Linux—you can abstract the hard drives away and manage logical volumes from volume groups, you can dynamically add or remove hard drives while the file systems on the logical volumes need not to backed up and recovered, and you may create many snapshots of the
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How to Create Fedora Live USB Media

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How to create a Fedora live USB media is introduced in this post. We can boot to Fedora operating system environment through a live USB system in the USB flash media on a USB-bootable computer without writing the computer’s hard disk. We can also install Fedora operating system from the live system environment. Remember to
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How to Set Up eCryptFS on Linux – The Manual Way

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How to set up eCryptFS in Linux will be introduced in this post. We can store encrypted files in one eCryptFS directory, the manual way. The content can be seen only after it is mounted as eCryptFS file system. Otherwise, the users can only see garbled characters in the files. Note that this tutorial will
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How to Create ISO Image from DVD Disk on Linux

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DVD disks are still commonly used in some areas while the disks are not fast and convenient enough for frequent usage. For frequent usage or archiving, an image of the DVD on hard drives will be better. ISO images do not use a particular container format. They are just a sector-by-sector copy of the data
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How to Create, Mount, and Burn ISO Images on Linux

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Linux has many tools for mounting, creating and burning iso image files. In this posts, I will introduce how to use the iso files on Linux. The tools we used in this post are mount, genisoimage and wodim. 1. Mount an iso image file Mounting an iso on Linux is straightforward. We mount the iso
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