How to judge whether its STDERR is redirected to a file in a Bash script on Linux?

Within a Bash script, how to judge whether its STDERR is redirected to a file in Bash on Linux? For example, ./ /tmp/log 2>&1 Can detect that its STDERR is redirected? Knowing the destination file is better. To test whether a script’s STDERR (or STDOUT) is redirected to a file, check by [[ -f […]

Why do I need to run latex/bibtex three times to make everything look good?

Why does latex need to be executed 3 times like following? pdflatex main.tex bibtex main pdflatex main.tex pdflatex main.tex Copied from The reason is as follows: 1, At the first latex run, all cite{…} arguments are written in the file document.aux. 2, At the bibtex run, this information is taken by bibtex and the […]

How can I login without password and run command in server at a local machine remotely?

Login without PWD is fast and efficient. Running commands in server from local machine also have these benefits. login without PWD: add PC A’s public key to PC B’s authorized keys. > a@A:~> cat .ssh/ | ssh b@B ‘cat >> .ssh/authorized_keys’ > b@B’s password: Run command remotely ssh root@MachineB “ls” NOTE: running commands remotely is […]

What is the difference between work conserving I/O scheduler and non-work conserving I/O scheduler?

What is the difference between work conserving I/O scheduler and non-work conserving I/O scheduler? In a work-conserving mode, the scheduler must choose one of the pending requests, if any, to dispatch, even if the pending requests are far away from the current disk head position. The rationale for non-work-conserving schedulers, such as the anticipatory scheduler […]

In Python, `os.makedirs()` with 0777 mode does not give others write permission

In Python, os.makedirs() with 0777 mode can not give others write permission The code is as follows $ python Python 2.7.5 (default, Aug 4 2017, 00:39:18) [GCC 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-16)] on linux2 Type “help”, “copyright”, “credits” or “license” for more information. >>> import os >>> os.makedirs(“/tmp/test1/test2”, 0777) >>> The created dirs are not […]

How to force a checkpointing of metadata in HDFS?

HDFS SecondaraNameNode log shows 2017-08-06 10:54:14,488 ERROR org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.SecondaryNameNode: Exception in doCheckpoint Inconsistent checkpoint fields. LV = -63 namespaceID = 1920275013 cTime = 0 ; clusterId = CID-f38880ba-3415-4277-8abf-b5c2848b7a63 ; blockpoolId = BP-578888813- Expecting respectively: -63; 263120692; 0; CID-d22222fd-e28a-4b2d-bd2a-f60e1f0ad1b1; BP-622207878- at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.CheckpointSignature.validateStorageInfo( at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.SecondaryNameNode.doCheckpoint( at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.SecondaryNameNode.doWork( at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.SecondaryNameNode$ at at It seems the checkpoint […]

How to check interrupts lively in your systems?

I need to see what kind of interrupts are handled by which CPU. Please run command: # cat /proc/interrupts or you can execute $ watch -n1 “cat /proc/interrupts” to watch interrupts every 1 second. See [1] [2] for more details. References: [1] [2] Answered by harryxiyou.

How to tune systems to achieve high performance in virtualization circumstances?

Most time, we need to tune system parameters to achieve better performance but what the general parameters to be tuned in Linux systems. I think you may want to add following parameters to Kernel boot (/etc/default/grub) parameters intel_idle.max_cstate=0 processor.max_cstate=0 idle=poll intel_pstate=disable At the same time, you may also want to shutdown/open Pause Loop Exiting (PLE). […]

Why “ValueError: zero length field name in format” error in Python on CentOS 6?

The same Python program runs without any problem while it report ValueError: zero length field name in format error in Python on CentOS 6 The piece of code in Python is: print ‘== {} SPF’.format(d) Why “ValueError: zero length field name in format” error in Python on CentOS 6? This feature of {} without the […]

How to install gfortran on CentOS 7?

How to install the gfortran fortran compiler on CentOS 7 Linux? gfortran on CentOS 7 is provided in the gcc-gfortran package. You may install it to install gfortran. # yum install gcc-gfortran Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: * epel: * extras: * nux-dextop: * […]

How to configure SPF for my email domain hosted by DreamHost?

My domain’s email is hosted by DreamHost and all my emails from that domain are sent using DreamHost’s SMTP. How to configure the SPF record for my email domain hosted by DreamHost? For a domain with email and SMTP hosted by DreamHost, you can set its SPF record to v=spf1 Reference: What SPF records […]

How to get vCPU thread ID in QEMU/KVM host OS?

In order to collect more information about CPU information internal guest OS, we usually need to get vCPU’s thread ID in host OS. Solution 1: Under directory ‘/sys/fs/cgroup/cpuset/machine’, you will find virtual_machine_name.libvirt-qemu directory. And under this directory, you will find all vCPU sub-directories and under these dirs, you will find vCPU thread IDs. For example […]

How to limit a user’s CPU resources in Linux Systems

When you use a server with other users, you might want to limit other users’ CPU resources for some specific aims. Cgroup has lots of parameters we can use to control computer resources. For CPU resources, you can tune cpu.shares parameter to limit users’ CPU resources. To be more precise, change directory to /sys/fs/cgroup/cpu/user and […]