std::mbrtoc32 (3) - Linux Manuals

std::mbrtoc32: std::mbrtoc32


std::mbrtoc32 - std::mbrtoc32


Defined in header <cuchar>
std::size_t mbrtoc32( char32_t* pc32,
const char* s, (since C++11)
std::size_t n,
std::mbstate_t* ps );

Converts a narrow multibyte character to its UTF-32 character representation.
If s is not a null pointer, inspects at most n bytes of the multibyte character string, beginning with the byte pointed to by s to determine the number of bytes necessary to complete the next multibyte character (including any shift sequences). If the function determines that the next multibyte character in s is complete and valid, converts it to the corresponding 32-bit character and stores it in *pc32 (if pc32 is not null).
If the multibyte character in *s corresponds to a multi-char32_t sequence (not possible with UTF-32), then after the first call to this function, *ps is updated in such a way that the next calls to mbrtoc32 will write out the additional char32_t, without considering *s.
If s is a null pointer, the values of n and pc32 are ignored and the call is equivalent to std::mbrtoc32(NULL, "", 1, ps).
If the wide character produced is the null character, the conversion state *ps represents the initial shift state.
The multibyte encoding used by this function is specified by the currently active C locale.


pc32 - pointer to the location where the resulting 32-bit character will be written
s - pointer to the multibyte character string used as input
n - limit on the number of bytes in s that can be examined
ps - pointer to the conversion state object used when interpreting the multibyte string

Return value

The first of the following that applies:

* 0 if the character converted from s (and stored in *pc32 if non-null) was the null character
* the number of bytes [1...n] of the multibyte character successfully converted from s
* -3 if the next char32_t from a multi-char32_t character has now been written to *pc32. No bytes are processed from the input in this case.
* -2 if the next n bytes constitute an incomplete, but so far valid, multibyte character. Nothing is written to *pc32.
* -1 if encoding error occurs. Nothing is written to *pc32, the value EILSEQ is stored in errno and the value of *ps is unspecified.


// Run this code

  #include <iostream>
  #include <iomanip>
  #include <clocale>
  #include <cstring>
  #include <cwchar>
  #include <cuchar>
  #include <cassert>

  int main()
      std::setlocale(LC_ALL, "en_US.utf8");

      std::string str = u8"z\u00df\u6c34\U0001F34C"; // or u8"zß水🍌"

      std::cout << "Processing " << str.size() << " bytes: [ " << std::showbase;
      for(unsigned char c: str) std::cout << std::hex << +c << ' ';
      std::cout << "]\n";

      std::mbstate_t state{}; // zero-initialized to initial state
      char32_t c32;
      const char *ptr = str.c_str(), *end = str.c_str() + str.size() + 1;

      while(std::size_t rc = std::mbrtoc32(&c32, ptr, end - ptr, &state))
          std::cout << "Next UTF-32 char: " << std::hex << c32 << " obtained from ";
          assert(rc != (std::size_t)-3); // no surrogates in UTF-32
          if(rc == (std::size_t)-1) break;
          if(rc == (std::size_t)-2) break;
          std::cout << std::dec << rc << " bytes [ ";
          for(std::size_t n = 0; n < rc; ++n)
              std::cout << std::hex << +(unsigned char)ptr[n] << ' ';
          std::cout << "]\n";
          ptr += rc;


  Processing 10 bytes: [ 0x7a 0xc3 0x9f 0xe6 0xb0 0xb4 0xf0 0x9f 0x8d 0x8c ]
  Next UTF-32 char: 0x7a obtained from 1 bytes [ 0x7a ]
  Next UTF-32 char: 0xdf obtained from 2 bytes [ 0xc3 0x9f ]
  Next UTF-32 char: 0x6c34 obtained from 3 bytes [ 0xe6 0xb0 0xb4 ]
  Next UTF-32 char: 0x1f34c obtained from 4 bytes [ 0xf0 0x9f 0x8d 0x8c ]

See also

c32rtomb convert a 32-bit wide character to narrow multibyte string

do_in converts a string from externT to internT, such as when reading from file
          (virtual protected member function of std::codecvt<InternT,ExternT,State>)