Linux Kernel 4.19.178 Release

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This post summarizes Linux Kernel new features, bugfixes and changes in Linux 4.19.178 Release. Linux 4.19.178 Release contains 248 changes, patches or new features. In total, there are 239,909 lines of Linux source code changed/added in Linux 4.19.178 release compared to Linux 4.19 release. To view the source code of Linux 4.19.178 kernel release online,
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Linux Kernel 4.14.223 Release

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This post summarizes Linux Kernel new features, bugfixes and changes in Linux 4.14.223 Release. Linux 4.14.223 Release contains 176 changes, patches or new features. In total, there are 277,921 lines of Linux source code changed/added in Linux 4.14.223 release compared to Linux 4.14 release. To view the source code of Linux 4.14.223 kernel release online,
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Linux Kernel 5.4.102 Release

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This post summarizes Linux Kernel new features, bugfixes and changes in Linux 5.4.102 Release. Linux 5.4.102 Release contains 338 changes, patches or new features. In total, there are 160,715 lines of Linux source code changed/added in Linux 5.4.102 release compared to Linux 5.4 release. To view the source code of Linux 5.4.102 kernel release online,
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New Linux Kernel 5.0: Features and Improvements

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Linux is the most used and well-known open-source operating system for computers, mobile devices, servers, and mainframes, etc. Linux has so many awesome features to serve its users like Live CD/USB. And it is fast, easy and free to use by computers around the world. The kernel is referred to as the essential component of
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How to enlarge root partition and filesystem size of cloud Linux VM at runtime without rebooting Linux

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It is common that the root disk space is not enough when running a Virtual Machine in the cloud such as Amazon Web Service (AWS). The cloud storage usually provides tools or facilities to enlarge a virtual disk size. However, to make the Linux recognize and and use the enlarged disks without rebooting the OS,
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How to list start and end sectors of a partition by parted in Linux?

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How to list start and end of a partition by the sectors in parted on Linux? The default behavior seems be listing the start and end by bytes in parted. # parted /dev/sdc print Model: Innostor IS888 ext. HDD (scsi) Disk /dev/sdc: 2000GB Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: gpt Disk Flags: Number Start End
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What is the difference between work conserving I/O scheduler and non-work conserving I/O scheduler?

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What is the difference between work conserving I/O scheduler and non-work conserving I/O scheduler? In a work-conserving mode, the scheduler must choose one of the pending requests, if any, to dispatch, even if the pending requests are far away from the current disk head position. The rationale for non-work-conserving schedulers, such as the anticipatory scheduler
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How to find the disk where root / is on in Bash on Linux?

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Question: how to find the disk where the Linux’s root(/) is on in Bash? The root may be on a LVM volume or on a raw disk. 2 cases: One example: # df -hT | grep /$ /dev/sda4 ext4 48G 32G 14G 71% / For another example: # df -hT | grep /$ /dev/mapper/fedora-root ext4
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mkfs refuses to make filesystem with message “is apparently in use by the system; will not make a filesystem here!”

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I have a disk from another server installed on a new server. However, when I try to make a filesystem on it, mkfs reports # mkfs -t ext4 /dev/sdd1 mke2fs 1.42.8 (20-Jun-2013) /dev/sdd1 is apparently in use by the system; will not make a filesystem here! This is a new disk to the new server.
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Making `fdisk -l` display partition sizes by GB/MB

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How to make fdisk -l display partition sizes by bytes instead of sectors? fdisk does not have such options as far as I know. However, good news is that you can use parted: # parted -l It will print partition info like # parted -l Model: Linux device-mapper (linear) (dm) Disk /dev/mapper/fedora_vm235-swap: 2164MB Sector size
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Mount Ext4 Partitions in Windows in read-only mode

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How to mount Ext4 partitions from Linux in Windows in read-only mode? Read-only is required to ensure safety. Mounting is required so that traditional programs can use the partition without any changes. Ext2Fsd is a great tool for this. Ext2Fsd is a file system driver which allows accessing (both reading and writing) ext2, ext3 or
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Controlling Filesystem Mounting on Linux using /etc/fstab

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Controlling the mounting of filesystems is a useful technique for managing Linux systems. The mounting configurations are mostly in the /etc/fstab file. In this post, we will discuss 2 common and useful techniques for controlling the filesystem mounting by playing with the /etc/fstab file: allowing non-root users to mount/unmount filesystems and avoiding mounting failures blocking
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Shrinking an Ext4 File System on LVM in Linux

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In Extending a Mounted Ext4 File System on LVM in Linux, we introduced how to extend a mounted ext4 filesystem on LVM Logical volume by adding a new physical volume. It is also common to shrink an ext4 file system as to spare some disk space. In this post, I will discuss how to shrink
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Making GPT Partition Table and Creating Partitions Using parted in Linux

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My best favorite disk partition table manipulation tools are cfdisk/fdisk on Linux. However, for large disks, cfdisk/fdisk (of the versions by this post is written) will just give up with a message suggesting GPT partition table format and using GNU parted like WARNING: The size of this disk is 6.0 TB (6001042391040 bytes). DOS partition
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How to Extend a Mounted Ext4 File System on LVM in Linux

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LVM is a great tool to manage hard disks on Linux—you can abstract the hard drives away and manage logical volumes from volume groups, you can dynamically add or remove hard drives while the file systems on the logical volumes need not to backed up and recovered, and you may create many snapshots of the
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How to Create Fedora Live USB Media

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How to create a Fedora live USB media is introduced in this post. We can boot to Fedora operating system environment through a live USB system in the USB flash media on a USB-bootable computer without writing the computer’s hard disk. We can also install Fedora operating system from the live system environment. Remember to
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Setting Up Xen Dom0 on Fedora : Xen 3.4.1 with Linux Kernel 2.6.29 on Fedora 12

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Please refer to for the latest stable Xen Dom0 solution. In this post, the detailed tutorial for setting up Xen 3.4.1 dom0 on top of Fedora 12 with kernel 2.6.29 will be introduced. Hardware: Dom0 hardware platform: Motherboard: INTEL S5500BC S5500 Quad Core Xeon Server Board CPU: 2 x Intel Quad Core Xeon E5520 2.26G
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An I/O Performance Comparison Between loopback Backed and blktap Backed Xen File-backed VBD

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I have done some I/O performance benchmark test of Xen DomU. For easier management, some of our DomU VMs are using file-backed VBDs. Previously, our VMs are using Loopback-mounted file-backed VBDs. But blktap-based support are recommended by Xen community. Before considering changing from loopback based VBD to blktap based VBD, I have done this performance
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