Release Notes For Linux v2.0

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This is the release notes for linux release v2.0 (source code: linux-2.0.tar.gz) with format adjusted by removing/replacing tabs/spaces/new lines/formatting marks. This notes document can give us an understanding of the early development of the Linux kernel. The original ASCII formatted version is at the end of this post. Intro This document contains a list of
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Release Notes For Linux v0.95

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This is the release notes for linux release v0.95 (source code: linux-0.95.tar.gz) with format adjusted by removing/replacing tabs/spaces/new lines. This notes document can give us an understanding of the early development of the Linux kernel. The original ASCII formatted version is at the end of this post. RELEASE NOTES FOR LINUX v0.95 Linus Torvalds, March
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Release Notes For Linux v0.12

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This is the release notes for linux release v0.12 (source code: linux-0.12.tar.gz) with format adjusted by removing/replacing tabs/spaces/new lines. This notes document can give us an understanding of the very initial development of the Linux kernel. Also check Notes for linux release 0.01. The original ASCII formatted version is at the end of this post.
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Release Notes For Linux v0.01

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This is the notes for linux kernel release 0.01 (source code: linux-0.01.tar.gz) with format adjusted by removing/replacing tabs/spaces/new lines. This notes document can give us an understanding of whether the Linux kernel started with its very first release. The original ASCII formatted version is at the end of this post. Notes for linux release 0.01
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How to synchronize Google Drive and Google Docs files in Ubuntu/Debian/Mint Linux using Insync

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Google Drive is a nice cloud storage service. It provides a suite of nice online document spreadsheet and slide editors Google Docs, Google Sheets and Google Slides. The collaborative editing and full history tracking features of Google Docs are excellent. Google Drive gives 16GB free storage which is pretty much larger compared to other free
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File system Inode flags: difference between FS_IOC_GETFLAGS and FS_IOC_FSGETXATT

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What is the difference between FS_IOC_GETFLAGS and FS_IOC_FSGETXATTR ioctl commands? What flags do both return? The comment in fs.h is clear enough to explain itself. In short, FS_IOC_GETFLAGS was for ext2/ext3 only, and FS_IOC_FSGETXATTR is a generic FS level interface. Full comment as follows for your reference (source): /* * Inode flags (FS_IOC_GETFLAGS / FS_IOC_SETFLAGS)
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How to list start and end sectors of a partition by parted in Linux?

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How to list start and end of a partition by the sectors in parted on Linux? The default behavior seems be listing the start and end by bytes in parted. # parted /dev/sdc print Model: Innostor IS888 ext. HDD (scsi) Disk /dev/sdc: 2000GB Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: gpt Disk Flags: Number Start End
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How to force a fsck during next rebooting of Linux?

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How to force a fsck of a file system, say the root, during the next rebooting of Linux? 2 possible ways: /forcefsck way for / # touch /forcefsck and reboot. Next time the / will be fsck’ed . systemd way Add these 2 kernel boot parameters: fsck.mode=force fsck.repair=yes What these 2 kernel parameters do: KERNEL
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Making `fdisk -l` display partition sizes by GB/MB

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How to make fdisk -l display partition sizes by bytes instead of sectors? fdisk does not have such options as far as I know. However, good news is that you can use parted: # parted -l It will print partition info like # parted -l Model: Linux device-mapper (linear) (dm) Disk /dev/mapper/fedora_vm235-swap: 2164MB Sector size
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What’s the difference between Reliability, Durability, and Availability for data storage system?

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Some important concepts in distributed system like Hadoop distributed file system, Google file system and so on. Answer from http://www.quora.com/Whats-the-difference-between-Reliability-Durability-and-Availability-for-data-storage-system The difference between durability and availability is fairly simple. Durability is about what happens when all power goes out everywhere. Has all data been written to stable storage that doesn’t require power (e.g. disk/flash), in
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Mount Ext4 Partitions in Windows in read-only mode

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How to mount Ext4 partitions from Linux in Windows in read-only mode? Read-only is required to ensure safety. Mounting is required so that traditional programs can use the partition without any changes. Ext2Fsd is a great tool for this. Ext2Fsd is a file system driver which allows accessing (both reading and writing) ext2, ext3 or
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SQL layers on NoSQL databases

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What are the SQL layer solution over NoSQL databases such as key/value stores? Phoenix: A SQL layer on HBase: https://github.com/forcedotcom/phoenix They also show some performance results: https://github.com/forcedotcom/phoenix/wiki/Performance F1 – The Fault-Tolerant Distributed RDBMS Supporting Google’s Ad Business: http://research.google.com/pubs/pub38125.html With F1, we have built a novel hybrid system that combines the scalability, fault tolerance, transparent sharding,
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SSD Enabled For DreamHost Shared Hosting: Simple Performance Measurement

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SSD is common for VPS and PaaS virtual machines for higher I/O performance. Now, it is coming to shared hosting too. DreamHost states that "Now with solid state drives (SSDs), our standard web hosting loads pages 200% faster". We ourselves are happy to know this performance improvement with the price kept the same. Good work,
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Shrinking an Ext4 File System on LVM in Linux

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In Extending a Mounted Ext4 File System on LVM in Linux, we introduced how to extend a mounted ext4 filesystem on LVM Logical volume by adding a new physical volume. It is also common to shrink an ext4 file system as to spare some disk space. In this post, I will discuss how to shrink
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Making GPT Partition Table and Creating Partitions Using parted in Linux

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My best favorite disk partition table manipulation tools are cfdisk/fdisk on Linux. However, for large disks, cfdisk/fdisk (of the versions by this post is written) will just give up with a message suggesting GPT partition table format and using GNU parted like WARNING: The size of this disk is 6.0 TB (6001042391040 bytes). DOS partition
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Hadoop Installation Tutorial (Hadoop 2.x)

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Hadoop 2 or YARN is the new version of Hadoop. It adds the yarn resource manager in addition to the HDFS and MapReduce components. Hadoop MapReduce is a programming model and software framework for writing applications, which is an open-source variant of MapReduce designed and implemented by Google initially for processing and generating large data
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How to Extend a Mounted Ext4 File System on LVM in Linux

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LVM is a great tool to manage hard disks on Linux—you can abstract the hard drives away and manage logical volumes from volume groups, you can dynamically add or remove hard drives while the file systems on the logical volumes need not to backed up and recovered, and you may create many snapshots of the
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How to Create Fedora 20 Domain-U on Fedora 20 Domain-0

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In this post, creating a file-backed virtual block device (VBD) and installing Fedora 20 in the Xen DomU via internet will be introduced. This domain is created on a Fedora 20 Dom0 as introduced in https://www.systutorials.com/installing-xen-on-fedora-20-as-domain-0/. For better performance, you may consider using LVM backed VM. Create file-backed VBD The actual space of VBD will
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