Sparse files are common in Linux/Unix and are also supported by Windows (e.g. NTFS) and macOSes (e.g. HFS+). Sparse files uses storage efficiently when the files have a lot of holes (contiguous ranges of bytes having the value of zero) by storing only metadata for the holes instead of using real disk blocks. They are […]
We may want to add some swap space for a Linux box while only find that all disk space is partitioned and mounted. Some partition has large available free space. For such cases, we may not want to change the partition allocation. The solution may be to add a file based swap for Linux as […]
I test it for qcow2 format. Other formats are TBA. qemu-img resize kvm1.qcow2 +20G cp kvm1.qcow2 kvm1-orig.qcow2 virt-resize –expand /dev/sda1 kvm1-orig.qcow2 kvm1.qcow2 Reference: https://fatmin.com/2016/12/20/how-to-resize-a-qcow2-image-and-filesystem-with-virt-resize/ I test it for qcow2 format. Other formats are TBA. qemu-img resize kvm1.qcow2 +20G cp kvm1.qcow2 kvm1-orig.qcow2 virt-resize –expand /dev/sda1 kvm1-orig.qcow2 kvm1.qcow2 Reference: https://fatmin.com/2016/12/20/how-to-resize-a-qcow2-image-and-filesystem-with-virt-resize/ Answered by harryxiyou.
How to list start and end of a partition by the sectors in parted on Linux? The default behavior seems be listing the start and end by bytes in parted. # parted /dev/sdc print Model: Innostor IS888 ext. HDD (scsi) Disk /dev/sdc: 2000GB Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: gpt Disk Flags: Number Start End […]
How to search history commands very effectively in bash shell command line? Just enter CTRL+r The function of above is: (reverse-i-search)`’: It is very fast and efficient. Answered by harryxiyou.
# ssh email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org’s password: Permission denied, please try again. Do according to . NOTE: on Ubuntu, remember to restart ssh service like this “sudo restart ssh”.  https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/6/html/v2v_guide/preparation_before_the_p2v_migration-enable_root_login_over_ssh Answered by harryxiyou.
Evolution’s default Email sort order is not very convenient, at least to me. How to apply the settings of sort order for a folder to all folders in Evolution? Manually setting the email sort order for each dir is tedious. Evolution has a function to “apply the same view settings to all folder” so that […]
How to remove newline characters from a string in C++? For example, a string like line 1 line 3 line 4 should be converted to line 1line 3line 4 In short, use this code snippet: input.erase(std::remove(input.begin(), input.end(), ‘n’), input.end()); std::remove() shifts all elements that are equal to the value n by moving the elements in […]
how to list and delete shared memory in linux? List all shared memories in your Linux Systems > $ ipcs -m Delete specific one > $ ipcrm -M 0x0001869c Answered by harryxiyou.
If we want to check one program on one remote server, we need to know this server’s IP and port number. How to get this program’s port number in the remote server? # netstat -tulpn Remember to run this program with root permission since some programs can only be accessed by root. Answered by harryxiyou.
How to get a server’s serial number remotely? Tested on Linux Ubuntu 14.04 Trusty > sudo apt-get install dmidecode > sudo dmidecode -s system-serial-number Answered by harryxiyou. I tried this on several Linux boxes with CentOS 7 and it seems A physical node returns a string like System Serial Number. A KVM VM returns a […]
Within a Bash script, how to judge whether its STDERR is redirected to a file in Bash on Linux? For example, ./script.sh /tmp/log 2>&1 Can script.sh detect that its STDERR is redirected? Knowing the destination file is better. To test whether a script’s STDERR (or STDOUT) is redirected to a file, check by [[ -f […]
Login without PWD is fast and efficient. Running commands in server from local machine also have these benefits. login without PWD: add PC A’s public key to PC B’s authorized keys. > a@A:~> cat .ssh/id_rsa.pub | ssh b@B ‘cat >> .ssh/authorized_keys’ > b@B’s password: Run command remotely ssh root@MachineB “ls” NOTE: running commands remotely is […]
diff on Linux is a very handy tool. Any good diff alternatives on Windows to find differences between 2 files? A GUI program will be better on Windows. I would recommend meld for Windows users. Meld is a visual diff and merge tool open source software. meld is available on Linux, Windows and Mac OS […]
how to set linux date and time in commands For example, to change date to 14 Nov 2017 11:57:00, the command would be, $ sudo date –set “14 Nov 2017 11:57:00” Tue Nov 14 11:57:00 HKT 2017 Answered by harryxiyou.
What is the difference between work conserving I/O scheduler and non-work conserving I/O scheduler? In a work-conserving mode, the scheduler must choose one of the pending requests, if any, to dispatch, even if the pending requests are far away from the current disk head position. The rationale for non-work-conserving schedulers, such as the anticipatory scheduler […]
In Python, os.makedirs() with 0777 mode can not give others write permission The code is as follows $ python Python 2.7.5 (default, Aug 4 2017, 00:39:18) [GCC 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-16)] on linux2 Type “help”, “copyright”, “credits” or “license” for more information. >>> import os >>> os.makedirs(“/tmp/test1/test2”, 0777) >>> The created dirs are not […]
How to install the alien command on CentOS 7 to convert .deb to .rpm? alien is already in EPEL and it makes it quite easy to install it in CentOS 7. First, enable EPEL following this tutorials. Then, install alien by # yum install alien Then alien should be ready: # yum info alien Installed […]
HDFS SecondaraNameNode log shows 2017-08-06 10:54:14,488 ERROR org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.SecondaryNameNode: Exception in doCheckpoint java.io.IOException: Inconsistent checkpoint fields. LV = -63 namespaceID = 1920275013 cTime = 0 ; clusterId = CID-f38880ba-3415-4277-8abf-b5c2848b7a63 ; blockpoolId = BP-578888813-10.6.1.2-1497278556180. Expecting respectively: -63; 263120692; 0; CID-d22222fd-e28a-4b2d-bd2a-f60e1f0ad1b1; BP-622207878-10.6.1.2-1497242227638. at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.CheckpointSignature.validateStorageInfo(CheckpointSignature.java:134) at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.SecondaryNameNode.doCheckpoint(SecondaryNameNode.java:531) at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.SecondaryNameNode.doWork(SecondaryNameNode.java:395) at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.SecondaryNameNode$1.run(SecondaryNameNode.java:361) at org.apache.hadoop.security.SecurityUtil.doAsLoginUserOrFatal(SecurityUtil.java:415) at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.SecondaryNameNode.run(SecondaryNameNode.java:357) It seems the checkpoint […]
How to force a fsck of a file system, say the root, during the next rebooting of Linux? 2 possible ways: /forcefsck way for / # touch /forcefsck and reboot. Next time the / will be fsck’ed . systemd way Add these 2 kernel boot parameters: fsck.mode=force fsck.repair=yes What these 2 kernel parameters do: KERNEL […]