Release Notes For Linux v2.0

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This is the release notes for linux release v2.0 (source code: linux-2.0.tar.gz) with format adjusted by removing/replacing tabs/spaces/new lines/formatting marks. This notes document can give us an understanding of the early development of the Linux kernel. The original ASCII formatted version is at the end of this post. Intro This document contains a list of
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Release Notes For Linux v0.95a

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This is the release notes for linux release v0.95a (source code: linux-0.95a.tar.gz) with format adjusted by removing/replacing tabs/spaces/new lines. This notes document can give us an understanding of the early development of the Linux kernel. The the formatted version of the referenced RELNOTES-0.95 can be found at Release Notes For Linux v0.95. The original ASCII
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Release Notes For Linux v0.01

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This is the notes for linux kernel release 0.01 (source code: linux-0.01.tar.gz) with format adjusted by removing/replacing tabs/spaces/new lines. This notes document can give us an understanding of whether the Linux kernel started with its very first release. The original ASCII formatted version is at the end of this post. Notes for linux release 0.01
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Generating RSA Private and Public Key Pair in Go Lang?

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How to generate a pair of RSA private and public key in Go lang? Go lang has a rich set of standard libraries. Using Go’s standard libraries, we can generate RSA private and Public keys. The Crypto standard libraries in Go lang Go lang standard libraries has a rich set of cryptography functions. Here are
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Linux Kernel 4.19.70 Release

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This post summarizes new features, bugfixes and changes in Linux kernel release 4.19.70. Linux 4.19.70 Release contains 95 changes, patches or new features. In total, there are 101,521 lines of Linux source code changed/added in Linux 4.19.70 release compared to Linux 4.19 release. To view the source code of Linux 4.19.70 kernel release online, please
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Blockchain Platforms Introduced, Each in One Sentence

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This post lists some general- and special-purpose blockchains nowadays available with a short description in one sentence. Readers can have a quick understanding of what a blockchain network is built for and what uniqueness that blockchain has. I also give links to beginner friendly resources as learn materials. General purpose blockchains Blockchains for general purpose
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How to Make iPhone with iOS 13 Faster

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After the recent iOS upgrading to version 13, many older iPhones such as iPhone 8 turn to be running slower, although there are many new features. New features and functions use more CPU/GPU/memory and the iOS may run slower. But are there any methods to make it run faster? After quite some research and testing,
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What can we expect in Java update 2019?

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Java is the most regularly used programming language for the creation of web applications. This high-level programming language develops by the Sun Micro-system. This language was designed for use in the world of internet and known for fastest, secure, and most reliable language of the computing platform. One interesting fact is that Java programmers are
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Do big data stream processing in the stream way

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Reading: Years in Big Data. Months with Apache Flink. 5 Early Observations With Stream Processing: https://data-artisans.com/blog/early-observations-apache-flink. The article suggest adopting the right solution, Flink, for big data processing. Flink is interesting and built for stream processing. The broader view and take away may be to solve problems using the right solution. We saw many painful
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How to synchronize Google Drive and Google Docs files in Ubuntu/Debian/Mint Linux using Insync

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Google Drive is a nice cloud storage service. It provides a suite of nice online document spreadsheet and slide editors Google Docs, Google Sheets and Google Slides. The collaborative editing and full history tracking features of Google Docs are excellent. Google Drive gives 16GB free storage which is pretty much larger compared to other free
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File system Inode flags: difference between FS_IOC_GETFLAGS and FS_IOC_FSGETXATT

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What is the difference between FS_IOC_GETFLAGS and FS_IOC_FSGETXATTR ioctl commands? What flags do both return? The comment in fs.h is clear enough to explain itself. In short, FS_IOC_GETFLAGS was for ext2/ext3 only, and FS_IOC_FSGETXATTR is a generic FS level interface. Full comment as follows for your reference (source): /* * Inode flags (FS_IOC_GETFLAGS / FS_IOC_SETFLAGS)
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What are the differences between NUMA architecture and SMP architecture?

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NUMA Architecture: Non-Uniform Memory Access architecture. SMP: Symmetric Multiprocessing architecture. In a Symmetric Multiprocessor, the architectural “distance” to any memory location is the same for all processors, i.e. “symmetric”. In a NonUniform Memory Access machine, each processor is “closer” to some memory locations than others; i.e. memory is partitioned among them Asymmetrically. From my understanding,
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Why do I need to run latex/bibtex three times to make everything look good?

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Why does latex need to be executed 3 times like following? pdflatex main.tex bibtex main pdflatex main.tex pdflatex main.tex Copied from https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/53235/why-does-latex-bibtex-need-three-passes-to-clear-up-all-warnings. The reason is as follows: 1, At the first latex run, all cite{…} arguments are written in the file document.aux. 2, At the bibtex run, this information is taken by bibtex and the
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What is the difference between work conserving I/O scheduler and non-work conserving I/O scheduler?

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What is the difference between work conserving I/O scheduler and non-work conserving I/O scheduler? In a work-conserving mode, the scheduler must choose one of the pending requests, if any, to dispatch, even if the pending requests are far away from the current disk head position. The rationale for non-work-conserving schedulers, such as the anticipatory scheduler
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How to check interrupts lively in your systems?

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I need to see what kind of interrupts are handled by which CPU. Please run command: # cat /proc/interrupts or you can execute $ watch -n1 “cat /proc/interrupts” to watch interrupts every 1 second. See [1] [2] for more details. References: [1] https://stackoverflow.com/questions/28301875/how-to-observe-interrupts-in-windows-or-linux-ubuntu-14-04 [2] http://www.linuxjournal.com/content/watch-live-interrupts

How to flush STDOUT buffer in Python?

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How to flush the STDOUT buffer in Python so that the content wrote to STDOUT is shown immediately? Call the flush library function on sys.stdout which is the STDOUT: import sys sys.stdout.flush() From python doc: flush() Flush the write buffers of the stream if applicable. This does nothing for read-only and non-blocking streams. If you
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How to tune systems to achieve high performance in virtualization circumstances?

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Most time, we need to tune system parameters to achieve better performance but what the general parameters to be tuned in Linux systems. I think you may want to add following parameters to Kernel boot (/etc/default/grub) parameters intel_idle.max_cstate=0 processor.max_cstate=0 idle=poll intel_pstate=disable At the same time, you may also want to shutdown/open Pause Loop Exiting (PLE).
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How to limit a user’s CPU resources in Linux Systems

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When you use a server with other users, you might want to limit other users’ CPU resources for some specific aims. Cgroup has lots of parameters we can use to control computer resources. For CPU resources, you can tune cpu.shares parameter to limit users’ CPU resources. To be more precise, change directory to /sys/fs/cgroup/cpu/user and
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