How to remove newline characters from a string in C++?

How to remove newline characters from a string in C++? For example, a string like line 1 line 3 line 4 should be converted to line 1line 3line 4 In short, use this code snippet: input.erase(std::remove(input.begin(), input.end(), ‘\n’), input.end()); std::remove() shifts all elements that are equal to the value n by moving the elements in […]

What are the differences between NUMA architecture and SMP architecture?

NUMA Architecture: Non-Uniform Memory Access architecture. SMP: Symmetric Multiprocessing architecture. In a Symmetric Multiprocessor, the architectural “distance” to any memory location is the same for all processors, i.e. “symmetric”. In a NonUniform Memory Access machine, each processor is “closer” to some memory locations than others; i.e. memory is partitioned among them Asymmetrically. From my understanding, […]

Latex is stuck with a strange problem, see more information for details.

$ make pdflatex main.tex This is pdfTeX, Version 3.14159265-2.6-1.40.16 (TeX Live 2015/Debian) (preloaded format=pdflatex) restricted write18 enabled. entering extended mode (./main.tex LaTeX2e <2016/02/01> Babel <3.9q> and hyphenation patterns for 81 language(s) loaded. (/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/article.cls Document Class: article 2014/09/29 v1.4h Standard LaTeX document class (/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/size10.clo)) (./usenix.sty (/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/psnfss/mathptmx.sty)) (/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/graphics/epsfig.sty (/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/graphics/graphicx.sty (/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/graphics/keyval.sty) (/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/graphics/graphics.sty (/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/graphics/trig.sty) (/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/latexconfig/graphics.cfg) (/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/pdftex-def/pdftex.def (/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/generic/oberdiek/infwarerr.sty) (/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/generic/oberdiek/ltxcmds.sty))))) (/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/generic/oberdiek/ifpdf.sty) […]

Why do I need to run latex/bibtex three times to make everything look good?

Why does latex need to be executed 3 times like following? pdflatex main.tex bibtex main pdflatex main.tex pdflatex main.tex Copied from https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/53235/why-does-latex-bibtex-need-three-passes-to-clear-up-all-warnings. The reason is as follows: 1, At the first latex run, all cite{…} arguments are written in the file document.aux. 2, At the bibtex run, this information is taken by bibtex and the […]

How to judge whether its STDERR is redirected to a file in a Bash script on Linux?

Within a Bash script, how to judge whether its STDERR is redirected to a file in Bash on Linux? For example, ./script.sh /tmp/log 2>&1 Can script.sh detect that its STDERR is redirected? Knowing the destination file is better. To test whether a script’s STDERR (or STDOUT) is redirected to a file, check by [[ -f […]

How can I login without password and run command in server at a local machine remotely?

Login without PWD is fast and efficient. Running commands in server from local machine also have these benefits. login without PWD: add PC A’s public key to PC B’s authorized keys. > a@A:~> cat .ssh/id_rsa.pub | ssh b@B ‘cat >> .ssh/authorized_keys’ > b@B’s password: Run command remotely ssh root@MachineB “ls” NOTE: running commands remotely is […]

What is the difference between work conserving I/O scheduler and non-work conserving I/O scheduler?

What is the difference between work conserving I/O scheduler and non-work conserving I/O scheduler? In a work-conserving mode, the scheduler must choose one of the pending requests, if any, to dispatch, even if the pending requests are far away from the current disk head position. The rationale for non-work-conserving schedulers, such as the anticipatory scheduler […]

In Python, `os.makedirs()` with 0777 mode does not give others write permission

In Python, os.makedirs() with 0777 mode can not give others write permission The code is as follows $ python Python 2.7.5 (default, Aug 4 2017, 00:39:18) [GCC 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-16)] on linux2 Type “help”, “copyright”, “credits” or “license” for more information. >>> import os >>> os.makedirs(“/tmp/test1/test2”, 0777) >>> The created dirs are not […]

How to force a checkpointing of metadata in HDFS?

HDFS SecondaraNameNode log shows 2017-08-06 10:54:14,488 ERROR org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.SecondaryNameNode: Exception in doCheckpoint java.io.IOException: Inconsistent checkpoint fields. LV = -63 namespaceID = 1920275013 cTime = 0 ; clusterId = CID-f38880ba-3415-4277-8abf-b5c2848b7a63 ; blockpoolId = BP-578888813-10.6.1.2-1497278556180. Expecting respectively: -63; 263120692; 0; CID-d22222fd-e28a-4b2d-bd2a-f60e1f0ad1b1; BP-622207878-10.6.1.2-1497242227638. at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.CheckpointSignature.validateStorageInfo(CheckpointSignature.java:134) at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.SecondaryNameNode.doCheckpoint(SecondaryNameNode.java:531) at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.SecondaryNameNode.doWork(SecondaryNameNode.java:395) at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.SecondaryNameNode$1.run(SecondaryNameNode.java:361) at org.apache.hadoop.security.SecurityUtil.doAsLoginUserOrFatal(SecurityUtil.java:415) at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.SecondaryNameNode.run(SecondaryNameNode.java:357) It seems the checkpoint […]

How to check interrupts lively in your systems?

I need to see what kind of interrupts are handled by which CPU. Please run command: # cat /proc/interrupts or you can execute $ watch -n1 “cat /proc/interrupts” to watch interrupts every 1 second. See [1] [2] for more details. References: [1] https://stackoverflow.com/questions/28301875/how-to-observe-interrupts-in-windows-or-linux-ubuntu-14-04 [2] http://www.linuxjournal.com/content/watch-live-interrupts Answered by harryxiyou.