What’s the standard or common data structure for a list of objects in C++?

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In C++, what’s the standard or common data structure for a list of objects? In C++, the common data structure for a sequence (“list”) of objects may be std::vector. A vector is a dynamically resizable array. It is “The most extensively used container in the C++ Standard Library …, offering a combination of dynamic memory
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What’s the difference between memory coherence and consistency?

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In memory hierarchical, it needs to be coherence and consistency. However, they are different things. What are the differences? Memory coherence: a memory system is coherent if any read of a data item returns the most recently written value of that data item (what values can be returned by a read). Memory consistency: A memory
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Why I got message “invalid syntax, continuing…” when I execute “sysctl”?

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When I tried to apply new configuration in /etc/sysctl.conf, I got following message. warning: /etc/sysctl.conf(44): invalid syntax, continuing… Sounds like your changed /etc/sysctl.conf has problem. You may post the content of your /etc/sysctl.conf here to let other have a check. net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0 net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1 net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0 kernel.sysrq = 0 kernel.core_uses_pid = 1
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Where is the source code for the free command on Linux?

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Where can I find the source code for the free command on Linux? The source code for the free commands (and many more, like kill, ps, top, sysctl) can be found in procps-ng: https://gitlab.com/procps-ng/procps procps is a set of command line and full-screen utilities that provide information out of the pseudo-filesystem most commonly located at
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Implementation of strstr in glibc

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What is the implementation of strstr in glibc? Implementation of STRSTR in glibc (string/strstr.c): /* Return the first occurrence of NEEDLE in HAYSTACK. Return HAYSTACK if NEEDLE is empty, otherwise NULL if NEEDLE is not found in HAYSTACK. */ char * STRSTR (const char *haystack_start, const char *needle_start) { const char *haystack = haystack_start; const
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How to increase the number of files allowed to be opened on Linux?

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On my system: $ ulimit -n 1024 Some tools like GATK are aggressive in creating temporary files by creating more than 1000 files under /tmp/. This will cause the program to fail. How to increase the number of files allowed to be opened on Linux? To increase the max number of open files to 10240,
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Making Hadoop Java process heap larger?

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In Hadoop 2.5.0, I use ‘ps -aux’ and find the Java process has options: -Xmx1000m However, my nodes have 32GB memory. How to make Hadoop Java process heap larger? In yarn-env.sh, you can find: # For setting YARN specific HEAP sizes please use this # Parameter and set appropriately # YARN_HEAPSIZE=1000 In hadoop-env.sh, you can
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x86-64 instructions for floating-point comparisons

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What are the x86-64 instructions for floating-point comparisons like the cmpq for quard-word integer comparison? The SSE3 extenstions provide two instructions for comparing floating values: Instruction Based on Description ucomiss S2, S1 S1 – S2 Compare single precision ucomisd S2, S1 S1 – S2 Compare double precision As with cmpq, they follow the GAS convention
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How to detect memory leaks of C programs in Linux?

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How to detect memory leaks of C programs in Linux? I also have access to the source code of the program. There are many posts related to this: Easy and quick tools on Linux (while not very accurate): http://blog.thewebsitepeople.org/2011/03/linux-memory-leak-detection/ Valgrind: manual and a tutorial. gperftools has the Google Heap Profiler which can checks for memory
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Xen HVM DomU configuration file

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An example of Xen HVM DomU configuration file. An example for install the OS from an ISO: name=”10.0.1.235″ vcpus=2 memory=2048 shadow_memory=8 disk=[‘file:/lhome/xen/vm-10.0.1.235/vmdisk0,xvda,w’, ‘file:/lhome/Linux-x86_64-DVD.iso,xvdc:cdrom,r’] vif=[‘bridge=xenbr0′] kernel=’/usr/lib/xen/boot/hvmloader’ builder=’hvm’ device_model=’/usr/lib64/xen/bin/qemu-dm’ extra=” vnc=1 vnclisten=”0.0.0.0″ vncpasswd=’1234567′ # vncdisplay=1 vncconsole=1 on_reboot=’restart’ on_crash=’restart’ An example for run the VM after installation: name=”10.0.1.235″ vcpus=2 memory=2048 shadow_memory=8 disk=[‘file:/lhome/xen/vm-10.0.1.235/vmdisk0,xvda,w’] vif=[‘bridge=xenbr0′] kernel=’/usr/lib/xen/boot/hvmloader’ builder=’hvm’ device_model=’/usr/lib64/xen/bin/qemu-dm’ extra=” vnc=1
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Max array length in OCaml

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What’s the max array length in OCaml. You can check it by: # Sys.max_array_length;; On 64-bit machine: # Sys.max_array_length;; – : int = 18014398509481983 On a 32-bit machne: # Sys.max_array_length;; – : int = 4194303 This is due to the memory representation of arrays. 64 Bit machines are better here. And AFAIK, OCaml was developed
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How to change the maximum execution time and memory size allowed for PHP

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I see this message in the error log of httpd: PHP Fatal error: Maximum execution time of 30 seconds exceeded in and PHP Fatal error: Allowed memory size of 268435456 bytes exhausted How to change them to a longer and larger value? To change the allowed maximum memory usage of PHP: Set memory_limit = 256M
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Where are the Linux routing table entries stored on disk?

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I know the routing tables on Linux is in memory after being set. However, where are the routing table entries stored on disk? I mean where are the routing table is persistently stored so that the routing table can be reloaded like the iptables (under /etc/sysconfig/iptables on Fedora/RHEL/CentOS Linuxes). If the system uses the /etc/rc.d/init.d/network
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Consistency models for distributed systems

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Which are the consistency models used for distributed systems? Papers that survey the consistency models Robert C. Steinke and Gary J. Nutt. 2004. A unified theory of shared memory consistency. J. ACM 51, 5 (September 2004), 800-849. DOI=10.1145/1017460.1017464 http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1017460.1017464 David Mosberger. 1993. Memory consistency models. SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 27, 1 (January 1993), 18-26. DOI=10.1145/160551.160553
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Transactional memory learning materials

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I want to learn transactional memory technologies. Any suggestions on Transactional memory learning materials? Thanks! I highly suggest the Transactional Memory lecture by James R. Larus and Ravi Rajwar of Synthesis Lectures on Computer Architecture: The Transactional Memory lecture:http://www.morganclaypool.com/doi/abs/10.2200/S00070ED1V01Y200611CAC002 Link to the PDF:http://www.morganclaypool.com/doi/pdf/10.2200/S00070ED1V01Y200611CAC002